Dr. Bruce Edward Ivins (born 1946)

Dr. Bruce Ivins2004 US Defense award ceremony

Wikipedia 🌐 Dr. Bruce Edward Ivins 


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Bruce Edwards Ivins (/ˈaɪvɪnz/; April 22, 1946 – July 29, 2008)[1] was an American microbiologist, vaccinologist,[1] senior biodefense researcher at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland, and the suspected perpetrator of the 2001 anthrax attacks.[2]

On July 29, 2008, he died of an overdose of acetaminophen (Tylenol) in an apparent suicide after learning that criminal charges were likely to be filed against him by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for an alleged criminal connection to the 2001 anthrax attacks.[3][4][5] No formal charges were ever filed against him for the crime, and no direct evidence of his involvement has been uncovered.[6]

At a news conference at the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) on August 6, 2008, FBI and DOJ officials formally announced that the Government had concluded that Ivins was likely solely responsible for "the deaths of five persons, and the injury of dozens of others, resulting from the mailings of several anonymous letters to members of Congress and members of the media in September and October 2001, which letters contained Bacillus anthracis, commonly referred to as anthrax."[7][8] On February 19, 2010, the FBI released a 92-page summary of evidence against Ivins and announced that it had concluded its investigation.[9][10] The FBI conclusions have been contested by many, including senior microbiologists, the widow of one of the victims,[11] and several prominent American politicians. Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) who was among the targets in the attack, Senator Chuck Grassley (R-IA), Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA), Representative Rush Holt (D-NJ), and Representative Jerrold Nadler (D-NY)[6][12][13] all argued that Ivins was not solely responsible for the attacks.

The FBI subsequently requested a panel from the National Academy of Sciences to review its scientific work on the case.[14] On May 15, 2011, the panel released its findings, which "conclude[d] that the bureau overstated the strength of genetic analysis linking the mailed anthrax to a supply kept by Bruce E. Ivins."[6][15] The committee stated that its primary finding was that "it is not possible to reach a definitive conclusion about the origins of the B. anthracis in the mailings based on the available scientific evidence alone."[12][13][16][17][18][19][20][21]

Early and family life

Bruce Ivins was born, and spent his youth, in Lebanon, Ohio, a small town 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Cincinnati.[22] His parents were Thomas Randall Ivins and Mary Johnson (nee Knight) Ivins, and he was the youngest of three brothers.[1] His father, a pharmacist, owned a drugstore and was active in the local Rotary Club and Chamber of Commerce. The family went regularly to Lebanon Presbyterian Church, although Ivins was later a Catholic parishioner.[23] According to C.W. Ivins, one of Ivins' older brothers, their mother Mary was violent and physically abusive to all three children. When she discovered she was pregnant with Bruce, a pregnancy that was unplanned and unwanted, she repeatedly tried to abort the child by throwing herself down a set of stairs. Ivins would eventually hear the story of his mother's attempt to abort him.[22]

Avidly interested in science, Ivins was an active participant in extracurricular activities in high school, including National Honor Society, science fairs, the current events club, and the scholarship team all four years. He ran on the track and cross-country teams, worked on the yearbook and school newspaper, and was in the school choir and junior and senior class plays.[23]

In December 1975, Ivins married nursing student Mary Diane Betsch (known as Diane), to whom he remained married until his death.[1][24] The couple had two children.[1][23][25]Diane Ivins was a homemaker and full time parent who also ran a daycare center out of the family's home.[26] His wife, children, and brothers were all still alive at the time of his death; his parents were deceased.[1]

Education and career

Ivins graduated with honors from the University of Cincinnati with a B.S. degree in 1968, an M.S. degree in 1971, and a Ph.D. degree in 1976, all in microbiology.[2] Ivins conducted his Ph.D. research under the supervision of Dr. Peter F. Bonventre. His dissertation focused on different aspects of toxicity in disease-causing bacteria.[23]

Ivins was a scientist for 36 years[1] and senior biodefense researcher at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) in Fort Detrick, Maryland for 18 years.[2] After conducting research on Legionella and cholera, in 1979, Ivins turned his attention to anthrax after the anthrax outbreak in the Soviet city of Sverdlovsk (now known as Yekaterinburg), which killed at least 105 after an accidental release at a military facility.[25]

