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Duodenitis

Duodenitis en bulbitis
Ontsteking van bulbus- en duodenummucosa, o.a. veroorzaakt door kolonisatie met Helicobacter pylori. Net als bij gastritis kunnen vage bovenbuikklachten, gepaard gaand met mucosa-afwijkingen en motiliteitsstoornissen van bulbus en duodenum, soms aan bulbitis en/of duodenitis worden toegeschreven.

1. Purple grape juices
In the evaluation of the protection of organic and conventional purple grape juices and theirs effect against the oxidative damage provoked by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) found that in the alkaline version of the comet assay performed on whole blood, it was observed that CCl(4) was capable of inducing mainly DNA damage class 4 and 3 frequencies, which was significantly reduced in groups that received both purple grape juices. This implies that both grape juices have an important antigenotoxic activity, according to "Antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of purple grape juice--organic and conventional--in adult rats" by Dani C, Oliboni LS, Umezu FM, Pasquali MA, Salvador M, Moreira JC, Henriques JA(36). 

2. Garden strawberry
In the observation of Ethanolic extract of Fragaria vesca (EFFV) of Fragaria vesca L. and its effect on Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (chronic recurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)) found that EFFV at 500 mg/kg showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced IBD, which may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, according to "Effect of fruit extract of Fragaria vesca L. on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in albino rats" by Kanodia L, Borgohain M, Das S.(37).

3. Lime
Since it contains high amount of flavonoid, it helps to improve the immune system fighting against forming of free radical causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich foods and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women" by Wang L, Lee IM, Zhang SM, Blumberg JB, Buring JE, Sesso HD.(38).

4. Papaya leaves
In the assessment of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves and its anti-inflammatory activity effect found that the extracts significantly reduced the persistent oedema from the 4th day to the 10th day of the investigation. The extracts also produced slight mucosal irritation at high doses. The study establishes the anti-inflammatory activity of Carica papaya leaves, according to "Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves" by Owoyele BV, Adebukola OM, Funmilayo AA, Soladoye AO.(39).

5. Celery
High amount of vitamin C in celery helps to increase the immune function infighting against the forming of free radicals, and irregular cell growth causes of tumor and cancer, according to the study of "Vitamin C and cancer: what can we conclude--1,609 patients and 33 years later?" by Cabanillas F.(40). Also High amount of flavonoid in celery helps to reduce the risk of oxidative stress as a result of its antioxidant activity, according to the study of "Influence of flavonoid extracts from celery on oxidative stress induced by dichlorvos in rats" by Cao J, Zhang X, Wang Q, Jia L, Zhang Y, Zhao X.(41).
  
Sources   
(36) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19857077 
(37) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19160185
(38) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19158208
(39) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18759075
(40) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799507
(41) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22045891


Duodenitis - Antioxidants to prevent Duodenitis
Duodenitis is defined as a condition of inflammation in the lining of the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. 

Antioxidants to prevent Duodenitis 
The aim of antioxidants is to enhance the inmmue function in fighting against the bacterial, viral and parasitic causes of inflammation.
1. Quercetin 
Since it contains high amount of antioxidants, onion enhances the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radicals and foreign invasion, thus eeducing the symptoms of inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and gout and infection caused by bacteria, including E.coli and salmonella,etc., according to the study of Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of quercetin oxidation products from yellow onion (Allium cepa) skin.(30).

2. Bromelain
Today Pineapple is widely cultivated for commercial and its rich of vitamins and mineral and digesting enzyme bromelin which seems to help digestion at the end of a high protein meal. It is second only to banana as America's most favourite tropical fruit. In the classification of bromelain is a mixture of proteinases derived from pineapple stem and its effect in gastrointestinal tract, found that bromelain enzymes can remain intact and proteolytically active within the murine gastrointestinal tract. They provide further support for the hypothesis that oral bromelain may potentially modify inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract via local proteolytic activity within the colonic microenvironment, according to "Proteolytic activity and immunogenicity of oral bromelain within the gastrointestinal tract of mice" by Hale LP.(31). Also Bromelain also increases the immune function in fighting the invasion of foreign substances such as bacteria and virus, thus decreasing the risk of inflammation and infection according to the study of "Bromelain treatment reduces CD25 expression on activated CD4+ T cells in vitro" by Secor ER Jr, Singh A, Guernsey LA, McNamara JT, Zhan L, Maulik N, Thrall RS., posted in PubMed(32).

3. Polyphenols
Polyphenols, one of more powerful form of antioxidant not only helps to improve the immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals and guarding our body from foreign invasion, such as virus and bacteria, thus reducing the risk of inflammation and lessening the risk of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cause coronary heart disease, according to the study of "Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease" by Kanti Bhooshan Pandey and Syed Ibrahim Rizvi, posted in PubMed Central(33). 

4. Catechins 
Catechins are a category of polyphenols contained epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and 25-100 times more potent than vitamins C and E that help to protect the body from oxidative damage by enhancing the immune function in fighting against forming of free radicals cause of cancer, according to the study of "Green tea catechins augment the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in an in vivo mouse model for chemoresistant liver cancer" by Liang G, Tang A, Lin X, Li L, Zhang S, Huang Z, Tang H, Li QQ.(34).

5. Lycopene
Lycopene, one of the powerful antioxidant in tomatoes, not only helps the immune system in neutralizing the forming of free radicals in the body and according to Harvard investigation as it found that men who ate more than 10 servings tomato-based foods daily (like cooked tomatoes and tomato sauce,) had a 35 percent lower risk of developing prostate cancer than those who ate the least amount of these foods. The benefits of lycopene was more pronounced with advanced stages of prostate cancer. Also according to the study of "Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with lycopene in the TRAMP model" by Konijeti R, Henning S, Moro A, Sheikh A, Elashoff D, Shapiro A, Ku M, Said JW, Heber D, Cohen P, Aronson WJ.(35),.
  
Sources  

(30) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19127724
(31) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14996417
(32) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19162239
(33) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2835915/
(34) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20514403
(35) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20687227)
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