Simon Pelham Barr (born 1892)

Simon Barr in college (Columbia), age 20 (est)

2019-11-01-twitter-agentrevolt-dm-to-housatonicits-media-1190087433330843652-crop-simonbarr.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=1OhUKPIGTK8Z196W7qfwJPKraikFT3KgG Source : 2019-11-01-twitter-agentrevolt-dm-to-housatonicits-media-1190087433330843652.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=1OcUPNCWhCaqxzXFd6V0Op5PlzUa5NFXx

"Simon Pelham Barr did like to have his photograph taken"

[aa15]

Wife - Estelle De Young Barr (born 1893) ("psychologist") [aa31]

Father of

Grandfather to

Profession - Son Donald Barr referred to his father Simon Pelham Barr as an "economist". [aa31]

1892 (Aug 18) - Born in London England

Born in London [aa11][ GDrive ]

Father is Philip Barr ("Pesach"), Mother is Rebecca Barr

Simon Pelham Barr was not a tall man - 5' 3" tall as listed on his 1942 Draft Card . [aa27][ GDrive ]

Father - Philip Barr ("Pesach")

[aa14][ GDrive ]

Birthdate: 1872 in Berdychiv, Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine (in 1872, this was Russia) Saved version : [aa29][ GDrive ] Live Version : [ 🌐 Berdychiv, Ukraine ]

Immigration to England - Between 1872 and 1890 (possibly connected to "May Laws" of 1882) : . Since Philip Barr was born in 1872, and his first child (Benjamin Barr) was born in London in 1891, we can presume that Philip immigrated to England between 1872 and 1890.

Death: November 05, 1940 (68) in New York, New York, United States

It appears that Philip Barr worked in the "furs" trade ("furrier"); see the 1920 census.

[The] paternal grandfather [of William Pelham Barr (born 1950) ] was [Simon] Pelham Barr, an economist (Simon Pelham Barr, the son of Philip Barr and Rebecca Palem/Pecham/Pelham). [...] Pelham was born in England, to Jewish parents from Poland and/or Russia. Rebecca was the daughter of Rachael.

[The] paternal grandmother [of William Pelham Barr (born 1950) ] was Estelle/Stella (DeYoung/De Young) Barr, a psychologist (the daughter of Solomon/Samuel A. DeYoung/De Young and Esther Sonepouse/Sonpause). [...] Estelle was born in New York. William’s great-grandfather Solomon was born in Connecticut, to Dutch Jewish parents, from Amsterdam, Aaron De Young and Esther Arbeit. [...] Esther Sonepouse was a Dutch Jew, from Amsterdam, and was the daughter of Philip Sonepouse and Rachel Premselaar. Through his Dutch Jewish roots, William also has more distant German Jewish and Danish Jewish ancestry.

1882 - "May Laws" of the Russian Empire - Did this encourage a young Philip Barr family to move to London (before he had children) ?

Saved version : [aa29][ GDrive ] Live Version : [ 🌐 Berdychiv, Ukraine ] :

"In 1847, 23,160 Jews resided in Berdychiv and by 1861 the number doubled to 46,683. Berdychiv became the city with the largest share of Jewish population in Ukraine and the Russian Empire. The May Laws of 1882 and other government persecutions affected Jewish population and in 1897, out of the town's population of 53,728, 41,617 (about 80%) were Jewish.[2] 58% of Jewish males and 32% of Jewish females were literate. "

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_Laws :

Temporary regulations regarding the Jews (also known as May Laws) were proposed by minister of internal affairs Nikolai Ignatyev and enacted on [May 15], 1882, by the Emperor Alexander III of Russia. Originally, regulations of May 1882 were intended only as temporary measures until the revision of the laws concerning the Jews, but remained in effect for more than thirty years.

[....] They read as follows:

  1. "As a temporary measure, and until a general revision is made of their legal status, it is decreed that the Jews be forbidden to settle anew outside of towns and boroughs, exceptions being admitted only in the case of existing Jewish agricultural colonies."
  2. "Temporarily forbidden are the issuing of mortgages and other deeds to Jews, as well as the registration of Jews as lessees of real property situated outside of towns and boroughs; and also the issuing to Jews of powers of attorney to manage and dispose of such real property."
  3. "Jews are forbidden to transact business on Sundays and on the principal Christian holy days; the existing regulations concerning the closing of places of business belonging to Christians on such days to apply to Jews also."
  4. "The measures laid down in paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 shall apply only to the governments within the Pale of Jewish Settlement."