Ivins had published at least 44 scientific papers dating back to May 18, 1969.[27][28] His earliest known published work pertained to the response of peritoneal macrophages, a type of white blood cell, to infection by Chlamydia psittaci, an infectious bacterium that can be transmitted from animals to humans.[29][30] He was the co-author of numerous anthrax studies, including one on a treatment for inhalational anthrax published in the July 7, 2008 issue of the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.[5] He often cited the 2001 anthrax attacks in his papers to bolster the significance of his research in years subsequent to the attacks.[31] In a 2006 paper published in the prestigious journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, he wrote with his co-authors

Ivins was a co-inventor on two United States patents for anthrax vaccine technology, U.S. Patent 6,316,006 and U.S. Patent 6,387,665. Both of these patents are owned by his employer at the time, the United States Army.

On March 14, 2003, Ivins and two of his colleagues at USAMRIID at Fort Detrick received the Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service — the highest award given to Defense Department civilian employees — for helping solve technical problems in the manufacture of anthrax vaccines.[32]

Alleged involvement in 2001 anthrax attacks and investigations

The 2001 anthrax attacks involved the mailing of several letters proclaiming "Death to America ... Death to Israel ... Allah is Great",[33] and contaminated with anthrax, to the offices of U.S. Senators Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy, as well as to the offices of ABC News, CBS News, NBC News, the New York Post, and the National Enquirer.[34][35]

Initial investigative role

Ivins became involved in the investigation of the 2001 anthrax attacks because he was regarded as a skilled microbiologist.[2] Starting in mid-October, Ivins and his colleagues worked long hours testing samples to distinguish real anthrax letters from the numerous hoaxes that were sent out at this time.[36] Ivins also helped the FBI analyze the powdery material recovered from one of the anthrax-tainted envelopes sent to a U.S. senator's office in Washington, D.C.[2]

Results of the investigation were initially distributed to the public via ABC News, claiming "four well placed sources" had confirmed that "trace amounts of the chemical additives bentonite" were found in the anthrax samples, and that this was the chemical signature of Iraqi-made anthrax.[33] However, it was later confirmed that no bentonite was ever found in the anthrax samples.[33] While it is presumed that Ivins was one of ABC News' four sources, ABC News refused to reveal their identities, which has contributed to a mystery surrounding Ivins' role in the initial investigation and its widely reported findings.[33]

2002 Fort Detrick anthrax containment breach

In 2002, an investigation was carried out as a result of an incident at Fort Detrick where anthrax spores had escaped carefully guarded rooms into the building's unprotected areas.[37] The incident called into question the ability of USAMRIID to keep its deadly agents within laboratory walls seven months after the anthrax mailings.

A coworker reportedly told Ivins that she was concerned she was exposed to anthrax spores when handling an anthrax-contaminated letter. Ivins tested the technician's desk area that December and found growth that had the earmarks of anthrax. He decontaminated her desk, computer, keypad and monitor, but did not notify his superiors.[37]

2008 investigation

For six years, the FBI focused its investigation on [Steven Jay Hatfill (born 1953)], considering him to be the chief suspect in the attacks. In March 2008, however, authorities exonerated Hatfill and settled a lawsuit he initiated for $5.8 million.[38] According to ABC News, some in the FBI considered Ivins a suspect as early as 2002.[39] FBI Director Robert Mueller changed leadership of the investigation in late 2006, and at that time Ivins became the main focus of the investigation.[2]

After [Steven Jay Hatfill (born 1953)] was no longer considered a suspect, Ivins began "showing signs of serious strain".[40] As a result of his changed behavior, he lost access to sensitive areas at his job. He began being treated for depression and expressed some suicidal thoughts.[2] On March 19, 2008, police were summoned[by whom?] to Ivins' home in Frederick, where they found him unconscious and sent him to the hospital.[23]

In June 2008, Ivins was involuntarily committed to a psychiatric hospital. The FBI said that during a June 5 group therapy session there, Ivins had a conversation with a witness, during which he made a series of statements about the anthrax mailings that the FBI said could best be characterized as "non-denial denials".[41] When asked about the anthrax attacks and whether he could have had anything to do with them, the FBI said that Ivins admitted he suffered from loss of memory, stating that he would wake up dressed and wonder if he had gone out during the night. His responses allegedly included the following:

