Aids / HIV virus

Het is zeker niet de bedoeling om de de hele Aidsproblematiek met wat kruiden op te lossen. Toch wil ik hier zo nuchter mogelijk wat onderzoeken naar Aids vermelden, waarbij planten betrokken zijn.

Aloe Vera.Volger BK, Ernst E. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. British Journal of General Practice 1999;49(447):823-8; Montaner JS, Gill J, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of acemannan in advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retroviruses 1996 Jun;12(2):153-7; Womble D, Helderman JH. The impact of acemannan on the generation and function of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Immunopharmocology and Immunotoxicology 1992;14(1-2):63-77.

Andrographis. Poolsup N, Suthisisang C. Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2004;29(1):37-45; Calabrese C, Berman SH, et al. A phase I trial of andrographolide in HIV positive patients and normal volunteers. Phytotherapy Research 2000;14(5):333-8; Lewis R. Andrographis paniculata: A Review [online: date unknown] [].

Astragalus [Authors unknown] Astragalus membranaceus: Monograph. Altnerative Medicine Review 2003; 8(1):72-7 []; Huang ZQ; Qin NP, et al. Effect of Astragalus membranaceus on T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with viral myocarditis [article in Chinese]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1995 Jun;15(6):328-30.

Ashwagandha. Mishra LC, Singh BB et al. Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review. Alternative Medicine Review 2000;5(4):334-46; Archana R, Namasivayam A. Antistressor effect of Withania somnifera. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1999;64(1):91-3; Ziauddin M, Phansalkar N, et al. Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1996 Feb;50(2):69-76.

Actractylodes Prieto JM, Recio MC et al. Influence of traditional Chinese anti-inflammatory medicinal plants on leukocyte and platelet functions. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2003; 55(9):1275-82; Wang GT. Treatment of operated late gastric carcinoma with prescription of strengthening the patients resistance and dispelling the invading evil in combination with chemotherapy: follow-up study of 158 patients and experimental study in animals [article in Chinese]. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1990 Dec;10(12):707, 712-16.

Cat’s Claw Goncalves C, Dinis T, et al. Antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa bark decoction: a mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemistry 2005 Jan;66(1):89-98; Hosein S. Cats Claw scratching away at the immune system? TreatmentUpdate 1999 Nov;102;1-2 []; Lemaire I, Assinewe V, et al. Stimulation of interleukin-1 and -6 production in alveolar macrophages by the neotropical liana, Uncaria tormentosa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1999;64:109-15.

Echinacea Yale SH, Liu K. Echinacea purpurea therapy for the treatment of the common cold: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2004 Jun 14;164(11):1237-41. Combest WL, Nemecz G. Herbal Pharmacy: Echinacea. US Pharmacist. 1997 October []; Hosein S. Are Echinacea and HIV not a good mix? TreatmentUpdate 1999;95:3 []; Blumenthal M. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicine. Austin: American Botanical Council, 1998.

Elder [Authors unknown] Sambucus nigra (elderberry): Monograph. Alternative Medicine Review 2005;10(1):51-4 []. Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, et al. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. Journal of International Medical Research 2004;32(2):132-40.

Garlic / Allium sativum Sussman E. Garlic supplements can impede HIV medication. AIDS 2002;16(9):N5; Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, et al. The effect of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;34(2):234-8; Spigelski D, Jones PJ. Efficacy of garlic supplementation in lowering serum cholesterol levels. Nutrition Reviews 2001 Jul;59(7):236-41; Stevinson C, Pittler MH, et al. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia. A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 2000;133(6):420-9; Ghannoum MA. Inhibition of Candida adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic). Journal of Applied Bacteriology 1990 Feb;68(2):163-9; Fareed G, Scolaro M, et al. The use of a high-dose garlic preparation for the treatment of cyrptosporidium parvum diarrhea [Abstract] Th.B.4215. International Conference on AIDS, Vancouver, 1996 July; Walder R, Kalvatchev Z, et al. In vitro suppression of HIV-1 replication by ajoene . Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 1997;51:397-403; Morioka N, Sze LL, et al. A protein fraction from aged garlic extract enhances cytotoxicity and proliferation of human lymphocytes mediated by interleukin-2 and concanavalin A. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 1993 Oct;37(5):316-22; Hosein S. Severe gastrointestinal symptoms may result from garlic-ritonavir interaction [online]. CATIE-News. CATIE, 1998 June 4 [].