1907 - Simon Barr and his family (parents Philip and Rebecca Barr, and siblings) immigrate to the United States (New York City)

The immigration date is visible on the 1910 Census ( [aa1][ GDrive ] ) and the 1920 Census .

1910 Census

"Simon has disappeared from his name an he now goes by "Pelham Barr". He married Estella De Young, and Donald E. Barr is their son. His parents are now said to be from Poland." [aa1][ GDrive ]

Philip Barr, the head of the family and father of Simon Pelham Barr, is a "Maker Furs", and works out of the house (family home). The 1920 Census shows that Philip Barr is a "Furrier", validating the "Furs" part of his trade.

The full census sheet for 1910 (and at a higher resolution) is available here : 1910-usa-census-new-york-004972997-00317.jpg /

[aa2][ GDrive ]

1910-1913 - Attended Columbia University

  • Although interested in writing (and poetry), it has been described that Simon Pelham Barr studied Chemistry [aa30
  • Simon Barr matriculated to Columbia University in 1911. He is referred to in the following yearbook excerpts [aa3][ GDrive ] :
  • Simon Barr, "Columbia Monthly" writer [aa5][ GDrive ] :
[aa4][ GDrive ]
[aa6][ GDrive ]

1913 : Columbia senior class

[aa7][ GDrive ]

[aa8][ GDrive ]

Simon Barr in the "Peithologian Society"

Tweet that discovered this is [aa9][ GDrive ] .

What is the Peithologian Society ?

"The 🌐 Peithologian Society was an undergraduate debate society at Columbia University. It was founded in 1806, four years after Columbia's first literary society, the 🌐Philolexian Society , by freshmen who were disenfranchised by Philolexian's requirement that its members be upperclassmen. Its emphasis on debate, composition, and rhetoric was similar to Philo's literary aims, and the two societies shared other superficial characteristics as well. Philo adopted light blue as its official color, while Peithologian adopted white (Columbia later appropriated the two hues as its own official school colors). Whereas Philolexian's symbol was a rising sun, Peithologian's was a star. Its Latin motto was "Vitam Impendere Vero" meaning, roughly, "To devote one's life to truth." "

What is the Philolexian Society ?

"The 🌐 Philolexian Society of Columbia University is one of the oldest college literary and debate societies in the United States, and the oldest student group at Columbia. Founded in 1802, the Society aims to "improve its members in Oratory, Composition and Forensic Discussion." The name Philolexia is Greek for "love of discourse," and the society's motto is the Latin word Surgam, meaning "I shall rise." The society traces its roots to a literary society founded by Alexander Hamilton in the 1770s.

Philolexian (known to members as "Philo," pronounced with a long "i") has been called the "oldest thing at Columbia except the College itself," and it has been an integral part of Columbia from the beginning, providing the institution with everything from its colors, Philolexian Blue (along with White, from her long-dispatched rival 🌐 Peithologian Society), to some of its most solemn traditions and many of its most noted graduates. Members are admitted after a highly selective evaluation process and are sworn to secrecy thereafter. "

[aa10][ GDrive ]

1911 - 1913 (est) - College roommate was Randolph Bourne

🌐 Randolph Bourne is "a progressive writer and intellectual born in Bloomfield, New Jersey, and a graduate of Columbia University. Bourne is best known for his essays, especially his unfinished work "The State," discovered after he died." Also went to Columbia.

Referred to in page 133 of Promise and Peril : America at the Dawn of the Global Age " (written by Christopher McKnight Nichols) ( Google book can be purchased at https://books.google.com/books?id=uXDSQwdP3dgC&dq=%22simon+pelham+barr%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s )

"This was easier said than done. The dependence of national antagonisms upon improbable process of assimilation within nations - couples with commercial conflicts between nations - led, perhaps inexorably, to military conflict, according to [🌐 Randolph Bourne] ; yet nationalistic assimilation had little to no practical benefit. This argument against the ends of both national and commercial conflicts connects his ideas to those of British Internationalist Normal Angell, whose work Bourne cited favorably in letters to his friends and former college roommate Simon Pelham Barr, who also succeeded him as editor of the Columbia Monthly student literary magazine."