Late in July 2008, investigators informed Ivins of his impending prosecution for alleged involvement in the 2001 anthrax attacks that Ivins himself had previously assisted authorities in investigating. It was reported that the death penalty would have been sought in the case.[42] Ivins maintained his security clearance until July 10; he had been publicly critical of the laboratory's security procedures for several years.[43]

W. Russell Byrne, a colleague who worked in the bacteriology division of the Fort Detrick research facility, said FBI agents "hounded" Ivins by twice raiding his home and that Ivins had been hospitalized for depression earlier in the month.[44] According to Byrne and local police, Ivins had been removed from his workplace out of fears that he might harm himself or others. "I think he was just psychologically exhausted by the whole process", Byrne said.[45] "There are people who you just know are ticking bombs", Byrne said. "He was not one of them."[46] However, Tom Ivins, who last spoke to his brother in 1985, said, "It makes sense ... he considered himself like a god."[45]

The Los Angeles Times asserted that Ivins stood to profit from the attacks because he was a co-inventor on two patents for a genetically-engineered anthrax vaccine. San Francisco-area biotechnology company [VaxGen, Incorporated] licensed the vaccine and won a federal contract valued at $877.5 million to provide the vaccine under the Project Bioshield Act.[47] However, biological warfare and anthrax vaccine expert Meryl Nass expressed skepticism about this purported motive, pointing out that "Historically, government employees do not receive these royalties: the government does."[48]

On August 6, 2008, US Attorney Jeffrey A. Taylor, officially made a statement that Ivins was the "sole culprit" in the 2001 anthrax attacks.[49] Taylor stated that Ivins had submitted false anthrax evidence to throw investigators off of his trail, was unable to adequately explain his late laboratory working hours around the time of the attacks, tried to frame his co-workers, had immunized himself against anthrax in early September 2001, was one of more than 100 people with access to the same strain of anthrax used in the killings, and had used similar language in an email to that in one of the anthrax mailings.[50] Ivins was also reportedly upset that the anthrax vaccine that he had spent years helping develop was being pulled from the market.[51]

Death

On the morning of July 27, 2008, Ivins was found unconscious at his home. He was taken to Frederick Memorial Hospital and died on July 29 from what was then called an overdose of Tylenol with codeine,[5][52] an apparent suicide. No autopsy was ordered following his death because, according to an officer in the local police department, the state medical examiner 'determined that an autopsy wouldn't be necessary' based on laboratory test results of blood taken from the body.[53] A summary of the police report of his death, released in 2009, lists the cause of death as liver and kidney failure, citing his purchase of two bottles of Tylenol PM (containing diphenhydramine), contradicting earlier reports of Tylenol with codeine.[54] His family declined to put him on the liver transplant list, and he was removed from life support.[54]

Immediately after news of his death, the FBI refused to comment on the situation.[5] Ivins' attorney released a statement asserting that Ivins had co-operated with the six-year investigation by the FBI and asserting that Ivins was innocent in the deaths.[55]

Anthrax investigation, post-death

Criticism of the official findings

Paul Kemp, Ivins' attorney, stated that the government's case against Ivins was "not convincing". Department of Justice official Dean Boyd stated that Ivins mailed anthrax to NBC in retaliation for an investigation of Ivins' laboratory's work on anthrax conducted by Gary Matsumoto, a former NBC news journalist. At the time, however, Matsumoto was working for ABC, not NBC. Also, Ivins passed a lie detector test in which he was questioned about his possible participation in the anthrax attacks. Boyd responded by saying that the FBI now believes that Ivins used countermeasures to deceive the polygraph examiners. "There are clearly a lot of unanswered questions," said Senator Chuck Grassley, who called for a congressional investigation into the allegations that Ivins was the anthrax killer.[56]

