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Nierstenen / Blaasstenen / Urolithiasis

Mogelijke oorzaken
Vorming, samenklontering van calcium, oxalaten en fosfaten tot gruis en harde delen in de nieren, urineleiders en blaas. 
Aanleg
Voeding: te weinig drinken, verhouding calcium-magnesium, te weinig vezelstoffen, te veel alcohol, te veel dierlijke eiwitten?
Overgewicht

Fytotherapie
Steenoplossende (?) kruiden: Rubia tinctorum  (Meekrap), Physalis alkekengi (bes)
Aquaretica: Solidago, Juniperus, Calluna vulgaris (Heidekruid), Petroselinum
Spasmolitica: Ammi visnaga (Khella), Matricaria (Echte kamille), Tilia (aubier)
Ph, zuurgraad urine: Vaccinium macrocarpum (Cranberry) sap bessen.

Nutritherapie
Citraten: in citrusfruit (vooral citroen, appelsien, geen grapefruit)
Vetzuren: visolie en GLA (teunisbloemolie)
Vitamine B6 ?
Magnesium ?
Vitamine C ?

Voeding, vooral voor preventie
Veel drinken: water, kruidenthee en soep (selder, venkel)
Sap van Zwarte bes en Veenbessen, andere bessen
Veel rauwkost (groenten) en volkorenproducten
Veel diuretische kruiden: Peterselie, Selder, Lavas, Venkel
Tuinbonen?  

Receptuur
R. / Solidago
Matricaria
Rubia infuus 10 min., 3x daags gedurende 3 weken
Literatuur
Murray& Pizzorno. - Enc. of Natural Medicine. Kidneystones p. 614. Doc. Maurice Godefridi
Moatti R. - Guide pratique de phytothérapie. Maloine.
Depoers e.a. - La phytothérapie entre science et tradition. Amyris.
Tulloch I, Smellie WS, Buck AC. Evening primrose oil reduces urinary calcium excretion in both normal and hypercalciuric rats. Urol Res. 1994;22:227–230.
Seltzer MA, Low RK, McDonald M, et al. Dietary manipulation with lemonade to treat hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. J Urol. 1996;156:907–909.
Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C and B6, and the risk of kidney stones in men. J Urol. 1996;155:1847–1851.
Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relation of serum ascorbic acid to serum vitamin B12, serum ferritin, and kidney stones in US adults. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:619–624.
KeBler T, Jansen B, Hesse A.  Effect of blackcurrant-, cranberry- and plum juice consumption on risk factors associated with kidney stone formation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;36:1020-1023.

Kruiden en urolithiasis, enkele onderzoeken.

Grases and co-workers of Division of Urochemistry Department of Chemistry, University of Balaeric Islands, Spainhave studied the antiurolithiatic activity of Zea mays, Rosa canina, Herniaria hirsuta and Agropyron repens in rats. The antiurolithiatic activity of Z. mays has been assigned to its diuretic activity (32). R. canina was found to have significant activity on calcium oxalate urolithiasis as it decreased calciuria and increased citraturia (33). The antiurolithiatic activity of H. hirsuta has been assigned to increase in citraturia (34), where as A. ripens did not show any positive
effects on the risk factors of urolithiasis (34). The effect of H. hirsuta on the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals to renal cells was studied which indicated that H. hirsuta altered crystal adhesion only under conditions of increased fluidity (35).

F. Grases, J.G. March, M. Ramis and A. Costa-Bauza. The influence of Zea mays on urinary risk factors for kidney stones in rats. Phytotherapy Research. 7: 146-149(1993).
F. Grases, L. Masarova, A. Costa-Bauza, J.G. March, R. Prieto and J.A. Tur. Effect of Rosa canina infusion and magnesium on the urinary risk factors of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Planta medica. 58: 509-512 (1992).
F. Grases, M. Ramis, A. Costa-Bauza, J.G. March. Effect of Herniaria hirsuta and Agropyron repens on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 45 : 211-14 (1995).
F. Atmani, G. Farell and J.C. Lieske. Extract from Herniaria hirsuta coats calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals and blocks their adhesion to renal epithelial cells. J.Urol. 172: 1510-1514 (2004).

Studies carried out on the roots of Rubia tinctorum, was found to be effective against stones of oxalate, phosphate, calcium carbonate and uric acid. This activity was attributed to the presence of hydroxy anthraquinones and their derivatives (38). R. tinctorum was shown to expel the stones
by stimulating the smooth muscles of the urinary bladder

S.K. Ahsan, M. Tariq, A.M Ageel, M.A. al-Yahya, A.H. Shan. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecem and Ammi majus on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats. J.Ethnopharmacol. 26 : 249-254 (1989) .

Studies on the stem juice of Musa paradisiaca were found to be effective in dissolving the phosphate type of stones in albino rats induced by foreign body insertion method using zinc discs. In another experimental study stem juice of Musa significantly reduced the incidence of oxalate urolithiasis by lowering the activity of the enzyme glycolic acid oxidase . The stem juice of Musa reduced urinary oxalate, glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and phosphorus excretion
in hyperoxaluric rats.

K.V.S.R.G. Prasad, K. Bharathi and K.K. Srinivasan. Evaluation of Musa (paradisica linn.cultivar)- “puttable” stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats. Ind. J. Phy. Pharmacol. 33: 337-341 (1993).
P. Kailash and P.Varalakshmi. Effect of banana stem juice in biochemical changes in liver of normal and hyperoxaluric rats. Indian .J. Exp.Biol., 30: 440-442 (1992).
P.K. Poonguzhali and H. Chegu. The influence of banana stem extract on urinary risk factors for stones in normal and hyperoxaluric rats. Br. J. Urol. 74: 23-25 (1994).

Ahsan and coworkers have investigated the antiurolithiatic activity of some Saudi Arabian folklore plants viz., Petroselinum sativum, Tachyspermum ammi, Alpinia galanga, Ammi majus and Trigonella foenum-graceum against calcium oxalate urolithiasis induced by 3% glycolic acid. P.sativum and T. foenum-graceum were found to reduce calcium oxalate urolithiasis, T. ammi and A. galanga were found to be less effective, where as the seeds of A. majus did not show any activity.

 S.K. Ahsan, A.H. Shah, M.O.M. Tanira and B.S. Ahmad. Antilithiatic activity of Petroselinium sativum, Tachispermum,  Ammi majus and Alpinia galanga against oxalate urolithiasis in rats. Fitoterepia. 5: 436 (1990).
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