construction experiments


Hardness – alkaline or temporary non-alkaline or permanent hardness, water-softening processes. Electro-chemical series. Vapour pressure. Comfort conditions. Humidity and condensation.

Hardness of water is defined as the inability of water to form suds with soap.

To measure it go here

Temporary hardness can be removed by boiling water

water-softening processes go here

Electro-chemical series is the order by which metals are the most reactive ... the most reactive elements are those in the alkali series but as we go across to the right of the periodic table the metals become less reactive than their oxide partners, These reactions are called Red-Ox reactions


oxidation is loss,

reduction is gain

Vapour pressure.

The vapour pressure of water is the pressure at which steam is saturated. At higher pressures water would condense

Comfort conditions. Humidity and condensation


Nature and effects of heat:

transmission of heat

Heat can be moved in 2 ways, in solids conduction is the main transfer of heat, while in fluids (gases and liquids, substances that can flow) convection is the main process that occurs

To test different solids for their conductivities set up an apparatus like the one below. Fill the trough with hot water. The heat from the water will travel along the rods and melt the wax. The material with the best conduction can be decided by the order of the pins falling off. Repeat the experiment to improve accuracy

In place of such a trough a beaker of hot water can be used.

a cover should be placed on top.

When heat is added to any material it expands, due to the atoms within the material vibrating with more energy. This can be demonstrated with the thermal expansion experiments. here

Thermometry is the measurement of temperature, and thus comparision to other temperatures.

There are many types of Thermometers. Infra red, liquid in glass, colourometry, fixed volume, fixed pressure, electrical measurements. See the following link


co-efficient of thermal conductivity,

U Values

temperature gradients through composite constructions.


Nature of light reflection, refraction,

reflection experiment

refraction experiment

photometry, daylighting, illumination, light source, measurement of light


Electrical circuits:

measurement of electricity,


earthing considerations.


generators, motors,


Acoustics: attenuation of noise at source. Reverberation