Those who argue for Ivins' innocence claim that the anthrax used in the attacks was too sophisticated to be produced by a lone researcher without relevant training. "In my opinion, there are maybe four or five people in the whole country who might be able to make this stuff, and I'm one of them," said Richard O. Spertzel, former deputy commander of USAMRIID.[57] "And even with a good lab and staff to help run it, it might take me a year to come up with a product as good."[57] The spores in the Daschle letter were 1.5 to 3 micrometres across, many times smaller than the finest known grade of anthrax produced by either the U.S. or Soviet bioweapons programs.[57] An electron microscope, which costs hundreds of thousands of dollars, would be needed to verify that the target spore size had been consistently achieved.[57] The presence of the anti-clumping additive silicon in the anthrax samples also suggests a high degree of sophistication as specialists working at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were unable to duplicate this property despite 56 attempts.[58]

While not outright rejecting the theory of Ivins' involvement, Senator Leahy asserted that "if he is the one who sent the letter, I do not believe in any way, shape or manner that he is the only person involved in this attack on Congress and the American people. I do not believe that at all."[59]

Allegations of mental illness

On August 6, 2008, the FBI released a collection of emails written by Ivins.[60] In some, Ivins describes episodes of anxiety, paranoia, and depression for which he was medicated;[61] these are referenced in the summary of the case against Ivins. A psychiatrist engaged by The New York Times to analyze the released documents found evidence of psychoses, but could not rule out the possibility that Ivins was feigning or exaggerating mental illness for purposes of attention or sympathy.[62]

A United States government investigative panel, called the Expert Behavioral Analysis Panel, issued a report in March 2011 which detailed more of Ivins' mental health issues. According to the panel's report, the Army did not examine Ivins' background adequately before clearing him to work with anthrax: such clearance should not have been given. The report endorses the government's implication of Ivins: circumstantial evidence from Ivins' psychiatric history supported the conclusion that Ivins was the anthrax killer.[63][64][65]

Allegations by Ivins' counselor

One of the most contested elements of the Ivins case involves the testimony of his former therapist, social worker Jean C. Duley. Documents show that Ivins was ordered late in July 2008 to stay away from Duley.[66] In her handwritten application for a protective order, Duley wrote that Ivins had stalked and threatened to kill her and had a long history of homicidal threats.[23] However, in her testimony, Duley also stated that she had only known Ivins for six months.[67]

Duley had been set to give testimony against Ivins on August 1, 2008.[45] Ivins, however, had no criminal record, whereas Duley had a history of convictions for driving under the influence and charges of battery of her ex-husband.[68] The charges forced her to quit her job, and attorney costs used up her savings, according to her fiance.[68] In a 1999 newspaper interview, Duley described herself as a former motorcycle gang member and drug user: "Heroin. Cocaine. PCP. You name it, I did it."[69] According to an article originally appearing in the Frederick News-Post on August 12, 2009, Duley was under house arrest when she tape recorded Ivins' allegedly "threatening" messages.[70] The Frederick News-Post also made available a recording of the allegedly threatening calls.[71] The nature of the audio recordings was characterized in the published report as "No threats are made or implied in the messages. More the sad ramblings of a broken man who felt betrayed."[70]

In her July 2008 restraining order Duley alleged that Ivins "has a history dating to his graduate days of homicidal threats, actions, plans, threats & actions towards theripist" [sic]. According to Duley, "Dr. David Irwin his psychiatrist called him homicidal, sociopathic with clear intentions" [sic] and she would "tetisfy with other details" [sic].[72] She further alleged a "detailed homicidal plan" to kill his co-workers after learning he was going to be indicted on capital murder charges and stated that, upon hearing of his possible indictment, Ivins had purchased a gun and a bulletproof vest.[73] Ivins was subsequently committed for psychiatric evaluation, and his home was raided by federal agents who confiscated ammunition and a bulletproof vest.[74] He was released from his committal on July 24, five days before his death.

Statement by Henry S. Heine

Henry S. Heine, a microbiologist who was Ivins' fellow researcher at the Army Medical Research Institute, told a National Academy of Sciences panel on April 22, 2010, that he considered it impossible that Ivins could have produced the anthrax used in the attacks without detection.[14]

Heine told the 16-member National Academy of Sciences panel that producing the quantity of spores in the letters would have taken at least a year of intensive work using the equipment at the U.S. Army laboratory. Such an effort would not have escaped colleagues' notice, and laboratory technicians who worked closely with Dr. Ivins have told him they saw no such work.[14]

