Aucubin / Aucubine
(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[[(1S,4aR,5S,7aS)-5-hydroxy-7-(hydroxymethyl)-1,4a,5,7a-tetrahydrocyclopenta[c]pyran-1-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol; Aucuboside; Rhinanthin;
Aucubin prevents interleukin-1 beta induced inflammation and cartilage matrix degradation via inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathway in rat articular chondrocytes. Wang SN, Xie GP, Qin CH, Chen YR, Zhang KR, Li X, Wu Q, Dong WQ, Yang J, Yu B. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015 Feb;24(2):408-15. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2014.12.029. Epub 2015 Jan 6. *** Aucubin promotes neurite outgrowth in neural stem cells and axonal regeneration in sciatic nerves. Kim YM, Sim UC, Shin Y, Kim Kwon Y. Exp Neurobiol. 2014 Sep;23(3):238-45. doi: 10.5607/en.2014.23.3.238. Epub 2014 Sep 18. *** Aucubin, a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside inhibits TNF-a-induced inflammatory responses through suppression of NF-?B activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Park KS.Cytokine. 2013 Jun;62(3):407-12. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2013.04.005. Epub 2013 Apr 20. *** Neuroprotective properties of aucubin in diabetic rats and diabetic encephalopathy rats. Xue HY, Lu YN, Fang XM, Xu YP, Gao GZ, Jin LJ. Mol Biol Rep. 2012 Oct;39(10):9311-8. doi: 10.1007/s11033-012-1730-9. Epub 2012 Jul 19.
Aucubin, a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses through suppression of NF-κB activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cytokine Volume 62, Issue 3, June 2013, Pages 407–412
Aucubin inhibits TNF-α-induced production of atherogenic adipokines in adipocytes.
These effects of aucubin result from suppression of NF-κB activation pathway.
The mechanism explains effects of aucubin on obesity-related inflammatory responses.
Obesity is closely associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation characterized by abnormal cytokine production and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways in adipose tissue. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is chronically elevated in adipose tissues of obese rodents and humans. Increased levels of TNF-α are implicated in the induction of atherogenic adipokines, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. Aucubin, an iridoid glycoside existing in medicinal plants, has been reported to show an anti-inflammatory activity by suppression of TNF-α production in murine macrophages. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of aucubin on TNF-α-induced atherogenic changes of the adipokines in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Aucubin significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced secretion and mRNA synthesis of the atherogenic adipokines including PAI-1, MCP-1, and IL-6. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism revealed that pretreatment with aucubin suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, inhibitory kappa Bα (IκBα) degradation, and subsequent nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. These findings suggest that aucubin may improve obesity-induced atherosclerosis by attenuating TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses.