the role of the skeleton in support, movement and protection
function of bone muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints
function of muscle in relation to movement
OB24 identify the main parts of the human skeleton and understand that the functions are support, movement and protection
Support, the bones give us a shape of a human
Movement, our skeleton allows us to move because it is in many parts
Protection, our skeleton Protects our organs (brain, heart & lungs)
locate the major bones in the human body
including the skull, ribs, vertebrae, collarbone, shoulder blade, humerus, radius, ulna, pelvis, femur, tibia and fibula, using a diagram or a model skeleton
An adult has 206 bones,
A child starts of with 350 bones these fuse into each other
Over half the 206 bones are to be found in your hands and feet.
· Discs act as shock-absorbers and protect the vertebrae.
· Discs have a hard outer layer made of Cartilidge
and a soft, jelly-like centre containing fluid.
OB26 understand the function of joints and muscles (including antagonistic pairs), tendons and ligaments, and the relationship between these and bones
Any Individual Muscle can ONLY pull!!
In order to move any limb over and back we need 2 Muscles,
this pair of Muscles is called an
Antagonistic Pair of muscles!
These muscles have to work together to complete their job or function,
We need to join our Muscle to our bones.
A muscle must be joined to 2 bones .....
A Tendon joins Muscle to Bone.
What else needs to be joined ??
Bones need to joined to other Bones
what joins the bones to other bones ???
A Ligament joins bones to bones
(this is not on the course but you may find it interesting)
OB27 describe the general structure and action of different types of joints: fused,
ball and socket
and identify examples of each: skull, shoulder, elbow, hip, knee
A Joint is where 2 bones meet
This is a joint between 2 bones, but it does not allow any movement.
An Example of where this occurs in the skull where the different plates of bone, join (fuse) with each other.
What does a hinge allow a door to do ??
it allow it to open out and close in .... does it allow it to go up ??? down ???
It is only allowed to move in two directions ....
...... have you any joints that allow movement in only 2 directions ???
The Hinge joint only allows bones to move along 1 dimension, opening and closing.
Types of Joints with examples
Elbow and the Knee are examples of Hinge joints in the Human body, knuckles too.
ball and socket
Your Femur fits into your Pelvis.
At the top of the femur the bone makes a ball shape.
The place or hole in the pelvis provides a tight fit with the ball, this is called the socket.
This allows a lot of motion for our legs.
We also have a ball and socket joint in our shoulder, this allows a great deal of movement in our arm. We can do more than just opening and closing of our limbs, we can fully move them through large angles.