Heine also disputed the notion that biological containment measures where Ivins worked were inadequate to prevent the spores from floating out of the laboratory into animal cages and offices. He told the panel that if the containment was inadequate, "You'd have had dead animals or dead people".[14]

Heine said he did not dispute that there was a genetic link between the spores in the letters and the anthrax in Ivins' flask, which led the FBI to conclude that Ivins had grown the spores from a sample taken from the flask. Heine pointed out that samples from the flask were widely shared. Accusing Ivins of the attacks, he said, was like tracing a murder to the clerk at the sporting goods shop who sold the bullets.[14]

Asked by reporters after his testimony whether he believed there was any chance that Ivins had carried out the attacks, Heine replied, "Absolutely not." At the Army's biodefense laboratory, he said, "among the senior scientists, no one believes it."[14]

National Academy of Sciences scientific evidence review

The FBI asked the National Academy of Sciences to review the FBI's scientific work on the case. A panel was created, chaired by Alice P. Gast, president of Lehigh University.[14] On May 15, 2011, the panel released its findings, which "conclude[d] that the bureau overstated the strength of genetic analysis linking the mailed anthrax to a supply kept by Bruce E. Ivins."[6]

Calls for further investigation

Following the release of a National Academy of Sciences report in February 2011, Congressman Rush D. Holt, Jr. (D-NJ), a physicist from whose district the anthrax letters were mailed, re-introduced legislation "to create a 9/11-style Commission, complete with subpoena power, with a mandate to review the entire matter."[6] Senator Chuck Grassley of Iowa told The Washington Post: "There are no more excuses for avoiding an independent review."[6] Journalist Glenn Greenwald, who was vocal in his criticism of the anthrax investigation,[68][75][76][77][78] argued that "[o]ther than a desire to avoid finding out who the culprit was (or to avoid having the FBI's case against Ivins subjected to scrutiny), there's no rational reason to oppose an independent investigation into this matter."[6]

Interests and beliefs

Personal life

Ivins was a Roman Catholic. The Frederick News-Post made public several letters to the editor written by Ivins dealing with his religious views.[79] These were cited in the Department of Justice summary of the case against Ivins as suggesting that he may have harbored a grudge against pro-choice Catholic senators Daschle and Leahy, recipients of anthrax mailings.[61] In a letter, Ivins stated, "By blood and faith, Jews are God's chosen, and have no need for 'dialogue' with any gentile."[80] Ivins praised a rabbifor refusing a dialogue with a Muslim cleric.[80]

His pastimes included playing keyboard at his local church, Saint John the Evangelist;[1] he was a member of the American Red Cross;[1] he was an avid juggler and founder of the Frederick Jugglers.[23] He played keyboards in a Celtic band and would often compose and play songs for coworkers who were moving to new jobs.[23][25]

Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority and Wikipedia editing

Wikinews has related news:Alleged Anthrax killer Bruce Ivins reportedly made edits to Wikipedia

Ivins was reportedly obsessed with the college sorority Kappa Kappa Gamma (KKG) ever since he was rebuffed by a woman in the sorority during his days as a student at the University of Cincinnati.[81][82] According to The Smoking Gun, U.S. government court documents stated that Ivins edited the KKG article on Wikipedia using the account name "Jimmyflathead", by which he made a number of edits that put derogatory information about the sorority into the article and engaged in some disputes and discussions[83][84] about the content of the article.[84][85]

The FBI claims, because anthrax spores were found in a postal drop box located 300 feet (91 m) away from Princeton University's Kappa Kappa Gamma storage facility (where the Sorority keeps rush paraphernalia, initiation robes and other materials), that the anthrax laced letters had been mailed from that drop box.[86] However, no evidence was found to place Ivins in Princeton, New Jersey, on the day the letters were mailed.[81] Katherine Breckinridge Graham, an advisor to Kappa's Princeton chapter, stated that there was nothing to indicate that any of the sorority members had anything to do with Ivins.[82] Officials claim that the sorority link helps explain why the letters were mailed from Princeton, 200 miles (320 km) from the Fort Detrick laboratory in Frederick, Maryland, where Ivins worked and where it is claimed the anthrax was produced.