2011-promise-and-peril-america-at-the-dawn-of-the-global-age-nichols-pg-cover.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18mv5jlOAuXEdEzz_0_xrJg1zxQMx-IXY
2011-promise-and-peril-america-at-the-dawn-of-the-global-age-nichols-pg-133.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18nFdbMHgbm6vgzEyPzQA4KnAMvlKeVCZ

1915 (Dec 1) - Marriage of Simon Pelham Barr to Estelle/Stella (DeYoung/De Young)

Married Estelle DeYoung ("psychologist") [aa31]

Transcipt - https://www.findmypast.com/transcript?id=FS%2FMAR%2F37777930%2F2


1917 Draft Card

Provided in a Tweet : [aa12][ GDrive ] . From this Draft Card, we learn the following about Simon Barr in 1917 :

  • Employed at "Municipal Journal" (Editor) (He was the assistant editor , as later verified).
  • Living at "221 Sherman Ave NY", which near the northern-most point of Manhattan.
  • Born in London, England.
[aa13][ GDrive ]

1918 - Assistant Editor for "Municipal Journal and Engineer"

The periodical "Municipal Journal and Engineer", was later renamed to "Municipal Journal and public works ". The "Municipal Journal and Engineer" was published in Manhattan at 243 West 39th Street .

Here is the full 1918 Volume 45 (minus the images, downloaded from Google) : [aa17][ GDrive ]

Below is a clip from July 13 1918, page 31, is below that shows "Simon Barr" as the Assistant Editor.

Below that, we see that Simon Barr was the assistant Editor of Municipal Journal up to early 1920, but stopped at some time before July 1920 .

[aa18][ GDrive ]

Jan 1920 - Simon Barr still Assistant Editor

July 1920 - Simon Barr is No longer Assistant Editor - What job did he take ?

1918 - Daughter (Margaret Barr) is born

See ... Note, could be 1917, need to verify ...

1920 Census - Simon Pelham Barr (first census living on own) - Not at his parent's address anymore

WHERE IS SIMON BARR (Or Pelham Barr) ??? There is no Simon Barr (or Pelham Barr), born in 1892, listed on any US Census for 1920

1920 Census - Philip Barr family (Simon Pelham Barr has moved out)

Transcript : 1920-www-findmypast-com-transcript-i-usc-new-york-004966713-00498.pdf / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18LKsJWN4GeHNER6uKjrhGE5LNzmPzqZu

Full Census form: 1920-usa-census-new-york-004966713-00498.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18jR1Tw_A7LQHT-ZsNbAIuKNArbjPD2eb

Philip Barr's Trade says "Furrier" .

1920-usa-census-new-york-004966713-00498-clip-p-barr-1.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18SgPh8JH-V_EQcSTXX1spk5D0f0sKWgA
1920-usa-census-new-york-004966713-00498-clip-p-barr-2.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18Uj_KfufmFjpmDhB6zcl19yLsLWp2WMA

Address at this time is "65 Lenox Avenue" for Philip Barr and his family - Location on map, and picture of buildings at this address, is shown below

1921 - Donald Barr is born

See ... Donald Barr (born 1921) . BORN : August 08, 1921 ; Birthplace: Manhattan, New York,, United States [aa28][ GDrive ]

1924 (Aug 6) - Wife Estelle DeYoung Barr : School Dramas / Research

https://www.newspapers.com/image/543846971/?terms=barr%2Bdeyoung

1924-08-06-the-brooklyn-standard-union-pg-10.jpg

1924-08-06-the-brooklyn-standard-union-pg-10-clip-lab-drama.jpg /

1920s : Some time before the 1930 Census - Simon Barr and his family move to 450 Riverside Drive (NYC) is across the street from Columbia University

This is determined by the address that Simon Barr used for the 1930 Census ...

1930 Census - New York

Full Census form : [aa16][ GDrive ]

Simon Pelham Barr is age 37; he now refers to himself as "Pelham Barr" (no middle name). He is listed as being a "writer", working for "General Practice". Their address, as noted earlier, has changed to 450 Riverside Drive, in New York. City .

