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LCS - Lovingkindness-Compassion Scale

The development and validation of the Lovingkindness-Compassion Scale


This study was to examine the construct of Lovingkindness-Compassion and to development of the Lovingkindness-Compassion Scale (LCS). Five Buddhist monks were interviewed for a definition of lovingkindness-compassion. Based on their responses, potential items related to the LCS were created. This study analyzed the validity and reliability of the LCS in a sample of 469 university students. The results showed a three-factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) as well as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA): compassion, lovingkindness, and self-centeredness. Also, the results indicated that the LCS was significantly correlated with self-compassion, compassionate love, social connectedness, empathy and satisfaction with life. This study supported the reliability and validity of the LCS to measure lovingkindness-compassion.

Can you measure compassion?
JANUARY 9, 2018
"In a new paper, researchers have proposed a scale for measuring the Buddhist virtues of loving-kindness and compassion.

Academics from the psychology departments at three universities in South Korea have created a scale to measure loving-kindness and compassion — two of Buddhism’s four immeasurables, or brahmaviharas.  Loving-kindness (fondness or goodwill for oneself and others) and compassion (empathetic care for a person who is suffering, and motivation to help them) are brought together in the study as one quality.

For the study, published in the April issue of the journal Personality and Individual Differences, researchers interviewed two monks and three priests from the Theravada tradition to create a definition of loving-kindness compassion, which they identify as being touched by someone’s suffering, wanting to help them, and wishing them happiness.""

Measuring the Immeasurables: Development and Initial Validation of the Self-Other Four Immeasurables (SOFI) Scale Based on Buddhist Teachings on Loving Kindness, Compassion, Joy, and Equanimity 
by Sue Kraus , Sharon Sears
"Multiple measures exist that examine the attentional aspects of meditation practice, but measurement of the compassion component is relatively understudied. This paper describes the development and initial validation of a scale designed to measure application of the four immeasurable qualities at the heart of Buddhist teachings: loving kindness, compassion, joy and acceptance toward both self and others. Our analyses suggest four distinct subscales: positive qualities toward self, positive qualities toward others, negative qualities toward self and negative qualities toward others. Initial examination of reliability and validity showed high internal consistency for the subscales as well as strong concurrent, discriminant, and construct validity. We believe the Self-Other Four Immeasurables (SOFI) scale has broad utility for research on mindfulness, positive psychology, and social psychology"