Phyladelphus coronarius / Boerenjasmijn

Welriekende jasmijn of boerenjasmijn, familie van de Philadelphaceae. De bloemkleur is wit en de bloeitijd is van ca. mei tot en met juni. De bladeren zijn groen. De volwassen hoogte van deze middelgrote heester is ca. 250 cm. Verdraagt een temperatuur tot -25 gr. C.

Geschikt voor een soortrijke aanplant. Bijvoorbeeld voor aanplant in windbeschutte (stads)tuinen en openbaar groen. Het is een tolerante plant, die ook op moeilijke standplaatsen nog gedijt. Vraagt een voedselrijke, vochthoudende 'gemiddelde' bodem. Dus niet te zware of te lichte grond en een vrij neutrale zuurgraad (pH = 6 - 8). Verlangt een plekje in de zon of lichte schaduw. Bij voorkeur uit de middagzon. Deze plant is, vanwege oppervlakkige worteling of grote vocht-/voedingopname, lastig met vaste planten te combineren.

Odor: characteristic

Use: Joseph Colbourne has this to say “A lucid, intimate wonder, this extrait from enfleurage beholds a true representation of the white blossoms of mockorange. It is similar to the fragrance of orange flowers, with rounder aspects of jasmine grandiflorum, effervescent elderflower, and sweetly green linden blossom. A minute or so in on the test strip reveals a further bloom revealing notes of pineapple and citrus, spice and clove. After twenty minutes, it fades into a sweet memory, leaving a trace of its tenderly scented petals. This is a pleasure to experience in all its ephemeral beauty and would be classified as a top note. It could be incorporated into an accord that can fully embody the spirit of mockorange blossoms in bloom.”

Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2006 Jul;150(1):71-3. Cytotoxicity of water extracts from leaves and branches of Philadelphus coronarius L. Valko V1, Fickova M, Pravdova E, Nagy M, Grancai D, Czigle S.

Philadelphus coronarius L. is big, leggy and deciduous old-fashioned shrub known for its fragrant white flowers in the late spring. Some members of genus Philadelphus L. are known for their antibacterial, antiradical and immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, these herbs represent prospective sources for the isolation of active substances with desired effects. We have investigated the cytotoxicity effects of water extracts from leaves and branches of Philadelphus coronarius L. (Hydrangeaceae). A431 cells (human skin carcinoma cell line) and the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7) were treated with various doses of individual extracts (0,1-100 microg dry matter/ml) for 24 h and 72 h. The highest toxic effects of both plant parts extracts were observed on MCF-7 cells regardless the time of treatment. Cells A431 were less sensitive to toxic effects of leaves and branches extracts but the time dependence was present with the tendency of increased toxicity after chronic treatment. There were no differences in the extent of toxic effects between branches and leaves extracts. The results obtained so far will provide the basis for the future studies with isolated active substances from these extracts.

Philadelphus coronarius L., family Philadelphaceae, order Saxifragales, is a shrub occurring in south and south-east Europe. Its leaves are 4-8 cm long, opposite, oval and dentate with petiole (1). Racemes are formed with 5-7 flowers, the flowers are tetramerous, 2.5-3.5 cm of the diameter and strongly aromatic. Sepals are oval. Petals are wide oval and yellowish white. It blossoms in June and July. Fruits are capsules. Literature indicates their use in homeopathy. An aqueous extract is used in folk medicine for a treatment of some gynaecological diseases. This plant is cultivated in the Czech Republic as ornamental shrub in many varieties. Flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, naringenin and eriodictyol) are known compounds in ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers (2). Further identified constituents include some triterpenes [e. g. taraxerol, β-amyrin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, uvaol and 3β, 28-dihydroxyolean-11(12), 13(18)-diene] obtained from light petrol extract of branches and leaves. Coumarins (scopolin, umbelliferone) have been isolated from chloroform extracts of branches (3). Phenolic acids (caffeic acid and protocatechic acid) have been identified in ethanolic extracts of branches and leaves, as well as some γ-glutamylpeptides (4). Volatile compounds (e.g. 2-aminobenzaldehyd, nopinone, myrtanal, myrtenal, myrtenol, indole, 2-formamidobenzaldehyde and veratraldehyde) have been determined from living flowers by gas chromatography- -mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis (5). Several biological effects of Philadelphus extract have been described in literature. The ethanolic extract of branches and leaves containing flavonoids and triterpenes possess very strong antibacterial activity when tested on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis (6). A cytotoxic activity test of the same extract employing the human cell line HeLa has been done. This activity was not proved (7). Flowers have not been closely investigated, therefore a phytochemical analysis and testing of petal extract of Philadelphus coronarius was performed.

    1. Bělohlávková R: Family Philadelphaceae D. DON. In: Hejný S, Slavík B: Flora 3/ČR. Praha, Academia, 1992, 374-375. (In Czech.)

    2. Bohm BA, Chalmers G:ASearch for flavonoid variation in Philadelphus lewisii. Biochem Syst Ecol 1986; 14: 79-80.

    3. Mučaji P, Grančai D, Cziegleová S, Buděšínský M, Ubik K: Non-polar constituents of the leaves of Philadelphus coronarius L. Čes Slov Farm 2001; 50: 274-276. (In Slovak.)

    4. Campos L, Marlier M, Dardenne G, Casimir J: γ-Glutamylpeptides Philadelphus coronarius. Phytochemistry 22, 1983, 2507-2508.

    5. Joulain D: The composition of the headspace from fragrant flowers: Further results. Flavour and Fragrance J 1987; 2: 149-155.

    6. Jantová S, Nagy M, Ružeková L, Grančai D: Antibacterial activity of plant extracts from the families Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Philadelphaceae, Rosaceae and Staphyleaceae. Phytother Res 2000; 14: 601-603.

    7. Jantová S, Nagy M, Ružeková L, Grančai D: Cytotoxic effects plant extracts from the the families Fabaceae, Oleaceae, Philadelphaceae, Rosaceae and Staphyleaceae. Phytother Res 2001; 15: 22-25.

The determination of coumarins in extracts from plants of the genus Philadelphus L.

V. Vaľko, S. Černochová1 and D. Grančai1

Volume/Issue: Volume 58: Issue 1. Published: 25 Nov 2011

Species of the genus Philadelphus L. (mock orange, Hydrangeaceae) are popular ornamental shrubs cultivated in Eastern Asia, Northern America, South-eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Mock orange was used to make soap, bows, arrows and cradles in the past. Aqueous extracts of Philadelphus coronarius L. flowers are used in traditional medicine and in homeopathy. Some members of the genus Philadelphus L. are known for their cytotoxic, antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects.

This study deals with quantitative determination of coumarins in different extracts (methanol, butanol, water) of leaves of Philadelphus coronarius L., Philadelphus magdalenae Rehd., Philadelphus pekinensis Rupr., Philadelphus schrenkii Rupr., Philadelphus subcanus Koehne, Philadelphus tenuifolius Rupr. et Maxim. and Philadelphus zeyheri Schrad. The content of coumarins was determined as umbelliferone using spectrophotometry.

The highest content of coumarins was recorded in methanol extract of species Philadelphus schrenkii Rupr., and butanol and water extract of Philadelphus subcanus Koehne. The results indicate higher content of coumarins in butanol and water extract compared to methanol extract.

The results obtained provide the basis for isolation and identification of biologically active substances from these extracts.