[aa19][ GDrive ]
[aa20][ GDrive ]

1932 (July) - Newspaper editorial

https://www.newspapers.com/image/501029506/?terms=%22pelham%2Bbarr%22

1932-07-06-the-border-cities-star-windsor-ontario-pg-8.jpg /

1932-07-06-the-border-cities-star-windsor-ontario-pg-8-clip-values-barr.jpg /

1934 - Pelham Barr Appointed Divisional Director of the LBI (Library Binding Institute) - Remained Executive Director until 1947

[aa30] :

When the New Deal organized American industry under the National Recovery A c t (NRA) in 1934, l i b r a r y bookbinders began a cooperative program to insure standards of quality and fair dealing that has continued for fifty years. Library bookbinding in 1934 was a considerably different affair than it is currently. A host of small shops dominated an industry with very few "giants“ and no consistent definition of what it was that was being sold as "library binding.” Individual binders dealt with individual librarians without the benefit of broader consultation about standards and prices for their services. Cost accounting varied tremendously across the indus‐ try, making pricing of bindery services exceedingly difficult. Wide variations in labor practices further destabilized a market already hard-hit by the Depression.

Barr is influential in creating LBI

Into this scene came the faceless federal bureaucracy of the NRA National Code Authority ‐ with a difference in the person of Pelham Barr. Barr had started his professional life as a chemist, politically active and committed to the goals of the New Deal. With the inauguration of the NRA in February 1934, a Book Manufacturing Institute was established, and Barr was appointed Divisional Director for Library Binding.He immediately set about applying Code provisions for self-government, labor standards, and fair competition across the industry. By November of that year, Barr was planning to extend his duties to include promotional activities for the industry as a whole, undertaken at the expense of divisional member binders.


[aa15] - "Pelham Barr [...] Executive Director 1935-1947 "

1940 Census

Transcript : [aa21][ GDrive ] / Full Census form : [aa22][ GDrive ]

Trade - "Economist" with a "Private" practice

[aa23][ GDrive ]
[aa24][ GDrive ]
[aa25][ GDrive ]

1940 (Nov) - Father (Philip Barr) passes

2019-07-geni-com-philip-barr-1872-1940.pdf / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18FUybjooC5ThdHxV9SUQoqiuifmtPFKe

Death: November 05, 1940 (68) in New York, New York, United States

1942 (April 27) - Draft Registration for WW2

Note :

  • Simon Pelham Barr was not a tall man (5' 3.5"), 133 lbs
  • Went by the name "Pelham Barr" (no middle name)
  • Residence - 445 Riverside Drive
  • Employment address - 501 5th Avenue NY NY
[aa26][ GDrive ]
[aa27][ GDrive ]

501 Fifth Avenue is the "Astor Trvst Company" building.

1946 (July)

Authored "Book Conservation and University Library Administration" ( see https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/10202246.pdf / 1946-07-whitepaper-book-conservation-and-university-library-administration-by-pelham-barr.pdf / )

1948 (Death)

Pelham Simon Barr's health started to fall in 1947 [aa30] : "The standards program, along with membership services, and a concerted public relations campaign with librarians define the earliest phase of LBI's existence, roughly coterminous with the directorship of Pelham Barr. Barr tirelessly pursued these efforts until his health broke down in 1947, and he died early in the following year. "

Passing : [aa11][ GDrive ]

1979 - Dr. Estelle DeYoung Barr (Pelham's wife) passes

https://www.newspapers.com/clip/34320609/dr_estelle_deyoung_barr/

REFERENCES


[aa1] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154823235806158849.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=17tSOWbdMJ4UDc2c3dNnnp064yGDiW6Vi [aa2] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154823235806158849-EAbBmw-W4AAIwyD.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=17lw4G1wCbie6rhTjD2MQofEtsWYip_GO [aa3] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154825323843858434 / https://drive.google.com/open?id=17_L8KZq4iI_hJLfTyNO2LEWeuMau7vfU [aa4] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154825323843858434-EAbDfYrXUAAosM3.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18AKDjt55HKokKv7lEvv30WtuQp4XNjQf [aa5] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154825574545797123.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=17gRtw2T_cyzDthUqQc01FkMLitRrYUBt [aa6] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154825574545797123-EAbDu6SXUAItBgU.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=17ZuyqM1blFfNbkbw_EGbnRTNalat6Bnr [aa7] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154825855023091712.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=17lfwWlbzVQFmwvlypMgxcKp5q8EXggIC [aa8] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154825855023091712-EAbD-RxXkAARniJ.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=17d9YupvbWqUTd7VdGnaSICktCY8hYgw3 [aa9] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154827033194696709.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=1836ecFLUpNu0jzZwqjOGc5Z1YO69F5mE [aa10] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154827033194696709-EAbFDv7XkAMzl3l.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=17v2Tfnul5xwGy4yWmau6nrh4jmfhtPFD [aa11] 2019-07-geni-com-simon-pelham-barr-1892-1948.pdf / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18IrbINZy1Pe9_Q8b2b6vxYrvs12bB897 [aa12] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154830385517334528.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=1877O62_PdmGgz_bLCJPSSlHvhyetV003 [aa13] 2019-07-26-twitter-com-leytedriver-status-1154830385517334528-EAbGOSGWkAEaJwK.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18AX9Syz_0zpU3yeHccMq0MvVT7v2DWdk [aa14] 2019-07-geni-com-philip-barr-1872-1940.pdf / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18FUybjooC5ThdHxV9SUQoqiuifmtPFKe [aa15]