Ginger / Zingiber Borrelli F, Capasso R et al. Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2005;105(4):849-56; Vutyavanich T, Kraisarin T, et al. Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001 97(4):577-82; Masuda Y, Kikuzaki H, et al. Antioxidant properties of gingerol related compounds from ginger. Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):293-6; Combest WL. Herbal Pharmacy: Ginger. US Pharmacist 1998 Feb []; Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, et al. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 1991;38(1):19-24; Bhandari U, Sharma JN, et al. The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1998 June;61(2):167-71.

Ginkgo Biloba Gertz HJ, Kiefer M. Review about Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 (Ginkgo) Current Pharmaceutical Design 2004;10(3):261-4; Sierpina VS, Wollschlaeger B, et al. Ginkgo biloba [A Review]. American Family Physician 2003;68(5):923-6; Kohler S, Funk P, et al. Influence of a 7-day treatment with Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 on bleeding time and coagulation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis 2004;15(4):303-9; McKenna DJ, Jones K, et al. Efficacy, safety, and use of ginkgo biloba in clinical and preclinical applications. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2001;7(5):70-86, 88-90; Pittler MH, Ernst E. Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of intermittent claudication: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. American Journal of Medicine 2000;108(4):276-81; Combest WL, Nemecz G. Herbal Pharmacy: Gingko Biloba. US Pharmacist. 1997 September [].

Ginseng Coon JT, Ernst E. Panax ginseng: a systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Drug Safety 2002;25(5):323-44; Ellis JM, Reddy P. Effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2002;36(3):375-9; Hosein S. Can ginseng help suppress HIV? TreatmentUpdate 2001;119:2-4 []; Sung H, Kang SM, et al. Korean red ginseng slows depletion of CD4 T cells in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 2005;12(4):497-501; Ng TB and Wang H. Panaxagin, a new protein from Chinese ginseng possesses anti-fungal, anti-viral, translation-inhibiting and ribonuclease activities. Life Sciences 2001;68(7):739-749. Cui X, Sakaguchi T, et al. Orally administered ginseng extract reduces serum total cholesterol and triglycerides that induce fatty liver in 66 per cent hepatectomized rats. International Medical Research 1998 Aug-Sep;26(4):181-7; DM, Broumand N, et al. In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Immunopharmacology 1997 Jan;35(3):229-35.

Goldenseal / Hydrastis Hwang BY, Roberts SK, et al. Antimicrobial constituents from goldenseal (the Rhizomes of Hydrastis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens. Planta Medica 2003;69(7):623-7; [Authors unknown]. Berberine. Alternative Medicine Review 2000;5(2):175-7; Pizzorno JE, Michael MT. Hydrastis candensis, berberine vulgaris, berberis aquifolium, and other berberine-containing plants. A Textbook of Natural Medicine, Volume 1. Washington: Bastyr University Publications, 1992.

Grapefruit Seed Heggers JP, Cottingham J, et al. The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: II. Mechanism of action and in vitro toxicity. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2002;8(3):333-40.

Greater Celandine / Chelidonium Cordes N, Plasswilm L, et al. Ukrain, an alkaloid thiophosphoric acid derivative of Chelidonium majus L. protects human fibroblasts but not human tumour cells in vitro against ionizing radiation. International Journal of Radiation Biology 2002;78(1):17-27; Kim DJ, Ahn B, et al. Potential preventive effects of Chelidonium majis L. (Papaveraceae) herb extract on glandular stomach tumour development in rats treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and hypertonic sodium chloride. Cancer Letters 1997 Jan 30;112(2):203-8; Xian MS, Hayashi K, et al. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbs on squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: histopathologic analysis of 240 cases. Acta Medica Okayama 1989 Dec;43(6):345-51; Voltchek IV, Liepins A, et al. Potential therapeutic efficacy of Ukrain (NSC 631570) in AIDS patients with Kaposis sarcoma. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 1996;22(3-5):283-6.

Guggul Szapary PO, Wolfe ML, et al. Guggulipid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003;290(6):765-72; Singh RB, Niaz MA, et al. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesteroemia. Cardiovascular Drug Therapy 1994;8(4):659-64.

Hyssop Gollapudi S, Sharma HA, et al. Isolation of a previously unidentified polysaccharide (MAR 10) from Hyssop officinalis that exhibits strong activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Community 1995 May 5;210(1):145-51.

Isatis [Authors unknown] Isatis tinctoria. Monograph. Alternerative Medicine Reviews 2002;7(6):523-4; Varner J, ed. Immunity and Chinese Medicine. Long Beach: Oriental Healing Arts Institute Press, 1990.