A United States government investigative panel, called the Expert Behavioral Analysis Panel, issued a report in March 2011 which detailed more of Ivins' obsession with the sorority. According to the panel's report, Ivins tormented a sorority member at the University of North Carolina named Nancy Haigwood. Ivins stole her notebook, which documented her research for her doctoral studies, and vandalized her residence.[63]

Biography

In 2011, journalist David Willman's book on Ivins, The Mirage Man: Bruce Ivins, the Anthrax Attacks, and America's Rush to War, was published. The book details Ivins' troubled history and mental problems.[87]

AMERITHRAX FBI FOIA documents (all saved in archive) 

usa-gov-fbi-vault-amerithrax-part-01-847418.pdf to usa-gov-fbi-vault-amerithrax-part-30-847423.pdf , and   (HG00HS  to HG00IL ) 

usa-gov-fbi-vault-amerithrax-part-31.pdf to usa-gov-fbi-vault-amerithrax-part-59.pdf ...   ( HG00IM to HG00JE )   

Source was https://vault.fbi.gov/Amerithrax/  ... downloaded on Jan 2, 2023 .. 

EVIDENCE TIMELINE

1975 - Marriage Transcript

https://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?indiv=1&dbid=2025&h=669752&tid=&pid=&queryId=1f3b65ce146b294a3e5e9420a2235ceb&usePUB=true&_phsrc=llt1022&_phstart=successSource 

2024-01-04-ancestry-com-marriage-transcript-bruce-e-ivins-2025-669752.pdf

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1W22l3nd1FP7bZPqrq2yc9ohSgd_H7HhG/view?usp=drive_link 

  • Name :   Bruce E Ivins
  • Age :   29
  • Birth Year :   abt 1946
  • Residence County :   Hamilton
  • Spouse's Name :   Mary D Betsch
  • Spouse's Age :   20
  • Spouse's Birth Year :   abt 1955
  • Spouse's Residence County :   Hamilton
  • Marriage Date :   22 Aug 1975
  • Marriage License County :   Hamilton
  • Certificate Number :   55897
  • Volume Number :   8263

1978 (AUg)

Interaction of Chlamydia psittaci with mouse peritoneal macrophages

DOI:10.1128/IAI.19.3.1061-1067.1978

Authors:

Priscilla B Wyrick

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/22577643_Interaction_of_Chlamydia_psittaci_with_mouse_peritoneal_macrophages/link/00b7d5191362c67c35000000/download

1985 residence

Bruce E Ivins

https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/297806431:1788?tid=&pid=&queryId=90e6c8101e1993e0349d4500e4e7da80&_phsrc=llt1028&_phstart=successSource

2021-11-05-google-map-dc-ivins-home-404-military.jpg

Bruce Edwards Ivins

Name :   Bruce Edwards Ivins

Birth Date :   Apr 1946

Residence Date :   1990-2020

Address :   622 Military Rd   /   Frederick, Maryland, USA   /   21702

Second Address :   501 Jones Ferry Rd Apt Y12   /   Carrboro, North Carolina, USA  /   27510

https://www.ancestry.com/discoveryui-content/view/3688102:62209?tid=&pid=&queryId=1f3b65ce146b294a3e5e9420a2235ceb&_phsrc=llt1023&_phstart=successSource 

2021-11-05-google-map-dc-ivins-home.jpg

1988 (Nov) - Clinical Immunology Newsletter : "The Search for a New-Generation Human Anthrax Vaccine" by Bruce Ivins

DOI:10.1016/0197-1859(88)90013-1

Authors: Bruce Ivins  

DOWNLOADED from   https://sci-hub.se/10.1016/0197-1859(88)90013-1 

1988-11-clinical-immunology-newsletter-next-gen-anthrax-vaccine-ivins.pdf

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1agPwAjwip4ifLvSkuy2EVPozf9sxIORf/view?usp=drive_link 

1993 (May) - Journal of Infectious Diseases : "Postexposure prophylaxis against experimental inhalation anthrax"

With : 

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8486963/

. 1993 May;167(5):1239-43. doi: 10.1093/infdis/167.5.1239.

A M Friedlander 1, S L Welkos, M L Pitt, J W Ezzell, P L Worsham, K J Rose, B E Ivins, J R Lowe, G B Howe, P Mikesell, et al.

