Skeleton

the role of the skeleton in support, movement and protection

function of bone muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints

function of muscle in relation to movement

OB24 identify the main parts of the human skeleton and understand that the functions are support, movement and protection

Support, the bones give us a shape of a human

Movement, our skeleton allows us to move because it is in many parts

Protection, our skeleton Protects our organs (brain, heart & lungs)

do question1

OB25

locate the major bones in the human body

including the skull, ribs, vertebrae, collarbone, shoulder blade, humerus, radius, ulna, pelvis, femur, tibia and fibula, using a diagram or a model skeleton

An adult has 206 bones,

A child starts of with 350 bones these fuse into each other

Over half the 206 bones are to be found in your hands and feet.

Discs

· Discs act as shock-absorbers and protect the vertebrae.

· Discs have a hard outer layer made of Cartilidge

and a soft, jelly-like centre containing fluid.

OB26 understand the function of joints and muscles (including antagonistic pairs), tendons and ligaments, and the relationship between these and bones

Any Individual Muscle can ONLY pull!!

In order to move any limb over and back we need 2 Muscles,

this pair of Muscles is called an

Antagonistic Pair of muscles!

These muscles have to work together to complete their job or function,

We need to join our Muscle to our bones.

A muscle must be joined to 2 bones .....

A Tendon joins Muscle to Bone.

What else needs to be joined ??

Bones need to joined to other Bones

what joins the bones to other bones ???

A Ligament joins bones to bones

Muscle Map,

(this is not on the course but you may find it interesting)

OB27 describe the general structure and action of different types of joints: fused,

ball and socket

and hinged,

and identify examples of each: skull, shoulder, elbow, hip, knee

A Joint is where 2 bones meet

Fused Joint,

This is a joint between 2 bones, but it does not allow any movement.

An Example of where this occurs in the skull where the different plates of bone, join (fuse) with each other.

http://www.bcb.uwc.ac.za/Sci_Ed/grade10/manphys/axial.htm

Hinged Joint

What does a hinge allow a door to do ??

it allow it to open out and close in .... does it allow it to go up ??? down ???

It is only allowed to move in two directions ....

...... have you any joints that allow movement in only 2 directions ???

The Hinge joint only allows bones to move along 1 dimension, opening and closing.

Types of Joints with examples

Elbow and the Knee are examples of Hinge joints in the Human body, knuckles too.

ball and socket

Your Femur fits into your Pelvis.

At the top of the femur the bone makes a ball shape.

The place or hole in the pelvis provides a tight fit with the ball, this is called the socket.

This allows a lot of motion for our legs.

We also have a ball and socket joint in our shoulder, this allows a great deal of movement in our arm. We can do more than just opening and closing of our limbs, we can fully move them through large angles.

http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/amazing-x-ray-gifs-show-joints-motion