Apium graveolens / Selderij

Selderij diuretisch en bloeddrukverlagend

A blood pressure reading is measured by two numbers. The top number referred to as systolic is the measure of pressure the blood exerts while the heart is beating. The lower number, diastolic, is the measure of pressure the blood exerts while the heart is relaxed. The suggested optimal blood pressure is 120/80.

Just how could celery juice affect this measurement? This versatile veggie contains active compounds named phthalides. These compounds provide health benefits by naturally relaxing the muscles in and around the walls of the arteries which cause those vessels to dilate, creating more space inside the arteries that permits the blood to flow at a lower pressure. Phthalides also have been reported to lower blood pressure and promote a healthy circulatory system by reducing what are known as stress hormones. This biennial vegetable also contains high amounts of magnesium, potassium, and calcium. The beneficial effect of these minerals in celery serves to calm the nervous system, automatically counterbalancing stress levels.

Although Hippocrates (a Greek physician considered the Father of Medicine, c. 460 BC - c. 377 BC) prescribed the juice of this leafy-topped stalk to patients suffering from nervous tension and although Chinese medicine has long recognized celery juice to reduce high blood pressure, only recently has it been studied in the Western world. The University of Chicago Medical Center (UCMC) is credited with one of the first studies of celery's effects on blood pressure. In one instance, the father of a scientist at UCMC experienced a drop in his blood pressure from 158/96 to 118/82 after just one week of eating about four stalks a day.

To test this theory, a physician at the Whitaker Wellness Center and her father both drank celery juice for thirty days, mixing it with a little orange juice to camouflage the slightly bitter taste of juiced celery. Their results? The father's systolic level dropped from 148 to 128, and the physician's went from 120 to 105.

Planta Med 2015; 81 - PG1

Gastric antiulcer, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties of celery (Apium graveolens) in rats

T AlHowiriny 1, 3, A Alsheikh 2, M Al-Yahya 1, K ElTahir 1, S Rafatullah 1, 3

1Departments of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

2Department of Pathology, P.O. Box 2925, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia

3Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center (MAPPRC), College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

Celery seed is generally regarded as safe for human consumption as a spice, natural seasoning and plant extract/essential oil. 500 grams of the shade dried aerial parts of celery was coarse powdered and macerated in 3 liters of 96% ethanol for 72 hours using percolation method. Wistar albino rats were used. Celery extract produced a dose-dependent significant protection against the ulcerogenic effect induced by indomethacin. In the ethanol and strong alkali-induced ulcer protocol, it was observed that the treatment with ethanolic extract of celery (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the lesion index. A highly significant reduction of ulceration in rats' stomach and intraluminal bleeding was recorded after celery extract pretreatment of the dose of 500 mg./kg orally. In the gastric secretion determination model, using ligated pylorus for 6h, the treatment with celery extract (250 and 500 mg/kg i.p.), reduced the volume of the basal gastric secretion, titratable acidity and ulceration significantly in comparison with control group. The results show that ethanol extract of celery displays gastroprotective activity, as demonstrated by its significant inhibition of the formation of ulcers induced by different experimental models and its ability to decrease basal gastric acid secretion. This gastric antiulcer capacity of celery extract could be related to its antioxidant properties, resulting in reduction of the lipid peroxidation and elevation of the NP-SH contents, besides improving mucus coat of the stomach. Therefore, we suggest that due to its antioxidative effects, it may be useful in the prevention of gastric disorders.

The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Apium graveolens Leaf on the Number of Sexual Cells and Testicular Structure in Rat

Wesam Kooti 1, 2 ; Esrafil Mansouri 3, * ; Maryam Ghasemiboroon 4 ; Mahmoud Harizi 4 ; Damoon Ashtary-Larky 4, 5 ; and Reza Afrisham 4