Lemon Balm / Melisse Allahverdiyev A, Duran N, et al. Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2. Phytomedicine 2004;11(7-8):657-61; Kennedy DO, Wake G, et al. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties. Neuropsychopharmacology 2003;28(10):1871-81; Yamasaki K, Nakano M, et al. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1998;21(8):829-33.

Licorice / Glycyrrhiza Combest WL. Herbal Pharmacy: Licorice. US Pharmacist 1998 April []; Cheng CJ, Chen YH, et al. A hidden cause of hypokalemic paralysis in a patient with prostate cancer. Support Care Cancer 2004;12(11):810-2; Thyagarajan S, Jayaram S, et al. Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India. Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2002;17 Suppl 3:S370-S376; Coon JT, Ernst E. Complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review. Journal of Hepatology 2004;40(3):491-500; Armanini D, De Palo CB, et al. Effect of licorice on the reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2003;26(7):646-50; Sasaki H, Takei M, et al. Effect of glycyrrhizin, an active component of licorice roots, on HIV replication in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seropositive patients. Pathobiology 2002-2003;70(4):229-36; Cinatl J, Morgenstern B, et al. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. Lancet 2003;361(9374):2045-6; Armanini D, Bonanni G, et al. Reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice. New England Journal of Medicine 1999 Oct 7;341(15):1158; Yasuyuki E et al. The immunotherapy for AIDS with glycyrrhizin and/or neurotropin [Abstract]. IX International Conference on AIDS. June 1993. Berlin; Ikegami N et al. Prophylactic effect of long-term oral administration of glycyrrhizin on AIDS development of asymptomatic patients [Abstract]. IX International Conference on AIDS June 1993. Berlin.

Lomatium McCutcheon AR, Roberts TE, et al. Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1995 Dec 1;49(2):101-10; Lee TT, Kashiwada Y, et al. Suksdorfin: An anti-HIV principle from Lomatium suksdorfii, its structure-activity correlation with related comarins, and synergistic effects. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 1994 Oct;2(10):1051-6.

Marijuana Abrams DI, Hilton JF, et al. Short-term effects of cannabiniods in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2003;139(4):258-66; Joy JE, Watson SJ, et al. Marijuana as Medicine: Assessing the Scientific Base. Washington: National Academy Press, 1999. [].

Milk Thistle / Silybum marianum Rambaldi A, Jacobs B, et al. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 2005;(2):CD003620; Jacobs BP, Dennehy C, et al. Milk thistle for the treatment of liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Medicine 2002;113(6):506-15; Hosein S. Toxicity - milk thistle and indinavir. TreatmentUpdate 2002:130 []; Combest WL. Milk Thistle. US Pharmacist 1998 September;23(9) [].

Monolaurin Thormar H, Issacs CE, et al. Inactivation of enveloped viruses and killing of cells by fatty acids and monoglycerides. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1987;31:27-31; Witcher KJ, Novick RP, et al. Modulation of immune cell proliferation by glycerol monolaurate. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 1996 Jan;3(1):10-13.

Mushrooms Chang R. Functional properties of edible mushrooms. Nutrition Review, 54(11 Pt 2):S91-93 1996; Lin ZB, Zhang HN. Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum and its possible mechanisms. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 2004;25(11):1387-95; Gordon M, Guralnik M, et al. A phase II controlled study of a combination of the immune modulator, lentinan, with didanosine (ddI) in HIV patients with CD4 cells of 200-500/mm3. Journal of Medicine 1995;26(5-6):193-207; Matsuoka H, Yano K, et al. Usefulness of lymphocyte subset change as an indicator for predicting survival time and effectiveness of treatment with the immunopotentiator lentinan. Anticancer Research 1995 Sep-Oct;15(5B):2291-6.

Neem / Azadarichta Subapriya R, Nagini S. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Current Medicinal Chemistry Anti-Cancer Agents 2005;5(2):149-6; Udeinya IJ, Mbah AU, et al. An antimalarial extract from neem leaves is antiretroviral. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2004 Jul;98(7):435-7; Frawley D, Lad V. The Yoga of Herbs: An Ayurvedic Guide to Herbal Medicine. Lotus Light Publications, 1986.

Olive Leaf Lee-Huang S, Zhang L, et al. Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) and modulation of host cell gene expression by HIV-1 infection and OLE treatment. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2003;307(4):1029-37.

Peppermint Worwood VA. The Fragrant Pharmacy. London: Bantam Books, 1990. Liu JH et al. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. Journal of Gastroenterology. 1997 Dec;32(6): 765-8; Gobel H, Fresenius J, et al. Effectiveness of Oleum menthae piperitae and paracetamol in therapy of headache of the tension type (article in German). Nervenarzt 1996 Aug;67(8):672-81.