See https://bomi.memberclicks.net/assets/lbc-documents/ep3-05.pdf

(document saved as 2005-03-the-endpaper-newsletter-of-library-binding-institute.pdf )


[aa16] 1930-usa-census-new-york-8004952151-00041.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=11-eXehY3nXRjAHHtcRErdw8c4u8UVdEM [aa17] 1918-municipal-journal-and-public-works-vol-45-from-google-books.pdf / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18qRU5R04NRpGB-G-xo9dtI4_1wNTiVte [aa18] 1918-07-13-municipal-journal-and-public-works-vol-45-pg-31-clip-1.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18rTvTxx7HQJHx6j3S5qAGh2T0PhleGbO [aa19] 1930-usa-census-new-york-8004952151-00041-clip-barr-1.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=10zW2RNqxw0z6IZAVQQI280Icf2CKHCWB [aa20] 1930-usa-census-new-york-8004952151-00041-clip-barr-2.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=10zdrwbE6zQC1582RpSo5n4mieo1B19zB [aa21] 1920-www-findmypast-com-transcript-i-usc-new-york-004966713-00498.pdf / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18LKsJWN4GeHNER6uKjrhGE5LNzmPzqZu [aa22] 1940-usa-census-new-york-005458624-00366.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18fPECaHIVQNBTpxj2tqC2k1UuYkA-RKD [aa23] 1940-usa-census-new-york-005458624-00366-clip-p-barr-1.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18d7stYqDoz5Pd1cR0LUq0EEbB5H8n56V [aa24] 1940-usa-census-new-york-005458624-00366-clip-p-barr-2.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18ep936G7aUHN5oHQIlIrFJNiQ7jWBQip [aa25] 1940-usa-census-new-york-005458624-00366-clip-p-barr-3.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18evXLVYpnRtm1HfIEcR8muSH9mUflMHE [aa26] 1942-04-27-fold3-page-1-selective-service-registration-card-simon-barr-crop.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18vGWZ0LIeCtOnXL5PSViyaboCRkm9XK9 [aa27] 1942-04-27-fold3-page-2-selective-service-registration-card-simon-barr-crop-rotate.jpg / https://drive.google.com/open?id=18vRqmNyC7cX61ZaYf772_GiMQaxaLeor [aa28] 2019-07-geni-com-donald-barr-1921-2004.pdf / https://drive.google.com/open?id=1-EzkHjkjVB5eU1m0f_ajtZCgsAZBI-Lt [aa29] 2019-08-05-wikipedia-org-berdychiv.pdf | https://drive.google.com/open?id=1AuUCQJuJpXb_9B98SGAXiHnoBl1PwPys )

[aa30] This book can be viewed online or purchased here : https://books.google.com/books?id=CrfjAAAAMAAJ / Pages 100 to 110 have been copied and OCR scanned for use in this research. That OCR PDF is here : 1993-03-managing-a-library-binding-program-video-by-jan-merrill-oldham-pg-100-110-ocr.pdf / [aa31] SEE BELOW

Additional Notes (need to sort )

https://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th-grade/operation-history/history-of-american-intelligence.html




Catching Up “Over There” Over Here

By the time World War I started in 1914, the United States’ ability to collect foreign intelligence had shrunk drastically because of budget cuts and bureaucratic reorganizations in the government. The State Department began small-scale collections against the Central Powers in 1916, but it wasn’t until the United States declared war on Germany in 1917 that Army and Navy intelligence finally received more money and personnel. By that time it was too late to increase their intelligence output to aid the cause very much.


