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Platanus sp. / Plataan

Platanus is a unique living member of Platanaceae family. It is a small genus of trees that known in English as plane trees. The principal use of plane trees are as ornamental trees, especially by roadsides and parks(1,2). The plane trees are widely planted to improve the microclimate(3). The plane leaves commonly known in Iran as “Barge Chenar”, have been used in concentrated aromatic liquids, herbal remedies and Iranian traditional medicine to treat several disorders. They are used in Iranian folk and traditional medicines for treating some dermatological, gastrointestinal, rheumatic and inflammatory diseases(4–6). Some Persian scientists and hakims such as Avicenna and Hakim Momen were also familiar with this tree and mentioned its medicinal uses like teeth pain killer and analgesic and antiinflammtory effects for knee pain and inflammation in their books(4,5). The plane leaves contain flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, tannins and caffeic acid(7–11). Many pharmacological activities such as cytotoxic, cytostatic, astringent, antimicrobial and antiseptic effects have been attributed to the Platanus species(7–9,11). Platanus orientalis is the major species of Platanus in Iran and is widely distributed in northern and central parts of the country(1,2,11).

3. Pourkhabbaz A, Rastin N, Olbrich A, Langenfeld-Heyser R, Polle A. Influence of environmental pollution on leaf properties of urban plane trees, Platanus orientalis L. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2010;85:251–255. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
4. Ebn-e Sina A. Ghanoon dar teb. Vol. 2. Tehran: Soroosh Press; 1988. pp. 119–120.
5. Tonekaboni SMM. Tohfatol momenin. Tehran: Nashr-e Shahr; 2007. p. 200.
6. Zargari A. Medicinal plants. Vol. 4. Tehran: Tehran University Publications; 1990. pp. 469–470.
7. Dimas K, Demetzos C, Mitaku S, Marselos M, Tzavaras Th, Kokkinopoulos D. Cytotoxic activity of kaempferol glycosides against human leukaemic cell lines in vitro. Pharmacol Res. 2000;41:83–86.[PubMed]
8. Mitrokotsa D, Mitaku S, Demetzos C, Harvala C, Mentis A, Perez S, Kokkinopoulos D. Bioactive compounds from the buds of Platanus orientalis and isolation of a new kaempferol glycoside. Planta Med. 1993;59:517–520. [PubMed]
9. Mitrocotsa D, Bosch S, Mitaku S, Dimas C, Skaltsounis AL, Harvala C, et al. Cytotoxicity against human leukemic cell lines and the activity on the expression of resistance genes of flavonoids from Platanus orientalis. Anticaner Res. 1999;19:2085–2088. [PubMed]
10. Ibrahim MA, Mansoor AA, Gross A, Ashfaq MK, Jacob M, Khan SI, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active metabolites from Platanus occidentalius (American sycamore) J Nat Prod. 2009;72:2141–2144. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Phytochemistry. 2016 Oct;130:170-81. Phytochemical study and biological evaluation of chemical constituents of Platanus orientalis and Platanus × acerifolia buds.
Thai QD1, Tchoumtchoua J2, Makropoulou M3, Boulaka A4, Meligova AK4, Mitsiou DJ4, Mitakou S2, Michel S5, Halabalaki M2, Alexis MN4, Skaltsounis LA6.
One flavonol glycoside, two O-isoprenylated flavonols, one α,α-dimethylallyl flavonol, one dihydrochalcone, two furanocoumarins and one terpenoid previously undescribed, along with 42 known compounds were isolated from the buds of two European Platanaceae, Platanus orientalis and Platanus × acerifolia. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC) experiments, as well as HRMS data. The estrogen-like and antiestrogen-like activity of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of P. orientalis and P. × acerifolia buds and isolated compounds was evaluated using estrogen-responsive cell lines. The potency of selected estrogen agonists to regulate gene expression through ERα and/or ERβ was compared with their in vitro osteoblastogenic activity. Kaempferol and 8-C-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propen-1-yl)-5,7-dihydroxyflavonol displayed osteoblastogenic as well as ERα-mediated estrogenic activity similar to estradiol.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Aug 30;143(1):236-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.06.029. Epub 2012 Jul 6.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Platanus orientalis Linn. and its ulcerogenic risk evaluation.
Haider S1, Nazreen S, Alam MM, Hamid H, Alam MS.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:
Leaves of Platanus orientalis Linn. are used in folk medicine as a wound-healer and ophthalmologic agent. Phytol derivatives from the leaves of plane-tree show anti-ulcer activity. Its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects for knee pain were known to Persian scientists and hakims.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The ethanolic extract of Platanus orientalis Linn. and its various fractions were given at a dose of 100mg/kg po and 200mg/kg po for testing their anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract and its fractions has been carried out by tail-flick method and writhing test at a dosage of 200mg/kg po. Gastric ulceration studies have been further carried out to study the ulcerogenic risk evaluation of the ethanolic extract and its various fractions at a dose of 600mg/kg body weight.
RESULTS:
Among the tested fractions, chloroform fraction exhibited better inhibition (68.33%) at 200mg/kg po dosage when compared to the standard drug Ibuprofen (66.66%) after 3h in the carrageenan induced hind paw edema. The ethanolic extract and all its fractions especially the chloroform (p<0.01) showed significant analgesic activity with insignificant ulceration as compared to the standard drug i.e. Ibuprofen. The histopathological study of ethanolic extract and its fractions revealed that none of them cause ulcer.
CONCLUSION:
The present study indicates that Platanus orientalis Linn. has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect.

Antinociceptive study of extracts of Platanus orientalis leaves in mice
V. Hajhashemi,1,* A. Ghannadi,2 and S. Mousavi1
Platanus orientalis L. (Platanaceae) is a medicinal tree used in Iranian folklore and traditional medicine as a pain and inflammation reliever. In this study, the polyphenolic and total extract of P. orientalis leaves were prepared and their antinociceptive effects were studied in mice using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and light tail flick tests. Both hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts of P. orientalis at a dose of 2 g/kg significantly (P<0.05) reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes. These extracts were also effective in suppression of formalin-induced pain behavior but they did not show any significant analgesia in light tail flick test. It is concluded that P. orientalis extracts have moderate analgesic effect and further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism and active constituents.



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