intelligence_essays

ESSAYS ON

INTELLIGENCE

In my book The Concept of Intelligence last chapters are devoted to some dilemmas, which arise with intelligence.

Ethical questions of intelligence

As intelligence is an ability, it is desirable. That is why a great danger exists that intelligence and other mental tests are abused. Only by considering the highest ethical standards the use of intelligence tests can serve good to mankind.

Measurement of intelligence

In this chapter the importance of expertise in intelligence measurement is stressed. It is important that intelligence is measured representatively and that all basic factors which can affect test results are considered. A critical review of tests, used in Slovenia follows and the proposal of a new representative battery, which would measure all the most important aspects of intellect. Finally a few ideas of possible future approaches to intelligence testing are discussed. Future tests could be computerized and even public.

The nature-nurture question and intelligence

The fact that intelligence is predominantly genetically determined is supplemented with research results on primary mental abilities, among which some are more, others less genetically determined. Genetics will in future significantly contribute to the comprehension of intelligence.

The development of intelligence

Intelligence has a typical developmental curve, but less is known about the developmental trends of primary mental abilities. A few own results are discussed in detail.

Sex differences on mental abilities

In intelligence there is no difference between the sexes, but a few characteristic differences, which exist on primary mental abilities, are described.

The role of intelligence in the process of anthropogenesis

The essay describes in detail the major phases of anthropogenesis (mainly on M. Donald's ideas) and the role of intelligence in this processes. The anthropogenesis was marked by two major biological revolutions and two technical revolutions. After the first biological revolution Homo Erectus appeared. For him a new form of consciousness was characteristic, the ability of inner triggering of neuron patterns and the ability of a representation of sensory and motor contents. After the second biological revolution Homo Sapiens appeared. He is capable of verbal-conceptual representation and of language expression. The process of anthropogenesis was accompanied by a few additional anatomic changes. Next revolution was a technical one - the invention of writing (also ideograms and pictograms), which enabled storing information outside human brain. The last technical revolution is the invention of a computer. Information is not only stored but also processed outside human brain.

Before the information explosion

The amount of information, available to humans, grows exponentially. This will in future represent a huge challenge to human intelligence and also to methods of organizing information and knowledge management. There is a considerable possibility that in future on Earth creatures, more intelligent than people, will appear. Actually the necessity that this will happen even by laws of evolution is described in the essay: Na pragu revolucionarnih posegov v evolucijo (The Dawn of Revolutionary Interventions in Evolution - only in Slovenian language).