0 Introduction

7. Anti-matter

8. Quark model

What is a solid made of up ? Like the smallest bits of the solid ? Like wood, or plastics ?

You know what they are, they are chains called _________________

Well what are these _______________ made up of ??? __________

Aristotle said these _______ were indivisible, even if he never saw them his very early ideas were almost correct. We now know that the atom is divisible, into 3 separate parts,


  1. ________________________
  2. ________________________
  3. ________________________

this is what you would have learned in the Junior Cert Science Course, and you probably were told that these were the smallest individual particles that made up the entire universe.

They aren't!

The age of what is called "modern physics" started about 100 years ago, when scientists such as Thomson, Bohr, and Rutherford discovered that the atom was not a solid, tiny and indivisible particle, as had been envisaged by Dalton.

The new idea in Particle physics is that these particles are only combinations of the most fundamental particles. This sub-nucleonic set of particles, is presently being researched, as physicists uncover the mysteries of the very small year after year.

This all stems from the section on Nuclear

but the story we tell here is only the basics, but they are correct to the best of our knowledge

You can find all the course covered here at

Benefits gleamed from particle physics

The most obvious benefit has been the invention of the world wide web (WWW) and the development of that into what is now called the Internet.

Scientists needed to exchange data and information quickly all around the world from all of the collisions happening in the accelerators to do this they invented the web.

Today over half of the worlds accelerators, developed by particle physicists, are used in medicine.

The particle detector technology developed by particle physicists is used in PET scanners found in hospitals. The PET scanner itself uses antimatter (positrons).