Hardness – alkaline or temporary non-alkaline or permanent hardness, water-softening processes. Electro-chemical series. Vapour pressure. Comfort conditions. Humidity and condensation.
Hardness of water is defined as the inability of water to form suds with soap.
To measure it go here
Temporary hardness can be removed by boiling water
water-softening processes go here
Electro-chemical series is the order by which metals are the most reactive ... the most reactive elements are those in the alkali series but as we go across to the right of the periodic table the metals become less reactive than their oxide partners, These reactions are called Red-Ox reactions
oxidation is loss,
reduction is gain
The vapour pressure of water is the pressure at which steam is saturated. At higher pressures water would condense
Comfort conditions. Humidity and condensation
Nature and effects of heat:
transmission of heat
Heat can be moved in 2 ways, in solids conduction is the main transfer of heat, while in fluids (gases and liquids, substances that can flow) convection is the main process that occurs
To test different solids for their conductivities set up an apparatus like the one below. Fill the trough with hot water. The heat from the water will travel along the rods and melt the wax. The material with the best conduction can be decided by the order of the pins falling off. Repeat the experiment to improve accuracy
In place of such a trough a beaker of hot water can be used.
a cover should be placed on top.
When heat is added to any material it expands, due to the atoms within the material vibrating with more energy. This can be demonstrated with the thermal expansion experiments. here
Thermometry is the measurement of temperature, and thus comparision to other temperatures.
There are many types of Thermometers. Infra red, liquid in glass, colourometry, fixed volume, fixed pressure, electrical measurements. See the following link
co-efficient of thermal conductivity,
temperature gradients through composite constructions.
Nature of light reflection, refraction,
photometry, daylighting, illumination, light source, measurement of light
measurement of electricity,
Acoustics: attenuation of noise at source. Reverberation