Abstract

Inhalation anthrax is a rare disease that is almost invariably fatal. This study determined whether a prolonged course of postexposure antibiotics with or without vaccination would protect monkeys exposed to a lethal aerosol dose of Bacillus anthracis when the antibiotic was discontinued. Beginning 1 day after exposure, groups of 10 animals were given penicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, doxycycline plus vaccination, vaccination alone, or saline. Antibiotics were administered for 30 days and then discontinued. Vaccine was given on days 1 and 15. Two animals died of causes other than anthrax and were not included in the statistical analysis. Nine of 10 controls and 8 of 10 animals given only vaccine died. Each antibiotic regimen completely protected animals while on therapy and provided significant long-term protection upon discontinuance of the drug (penicillin, 7 of 10 survived, P < .02; ciprofloxacin, 8 of 9 survived, P < .002; doxycycline, 9 of 10 survived, P < .002; doxycycline plus vaccination, 9 of 9 survived, P < .0002). Protection against rechallenge was provided by combining postexposure antibiotic treatment with vaccination.

----------

PDF downloaded from : https://sci-hub.se/10.1093/infdis/167.5.1239  

1993-05-journal-infectious-diseases-postexposure-prophylaxis-exp-inhalation-anthrax.pdf

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1FXK4rhnzHzb2XRRSgS7fKjLYD7flSaEe/view?usp=drive_link 

2000 (May 25)

https://www.newspapers.com/image/102379336/?terms=%22Bruce%2Bivins%22

2000-05-25-the-cincinnati-enquirer-d1-clip-anthrax-vaccine.jpg

Note - two years later, these anthrax shots turned out to be a disaster ... https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2002/11/gao-military-anthrax-shots-caused-many-reactions-prompted-some-pilots-quit   

2006 (Aug 25) -  Richard Lambert Jr. Selected to Report as SAC in Knoxville

Washington, D.C.

August 25, 2006

Washington , D.C . – Richard Lambert Jr., an 18-year veteran of the FBI, has recently been named the Special Agent in Charge (SAC) of the FBI’s Knoxville Office by FBI Director Robert S. Mueller III. T he Knoxville Division covers the Eastern District of Tennessee, comprising 42% of the counties in the state. The Division is staffed by approximately 150 employees in the headquarters city, and in resident agencies in Johnson City, Chattanooga, Cleveland, and Tullahoma.

Mr. Lambert brings extensive experience to the new position, entering on duty with the FBI as a Special Agent in 1988 in the St. Louis Division as an investigator for the Violent Crimes/Major Offenders Program and the White Collar Crime Program. He was promoted in 1992 to Supervisory Special Agent (SSA) in the Civil Litigation Unit and Employment Law Unit of the Legal Counsel Division at FBI Headquarters (HQ) in Washington, D.C.

In 1995, Mr. Lambert was appointed SSA in the Office of Professional Responsibility, the FBI’s Internal Affairs component. A year later, he was appointed SSA in the Norfolk Field Office. During his tenure supervising an Organized Crime/Drug Squad, the Squad dismantled a local chapter of the Renegades, a national outlaw motorcycle gang and the chief importer of methamphetamine into the Tidewater area of Virginia. Under Mr. Lambert’s leadership, the Squad also dismantled an international Jamaican drug trafficking enterprise by indicting and arresting 43 subjects responsible for importing 23 tons of marijuana into the U.S. and laundering more than 13 million dollars.

Mr. Lambert was named an Assistant Inspector/Team Leader in the Inspection Division at FBI HQ in 1999, and was subsequently assigned as an Assistant Special Agent in Charge of the San Diego Field Office, where he was responsible for management of the FBI's Foreign Counterintelligence and Counterterrorism Programs, including oversight of the Joint Terrorism Task Force and coordination of the Field Office's investigation of the terrorist attacks of 9/11. In September 2002, Mr. Lambert was appointed Inspector in the Inspection Division at FBI HQ and was detailed to the Washington Field Office to oversee the AMERITHRAX case, the FBI's investigation into the anthrax bio-terrorism attacks which occurred in the fall of 2001.