Propolis Martins RS, Pereira ES Jr, et al. Effect of commercial ethanol propolis extract on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans collected from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Brazilian patients with oral candidiasis. Journal of Oral Science 2002;44(1):41-8; Burdock GA. Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis). Food and Chemistry Toxicology 1998 Apr;36(4):347-63; Amoros M, Simoes CM, et al. Synergistic effect of flavones and flavonols against herpes simplex virus type 1 in cell culture. Comparison with the antiviral activity of propolis. Journal of Naural Products 1992 Dec;55(12):1732-40.

Psylliu / Plantago psyllium Ronagh T, Schroeder D. Psyllium husk fiber bars are efficacious in the treatment of protease inhibitor (PI)-induced diarrhea [Abstract] 1307. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, San Francisco, 1999; Sierra M, Garcia JJ, et al. Therapeutic effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patients. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;56(9):830-42; Anderson JW, Allgood LD, et al. Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid responses in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999 Oct;70(4):466-73.

Sanguinaria Allen CL, Loudon J, et al. Sanguinaria-related leukoplakia: epidemiologic and clinicopathologic features of a recently described entity. General Dentistry 2001;49(6):608-14; Kuftinec MM, Mueller-Joseph LJ, et al. Sanguinaria toothpaste and oral rinse regimen clinical efficacy in short- and long-term trials. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1990;56(7 Suppl):31-3; Frankos VH, Brusick DJ, et al. Safety of Sanguinaria extract as used in commercial toothpaste and oral rinse products. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1990;56(7 Supplement):41-7.

Shatvari / Asparagus Goyal RK, Singh J, et al. Asparagus racemosus--an update. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 2003;57(9):408-14; Bone K. Clinical Applications of Ayurvedic and Chinese Herbs: Monographs for the Western Herbal Practitioner 1996:138; Rege NN, Nazareth HM, et al. Immunotherapeutic modulation of intraperitoneal adhesions by Asparagus racemosus. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 1989 Oct;35(4):199-203; Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA. Comparative study of immunomodulating activity of Indian medicinal plants, lithium carbonate and glucan. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 1988 Oct;10(10):639-44.

Spirulina Ayehunie S, Belay A, et al. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis). Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Retrovirology 1998 May 1;18(1):7-12; Qureshi MA, Garlich JD, et al. Dietary Spirulina platensis enhances humoral and cell-mediated immune functions in chickens. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 1996 Aug;18(3):465-76; Hayashi T, Hayashi K, et al. Calcium spirulan, an inhibitor of enveloped virus replication, from a blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Journal of Natural Products 1996 Jan;59(1):83-7.

SPV30 AIDS Treatment Data Network. Boxwood (SPV-30) Treatment Review 1995 March;17:7; Pharo A, Salvato P. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of SPV-30 (boxwood extract) in patients with HIV disease [Abstract] Mo.B.180. International Conference on AIDS, 1996 July. Durant J, Chantre Ph, et al. Efficacy and safety of Buxus sempervirens L. preparations (SPV30) in HIV-infected asymptomatic patients: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytomedicine 1998;5(1):1-10 as reported in FACT: Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 1998;3(2):54-5.

St. John’s Wort Wincor MZ, Gutierrez M. St. John's Wort and the Treatment of Depression. US Pharmacist 1997 Aug []; Linde K, Berner M, et al. St John's wort for depression: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Psychiatry 2005;186:99-107; Linde K, Ramirez G, et al. St. John's wort for depression: an overview and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. British Medical Journal 1996; 313:253-8; Hudson JB, Harris L, et al. The importance of light in the anti-HIV effect of hypericin. Antiviral Research 1993 Feb;20(2):173-8; Mannel M. Drug interactions with St John's wort : mechanisms and clinical implications. Drug Safety 2004;27(11):773-97; Hosein S. St. John's wort found to lower nevirapine levels. TreatmentUpdate 2001;115:6 []; Piscitelli S, Burstein A, et al. Indinavir concentrations and St. John's Wort. Lancet 2000;355(9203):547-548; Knuppel L, Linde K et al. Adverse effects of St. John's Wort: a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2004;65(11):1470-9.

Sterinols Bouic JD. The role of phytosterols and phytosterolins in immune modulation: a review of the past 10 years. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2001;4:471-5; Jones PJ, MacDougall DE, et al. Dietary phytosterols as cholesterol-lowering agents in humans. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 1997 Mar;75(3):217-27.