Historically, plants have been considered as a valuable source; however, they are mostly used for food consumption rather than their therapeutics effects. The current study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of celery has useful effects on spermatogenesis and testis in male rats. In this study, we observed a slightly increase of testes index in groups ІІІ and IV, but was not statistically significant. In addition, we did not observe any changes or destructive effects on testicular tissue. The results indicated that used dosages of hydroalcoholic extract of celery had no clear effect on these parameters. Celery contains flavonoids and phenolic acids with anti-inflammatory effects; also, apigenin and epiein as main flavonoids of celery owe anti-inflammatory properties (19). Apigenin as an antioxidant inhibits the production of hydrogen peroxide and IgE, which is responsible for inflammation and allergic responses (20). Apigenin has inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (21). Therefore, celery is able to reduce harmful effects of free radicals on cells and prevents cell death and loss of weight or tissue volume due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These results are in agreement with some previous investigations (9). Besides, our results indicated that Sertoli cells and primary spermatocytes increased and lumens diameter reduced in experimental groups. Our result is similar to those reported in previous studies (10, 11). A previous study suggested that hydroalcoholic extract of celery seed increased testosterone secretion (22). The level of testosterone as the most important androgenic hormone is effective in the evolution and proliferation of germ cells and spermatid differentiation. Likely, celery directly affects Sertoli cells by stimulating secretion of testosterone (23). Sertoli cells have a major role in differentiation and development of spermatogenesis. These cells promote caryokinesis karyokinesis, cytokinesis and differentiating of spermatozoa with producing growth factors such as activin in the presence of calcium ion. Furthermore, Sertoli cells secrete tubule fluid, which helps to nourish sexual cells and plays an important role in their supporting (24). In addition to the shape and quality of sex cells, blood concentration of reproductive hormones is an important parameter to evaluate function of the reproductive system. Testosterone affects seminiferous tubules and induces spermatogenesis (25). Our findings indicated that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of celery at both dosages increased sperm count. In a similar study by Hamza et al. it was shown that celery extract decreased toxic effects of sodium valproate and increased all of spermatogenic cells lineages (8). Sperms count is one of the important factors of fertility, and decrease of sperm count can decrease the probability of a successful pregnancy. Researchers suggested that spermatogenesis and maturation of sexual cells depend on protection of cytotoxic and pathologic lesions that threaten these events (26, 27). Previous studies demonstrated that induced damage by free radicals and oxidative stress could cause various disorders, such as infertility (28, 29). Spermatogenic cells, unlike other cells are very sensitive to oxidative damage, which is due to high amounts of poly-unsaturated fatty acids in their plasma membrane and very low levels of cytoplasmic antioxidants (30). Peroxidation of membrane fatty acids leads to loss of membrane fluidity and decreases its enzyme activity and ion channels leading to gradual loss of the ability of sperm to bind to the oocyte. The main effect of lipid peroxidation in all cells, especially sperm is disturbance of structure and function of organelles or cell membranes (ion transport processes, fluidity and permeability, metabolic gradients). These changes can affect the structure and function of sperm (31). In normal conditions, a balance exists between reactive species oxygen and free radicals production and antioxidant defense system. An imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses leads to injuries induced by free radicals. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites of plant compounds with powerful antioxidant properties, and cannot be synthesized in the body and must be received through diet. Celery is a strong antioxidant due to flavonoids such as apiein and apigenin (32, 33). Antioxidant compounds are able to protect cell membranes against damage (34). Antioxidants affect hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis directly or indirectly, thus increasing sperm count and fertility (35, 36). Moreover this herb contains vitamins E and C (32, 33). In an experimental study, it was shown that these vitamins improve sperm parameters such as count and motility (37, 38). Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant with a supporting role in quality and quantity of sperm, fertilization and fertility in humans. This vitamin is abundant in Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and round spermatid. Therefore, increasing sexual cells due to protective effect of vitamins and compounds of celery is justified leading to reduction in diameter of seminiferous tubules lumen. The results of the present study confirmed that hydroalcoholic extract of celery leaf could increase spermatogenesis in rats. This increase was more pronounced at higher dosage. Perhaps this plant could be used to treat infertility in men. However, it is suggested to perform further experimental and clinical studies on total extracts of this plant and its exact mechanisms on spermatogenesis.


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8. Hamza AA, Amin A. Apium graveolens modulates sodium valproate-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2007;307(4):199-206. [DOI] [PubMed]

9. Madkour NK. The beneficial role of celery oil in lowering of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular damage.Toxicol Ind Health. 2012. [DOI] [PubMed]

10. Abarikwu SO, Pant AB, Farombi EO. The protective effects of quercetin on the cytotoxicity of atrazine on rat Sertoli-germ cell co-culture. Int J Androl. 2012;35(4):590-600. [DOI] [PubMed]

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13. Freitas F, Cordeiro-Mori F, Sasso-Cerri E, Lucas S, Miraglia S. Alterations of spermatogenesis in etoposide-treated rats: a stereological study. Interciencia. 2002;27(1):227-35.

14. Momen HR, Eskandari N. Effect of vitamin E on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in sodium arsenite-treated rats. Iran J Reprod Med. 2012;10(3):249-56.

15. Najafizadeh P, Dehghani F, Panjeh Shahin M, Hamzei Taj S. The effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male sprague-dawley rat. Iran J Reprod Med. 2013;11(4):293-300. [PubMed]

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17. Takzaree N, Mortazavi H, Hassanzadeh G, Safaye S, Hossini M. Male rat spermatogenesis influenced by Achillea millefolium L . Tehran Univ Med J. 2013;70(11):684-90.

