These new particles became known as quarks, a term taken from James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.

“Three quarks for Muster Mark”.

James Joyce

There are 6 quarks

Up, Down 1st quarks found,

Strange, Charm more mass than Up / Down

Top, Bottom

The following diagram should show the way that Nucleons are made up

The Proton is on the right and the neutron is below.

The Neutron is made of 2d and 1u, it has a neutral charge

The Proton is made up of 2u and 1d it has a positive charge and the same mass as the neutron,

can you deduce any of the properties of the individual d or u quarks ??

what about their masses ??

Their charges ??

The quarks must have a similiar mass, 2u + d = u +2d, => 3u = 3d => u = d

Umm the charges ? we can still work it out with simultaneous equations.

2u + d = 1

u + 2d = 0

solve it for u & d

This is taken from tcd.ie

Quark: fundamental building block of baryons and mesons.

Six quarks – called up, down, strange, charmed, top, and bottom.

Charges: u+2/3 , d-1/3 , s-1/3

Anti-quark has opposite charge to quark and same mass.

Baryons composed of three quarks: p = uud, n = udd,

other baryons any three quarks.

Mesons composed of any quark and an anti-quark.


An electron is an example of a lepton

Identify the nature and charge of a particle given a combination of quarks.

Make up the quarks on this applet