The most significant advance for US intelligence during the war was the establishment of a permanent communications intelligence agency in the Army, what would become the forerunner of the National Security Agency. Meanwhile, the Secret Service, the New York Police Department, and military counterintelligence aggressively thwarted numerous German covert actions inside the United States, including psychological warfare, political and economic operations, and dozens of sabotage attempts against British-owned firms and factories supplying munitions to Britain and Russia.


The Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation (what would later become the FBI) began a counterintelligence role in 1916, and Congress passed the first federal espionage law in 1917.





World War I


At the time the United States entered the war, it lacked a coordinated intelligence effort. As a champion of open diplomacy, President Woodrow Wilson had disdained the use of spies and was generally suspicious of intelligence. His views on the subject appeared to change, however, as a result of a close association developed with the British intelligence chief in Washington.


In fact, British intelligence played a major role in bringing the United States into World War I. Public revelations of German intelligence attempts to prevent U.S. industry and the financial sector from assisting Great Britain greatly angered the American public. Subsequently, British intelligence presented Wilson with the decryption of German diplomatic and naval traffic showing a German effort to entice the Mexican government into joining Germany against the United States in return for Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if Germany won the war. Later declassified and disclosed to the public, this intercepted communication, known as the "Zimmerman Telegram," infuriated Wilson and added support to his address before a joint session of Congress in 1917 urging that the U.S. declare war on Germany.


In June of 1917, the first U.S. signals intelligence agency was formed within the Army. Known as "MI-8," the agency was charged with decoding military communications and providing codes for use by the U.S. military. In 1919, at the end of the war, the agency was transferred to the State Department. Known as the "Black Chamber," it focused on diplomatic rather than military communications. In 1921, the Black Chamber celebrated perhaps its most significant success by decrypting certain Japanese diplomatic traffic. The intelligence gained from this feat was used to support U.S. negotiators at a Washington conference on naval disarmament. Yet, despite such successes, President Hoover decided that the State Department's interception of diplomatic cables and correspondence could not be tolerated. Apparently agreeing with the alleged, yet oft-quoted statement of his Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that "Gentlemen do not read each other's mail," Hoover returned the agency to a military orientation under the Army Signal Corps.


Other intelligence entities remained in existence after the end of WWI but saw their resources cut substantially. An exception to this general trend was the Justice Department's Bureau of Investigation which saw a marked expansion of its mission and workforce. In 1924, J. Edgar Hoover was named director of the Bureau (renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in 1935). The FBI's charter was broadened particularly in the years leading to World War II, when concerns for U.S. internal security were mounting in the face of German aggression in Europe. The FBI was made responsible for investigating espionage, counterespionage, sabotage, and violations of the neutrality laws. It was also during this period that the first effort was made to coordinate the activities of the various intelligence elements of the Government. An Interdepartmental Intelligence Coordinating Committee was created for this purpose, but because the Committee lacked a permanent chair and participating agencies were reluctant to share information, it had limited impact.



Directories :

1917 :

https://www.fold3.com/image/238/92738910

Simon Barr - journalist - r450 - E139th

1918

https://www.fold3.com/image/238/92859327

Simon Barr h221 Sherman Av (matches 1917 Draft Card)

1920

https://www.fold3.com/image/238/92731604

There was a "Philip Furs" on 137 W129th

No "pelham barr"

Simon Barr - Harrison av, or h56 Nicolas Ave

1922

https://www.fold3.com/image/238/98774064

No Simon Barr ...

[aa30] Source : Managing a Library Binding Program By Jan Merrill-Oldham (1993)



COOPERATION.. .STANDARDS. . .COMMUNICATION.. .are focal points of this brief history of The LibraryBinding Institute written by Brian J. Mulhern. Mulhern (BA in history and English, Carle‐ ton College, Northfield, Minnesota, and an MAin American Studies, University of Minnesota) is an archivist and writer who worked part time for LEI for several months. He began organizing the old LBI files and setting up the archives.

When the New Deal organized American industry under the National Recovery A c t (NRA) in 1934, l i b r a r y bookbinders began a cooperative program to insure standards of quality and fair dealing that has continued for fifty years. Library bookbinding in 1934 was a considerably different affair than it is currently. A host of small shops dominated an industry with very few "giants“ and no consistent definition of what it was that was being sold as "library binding.” Individual binders dealt with individual librarians without the benefit of broader consultation about standards and prices for their services. Cost accounting varied tremendously across the indus‐ try, making pricing of bindery services exceedingly difficult. Wide variations in labor practices further destabilized a market already hard-hit by the Depression.

