Energy of a fuel.

different fuels (oils) . Evaporating basins. Electronic balance. Hot plate. Calorimeter. Thermometer. Water. Tongs.

what about trying to see which empties an evaporating dish 1st

Weigh fuel.

Use candle as a fuel.

Record rise in temp. carefully.

Bunsen Burner also required.


Calculate energy content of fuels using formula.

Mass x Specific Heat Capacity x Change in Temp.

Lichens and air pollution.

Map. Plant key.

Choose 10 trees from an urban and a rural area.

Name the trees.

On a regular basis check trees for lichen growth.

Draw maps.

Tabulate results.

O2 and CO2 concentrations in water

Gas collecting apparatus, Test tubes, Lime water, Splint, Hot plate

Boil the water

Collect and test for both gases

Record results.

Solubility of O2 in water at different temperatures.

Water sample. Hot plate. Gas collecting apparatus. Graduated test tubes.

Choose three different temps.

Replace graduated test tube for each increase in temp.

Test for O2.

Biological and nonbiological washing powders.

Three samples of each powder. Six beakers. Labels. pH meter. De ionised water. Graduated cylinder. Electronic balance. Three foods.

Buffer tablets. Six pieces of cloth (white)- same size. Waterbath. Scissors. Oven.

Stain two cloths with protein,

two with carbohydrate

and two with fat.


Dissolve detergents.

Place 1 protein cloth in biological

and 1 in nonbiological,

Repeat for others.

Place in incubator at temp. recommended for each powder.

Leave for one day

Dry cloths and re weigh.


Calculate % effectiveness of the detergents

Electrical Electrical conductors and insulators

Electric circuit.

Range of conductors and insulators.

Power supply or battery.


Range of conductors should vary in their ability to conduct.

Show how a fuse works.

Electrical circuit. Steel Wool. Variable resistance. Bulb.

Use circuit as above.

Vary resistance

Record current.


Glass and the sun's rays.

Glass, Thermometers.

Four sheets of glass arranged like a glasshouse.

Place one thermometer under glass and one outside.

Record temps.

Every 40 mins.

for 1 school day.



How effective are water filters?

Plastic litre bottle. Glass wool/ cotton wool. Stones. Gravel. Sand.

Litres of water. Beakers. Microscope, slides and coverslips. pH meter. Buffer tablets. Filtration apparatus. Filter paper. Electronic

balance .

Carry out physical and pH analyses before and after filtration.

Cut end off bottle.

Wear gloves if glass wool is used.

Use water samples from different sources.

Compare waters before and after.

soil experiments

Soil drainage.

Three stands. Three funnels. Glass wool or cotton wool. Three different soil samples. Six graduated cylinders. Timer.

Wear gloves when handling glass wool.

Measure the volumes of water after a fixed time.

Relate rate of drainage to soil type.



Composition of two soils.

Two soils. Graduated cylinders. Water. Electronic balance.

Take the same weight of samples.

Use deionised water.

Allow to settle.


Water, humus and inorganic matter in soils.

Two soil samples. Hotplate. Electronic balance. Evaporating basins. Desiccator. Bunsen burner.

Same weight of both Soils.

Cool before re-weighing.

compare students’ moisturiser with commercial product.

2 approaches

a) similar to Leaving cert. to demonstrate lower surface of leaves loses more water by transpiration.

a) paint moisturiser onto leaves and record which ones dry out first.

b) 2 graduated cylinders water 2 moisturisers.

b) place moisturiser on top of column of known volume of water in a

graduated cylinder compare rates of evaporation.

CO2 levels in an occupied and an unoccupied room.

Beakers. Timer. Filter paper. Six funnels. Electronic balance.

Oven. Limewater.

Put same volume of limewater in six beakers.

Leave 3 in occupied and 3 in an occupied room for 24 hours.

Filter, dry and re- weigh.

Variation in temperature levels in rooms.

Place thermometers in different places in two rooms.

Record every 40 minutes for 1 school day.

Products of burning fuels.

Two fuels. Funnel. Tubing. Beaker (large). Boiling tube. Bung with two holes. Test tube. Ice. Cobalt chloride. Paper. Limewater. Electronic balance. Timer.

Remember to weigh the funnel before beginning the experiment.

Weathering of rock.

Samples of different rock. Electronic balance. Range of acids. Dropper pipette. Trough. Timer. Filter paper.

Place rocks in trough.

Weigh before and after.

Leave acids on rocks for the same time.

Mop dry with filter Paper.

Wear rubber gloves. Re weigh.

Observe results.


Calculate % weight loss.

Water pollution Culture bacteria and/or fungi.

Agar plates. Inoculating loop. Bunsen burner. Oven. Labels. Microscope. Slides & coverslips

Pre-prepared plates.

Use two water samples from different sources.

Lake or stream water could be used.

Compare both samples.

Toothpaste test

Three different toothpastes. Microscope. Slides & coverslips. pH meter. De ionised water. Pipettes and filler. Electronic balance. Beakers. Buffer tablets.

Use same amount of toothpaste.

Examine for grittiness.

Dissolve in water.

Measure pH.

Standardise pH meter.



Examine yeast and fungi.

Yeast. Two fungi. Microscope. Slides & coverslips.

Use bakers yeast.

Grow two fungi,

1 on tomatoes or orange

and 1 on bread.


Testing effectiveness of disinfectant on food spoilage organisms.

4 petri dishes containing bacteria grown using food stuffs.

3 commercially available disinfectants.

3 pieces of filter paper soaked in each of the disinfectants.

Place soaked filter papers in 3 dishes.

Label each with the name of the disinfectant

as a control no disinfectant in the 4th dish.

Observe and compare.