Tea Tree Oil Combest WL. Tea Tree. US Pharmacist. 1999 April;23(9) []; Vazquez JA, Zawawi AA. Efficacy of alcohol-based and alcohol-free melaleuca oral solution for the treatment of fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with AIDS. HIV Clinical Trials 2002;3(5):379-85; Nenoff P, Haustein UF, et al. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro. Skin Pharmacology 1996;9(6):388-94; Buck DS, Nidorf DM, et al. Comparison of two topical preparations for the treatment of onychomycosis: Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and clotrimazole. Journal of Family Practice 1994 Jun;38(6):601-5; Jandourek A, Vaishampayan JK, et al. Efficacy of melaleuca oral solution for the treatment of fluconazole refractory oral candidiasis in AIDS patients. AIDS 1998 Jun 18;12(9):1033-7.

Tricosanthin Scott-Hartland B. Common Alternative Therapies: Compound Q (GLQ223.) GMHC Treatment Issues, 1993/94 Winter:7(11/12); Kahn J, Gorelick, K , et al. Results of a randomized study of GLQ223 in AIDS and ARC, Abstract 006B. International AIDS Conference, Yokohama, 1994; Mayer RA, Sergios PA, et al. Trichosanthin treatment of HIV-induced immune dysregulation. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 1992;22(2):113-122; Kahn JO, Kaplan LD, et al. The safety and pharmacokinetics of GLQ223 in subjects with AIDS and AIDS-related complex: a phase I study. AIDS 1990;4(12):1197-204.

Tumeric / Geelwortel Mazumder A, Raghavan K, et al. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 integrase by curcumin. Biochemical Pharmacology 1995 Apr 18;49(8):1165-70; Gilden D, Smart T. Curcumin trial finds no activity. GMHC Treatment Issues 1996 Feb;10(2) [].

Antiviral Res. 1990 Dec;14(6):323-37.

Inhibition of HIV replication by Hyssop officinalis extracts.

Kreis W1, Kaplan MH, Freeman J, Sun DK, Sarin PS.

Crude extracts of dried leaves of Hyssop officinalis showed strong anti-HIV activity as measured by inhibition of syncytia formation, HIV reverse transcriptase (RT), and p17 and p24 antigen expression, but were non-toxic to the uninfected Molt-3 cells. Ether extracts from direct extraction (Procedure I), after removal of tannins (Procedure II), or from the residue after dialysis of the crude extract (Procedure III), showed good antiviral activity. Methanol extracts, subsequent to ether, chloroform and chloroform ethanol extractions, derived from procedure I or II, but not III, also showed very strong anti-HIV activity. In addition, the residual material after methanol extractions still showed strong activity. Caffeic acid was identified in the ether extract of procedure I by HPLC and UV spectroscopy. Commercial caffeic acid showed good antiviral activity in the RT assay and high to moderate activity in the syncytia assay and the p17 and p24 antigen expression. Tannic acid and gallic acid, common to other teas, could not be identified in our extracts. When commercial products of these two acids were tested in our assay systems, they showed high to moderate activity against HIV-1. Hyssop officinalis extracts contain caffeic acid, unidentified tannins, and possibly a third class of unidentified higher molecular weight compounds that exhibit strong anti-HIV activity, and may be useful in the treatment of patients with AIDS.

Biomed Pharmacother. 1997;51(4):176-80.

Anti-HIV activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis flowers.

Kalvatchev Z1, Walder R, Garzaro D.

Extracts of dried flowers from Calendula officinalis were examined for their ability to inhibit the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Both organic and aqueous extracts were relatively nontoxic to human lymphocytic Molt-4 cells, but only the organic one exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in an in vitro MTT/tetrazolium-based assay. In addition, in the presence of the organic extract (500 micrograms/mL), the uninfected Molt-4 cells were completely protected for up to 24 h from fusion and subsequent death, caused by cocultivation with persistently infected U-937/HIV-1 cells. It was also found that the organic extract from Calendula officinalis flowers caused a significant dose- and time-dependent reduction of HIV-1 reverse transcription (RT) activity. An 85% RT inhibition was achieved after a 30 min treatment of partially purified enzyme in a cell-free system. These results suggested that organic extract of flowers from Calendula officinalis possesses anti-HIV properties of therapeutic interest.

Prunella vulgaris / Brunel

The mint family (Lamiaceae) produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), sage (Salvia spp.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum spp.) and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.). To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection.

Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity.

We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.