Barr is influential in creating LBI

Into this scene came the faceless federal bureaucracy of the NRA National Code Authority ‐ with a difference in the person of Pelham Barr. Barr had started his professional life as a chemist, politically active and committed to the goals of the New Deal. With the inauguration of the NRA in February 1934, a Book Manufacturing Institute was established, and Barr was appointed Divisional Director for Library Binding.He immediately set about applying Code provisions for self-government, labor standards, and fair competition across the industry. By November of that year, Barr was planning to extend his duties to include promotional activities for the industry as a whole, undertaken at the expense of divisional member binders.

These activities won the enthusiastic support of the depression-stricken industry. When the NRA was declared unconstitutional in May 1935, members of_the previously involuntary federal program voluntarily resolved to continue the program on an independent basis with Barr at i t s head. At the hour of decision, Barr enthusiastically anticipated the binders' choices:

Library binders a l l over the country are continuing to do business ”as was" before the decision. They realize that it is the only safe and sane way to do i t . They didn't have to be told that it would be plain damn-foolishness-‐suicide--to t r y to go back to the old days when some of their competitors indulged in price‐wars, quality chiselling and labor sweating. . .Here's one case where cooperation and selfishness are identical--broad vision is right at the end of the pocket-book nerve.

Joint Committee Plays Major Role

Even before the group became an independent entity, a program of cooperation had been undertaken with the American Library Association's Bookbinding Committee founded in 1933. In January 1935, three binders were delegated to meet with the ALA in what subsequently became known as “the Joint Com‐mittee." Cooperation with librarians became a keystone of the new organization's policy. The Joint Committee consulted on virtually a l l facets of the LEI program. It played a major role in shaping binders' "Guide to Fair Value,“ (1934), their "Minimum Specifications for Class 'A' Library Binding" (June 1934, revised June, 1938) and their "Certification Plan” (1936). For twenty years following LBI's first annual meeting in 1936, i t s annual get-togethers were planned to coincide in a joint session with the annual meeting of the ALA.

The relationship with the ALA focused LBI's public relations effort on the Library Journal, and for years Pelham Barr provided the Journal with a steady stream of contributions interpreting bindery services and activities. After September 1939, the Institute launched a publication of its own, Book Life, specifically directed at bibliophiles and persons interested in book conservation, another early concern of the bindery group. Barr particularly excelled at these public relations efforts, and he valued them so highly that he donated a portion of his own 1939 salary raise so that his long-standing dream of such a publication might become a reality. LBI's first director also contributed to a wider spectrum of publications, including Bookbinding Magazine, College and Research Libraries, and Bookbinding_ggg Book Production, as well as generating a steady stream of informal and entertaining communications with LEI-members and other interested people. From the fi r s t , open communications have played a central role in the affairs of the bindery group.

Gathering statistical information was important

Information flowed in both directions from the earliest days of LBI. An important function of the Institute was the collection of statistical information regarding the industry: i t s volume, i t s suppliers, i t s income, and i t s expenditures. Annual surveys were made of such information, and occasional special surveys were held regarding issues of widespread interest. Reciprocally survey findings were shared with mem‐ bers to assist them in planning and evaluating their own operations; and the Institute also served occasionally as a conduit for statistical data compiled by the federal govern‐ ment regarding the binding industry.

To be sure, services to members were not purely statistical. LBI organized members to resist incursions of New Deal work-projects on the binding trade. It disseminated preservation information to members hard-hit by a series of disastrous floods in the late 1930s. With the coming of war in 1941, it kept members posted on coping with shortages of bindery materials, brought on by war-time conditions.

Over the years it interpreted f o r members a host of new federal regulations and legislation. Regular newsletters to members appeared as early as 1935, and LBI annual meetings began in 1936, featuring management and technical sessions to upgrade members s k i l l s in business and production procedures. Given the range of services to members, it is surprising that the fledgling group was able to maintain relatively low dues and to stay within a modest budget in the midst of a lengthy business recession that cut heavily into member‐ binders' incomes. But the industry stalwartly supported i t s trade association, which in turn responded with some flexibility to the financial plight of individual members. Balanced budgets were to become a tradition in succeeding years. T o ‐ gether, the industry weathered the most harrowing business downturn in American history.

Prices and Products Standardized