18. Khaki A, Prove T. Effect of ciprofloxacin on caudal epididymis sperm quality and apoptosis. UMJ. 2008;19(1):29-35.

19. Mencherini T, Cau A, Bianco G, Della Loggia R, Aquino RP, Autore G. An extract of Apium graveolens var. dulce leaves: structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties. J Pharm Pharmacol.2007;59(6):891-7. [DOI] [PubMed]

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23. McLachlan RI, O'Donnell L, Meachem SJ, Stanton PG, de Kretser DM, Pratis K, et al. Identification of specific sites of hormonal regulation in spermatogenesis in rats, monkeys, and man. Recent Prog Horm Res. 2002;57:149-79. [PubMed]

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28. Santos FW, Graca DL, Zeni G, Rocha JB, Weis SN, Favero AM, et al. Sub-chronic administration of diphenyl diselenide potentiates cadmium-induced testicular damage in mice. Reprod Toxicol. 2006;22(3):546-50. [DOI] [PubMed]

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33. Fazal SS, Singla RK. Review on the Pharmacognostical & Pharmacological Characterization of Apium Graveolens Linn. IGJPS. 2012;2(1):36-42.

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35. Shittu LAJ, Bankole MA, Oguntola JA, Ajala O,, Shittu RK, Ogundipe OA, et al. Sesame leaves intake improve and increase epididymal spermatocytes reserve in adult male Sprague Dawley rat. Sci Res Essays. 2007;2(1):319-24.

36. Shittu LAJ, Shittu RK, Adesite SO, Ajala MO, Bankole MA, Benebo AS, et al. Sesame radiatum Phytoestrogens Stimulate Spermatogenic Activity and Improve Sperm Quality in Adult Male Sprague Dawley Rat Testis. Inter J Morphol. 2008;26(3) [DOI]

37. Kooti W, Mansori E, Ghasemiboroon M, Harizi M, Amirzargar A. Protective effects of celery (Apium Graveolens) on testis and cauda epididymal spermatozoa in rat. Iran J Reprod Med. 2014;12(5):365-6.

38. Nouri M, Ghasemzadeh A, Farzadi L, Shahnazi V, Ghaffari-Novin M. Vitamins C, E and lipid peroxidation levels in sperm and seminal plasma of asthenoteratozoospermic and normozoospermic men. Iran J Reprod Med. 2008;6(1):1-5.

Planta Med 2016; 82(S 01): S1-S381

Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Antiadhesive and cytoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Apium graveolens seeds against uropathogenic E. coli

S Sarshar, MR Asadi Karam, M Habibi, S Bouzari, X Qin, FM Goycoolea, A Hensel

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are mostly caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) and are initiated by specific, receptor-mediated interaction of bacterial cell surface adhesions with complementary host receptor molecules. Antiadhesive strategies aim to block this docking process and are thought to prevent infections at a very early stage. Celery seeds (Apium graveolens L.) are widely used within traditional Persian medicine for treatment of UTI. In this study potential antiadhesive effects of EtOH 50% extract CSE (drug-extract ratio 6:1) were investigated against UPEC strains NU14 and UTI89. Beside in vitro studies for pinpointing the underlying mechanisms an in vivo mice infection model was used. Prior to functional investigations CSE was characterized by LC-MS and GC-MS studies, indicating the presence of volatile oil, furocoumarins and flavonoids.

In vitro studies indicated absence of any direct cytotoxicity of CSE up to 1 mg/mL against UPEC strains NU14 and UTI89 as well as against T24 bladder cells. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced up to 50% by CSE (500 µg/mL) as shown by flow cytometric adhesion assay by co-incubation of T24 cells with fluorescent-labelled UPEC (NU14, UTI89). Significant inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing (AHL/LuxR fluorimetric biosensor assay) was observed at 500 and 1000 µg/mL. Within the in vivo experiment mice were pretreated orally with CSE (200 mg/kg; Norfloxacin as positive control) for 4 and 7 days. Subsequently, mice were inoculated transurethrally with 2 × 108 CFU UPEC. 24h post infection animals were sacrificed, bladder tissue was homogenized and the suspension used for determination of bacterial load. Both, 4 and 7 days pretreatment significantly reduced the bacterial colonization by 4 log units (Fig. 1). From these data it can be concluded that the cytoprotective effect of CSE observed in the in vivo animal experiments is due to a strong antiadhesive activity of the celery extract.