A native of the State of Texas, Mr. Lambert graduated from Midwestern State University in Wichita Falls in 1981 and 1982 with a Bachelors Degree in English and a Masters Degree in Political Science. He then received a Doctor of Jurisprudence Degree in 1986 and a Master of Public Administration Degree in 1987, both from the University of Houston. From 1986-1988, he was employed at Booth & Newsom, P.C., a law firm in Austin specializing in the representation of political subdivisions in administrative, water rights and environmental law matters.

2008 (Aug 04)  - Blogspot Something Is Strange - "What's going on in Frederick Md?"

Source : [HW007E][GDrive]  

Dr. Bruce Ivins is dead. Dr. Ivins probably killed himself by an overdose of Tylenol. What makes this newsworthy is that Dr. Ivins was repotedly about to be indicted for the murders iof 5 people by Anthrax poisoning. Yep, he is the one.

The anthrax attacks started 2 weeks after 9/11. Someone sent letters containing powdered anthrax, from a New Jersey post office to various media outfits. Five letters are believed to have been mailed although only 2 were actually found. The other three were assumed because of anthrax infections elsewhere.

Three weeks later, two more letters were sent, also from NJ, addressed to Sen. Tom Daschle (D- SD) and Sen. Patrick Leahy (D - VT). The letter to Daschle made it to his office and was opened by an aide. Leahy's letter was discovered in a mailbag before it could be delivered.

At least 22 people developed anthrax infections and five died.

The anthrax was determined to be a specific strain - called the Ames strain, and it was first researched in Fort Detrick, in Frederick MD. Ft. Detrick is home to the "United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases" (USAMRIID). According to reports the Ames strain anthrax was distributed to as many as fifteen bio-research labs within the U.S. and six locations overseas.

In 2002, one of Fort Detrick's employees, Steven Hatfill, was publicly called a "person of interest" in the case. Hatfill vehemently denied the charges, and refused to cave in to the intense pressure of FBI harassment. He later sued everyone and their brother, and recently was awarded a reported $5.8 million settlement. I doubt if what he went through was worth even that chunk of money. Regardless, after years of horror, he was finally cleared.

Fast forward to last week. Another scientist at the Ft. Detrick lab passed away in a local hospital. The cause of death was listed as suicide, by ingestion of Tylenol (possibly with codeine). This scientist was Dr. Bruce Ivins. Once the FBI had finished running Hatfill through the wringer, they apparently decided that THIS TIME they knew it was Ivins. For sure. Absolutely. No questions. So they started the same harassment techniques on him that hadn't worked on Hatfill. They staked out his home to the point that all of the neighbors were aware of it. (Not who or why someone was watching, but they knew that someone was being watched.) The FBI questioned and re-questioned Ivins. They searched everything. And they got some super-cool new equipment that supposedly was able to test the DNA of the mailed anthrax, and match it to a flask that Ivins "had" in the lab.

Mind you, dozens of people had access to this stuff. That was one of the problems that was discovered during the beginning of the investigation - security was pretty lax back then.

Since Ivins suicide, he has been villified by the media. The finger is very strongly pointing in his direction, and the FBI is talking about closing the file. Blaming the dead guy who can't defend himself. He killed himself from a guilty conscience, right? Or maybe not.

2008 (Aug 04) - Blogspot Something Is Strange - "Who is Jean C. Duley?"

Source : [HW007G][GDrive

As soon as the story of Dr. Ivins' suicide hit, there was this very strange comment, that Dr. Ivins therapist had filed court documents stating that Dr. Ivins was a homicidal sociopath, that he was a revenge killer who had tried to poison many people since the year 2000. This story has been bandied around ever since. Here is the REAL story:

The "therapist" is a woman by the name of Jean Duley. She is apparently an addiction counselor in Frederick Maryland. She is NOT a doctor or even a Licensed Social Worker, from what it appears. It seems that she runs group therapy sessions, and Dr. Ivins, for some reason, was a client.

It seems that about a month ago, Ms. Duley made some accusations against Dr. Ivins. She claimed that he had gone ballistic in a group therapy session, had claimed that he had a gun, was going to go take out his coworkers, and go out in a "blaze of glory". Ms. Duley notified the local police, who came and escorted him out of the lab, and right to a psychiatric hospital. This was "his therapist" after all. A few days later, Dr. Ivins was released from the hospital and apparently contacted Ms. Duley several times - leaving messages on her machine. He was extremely upset, and apparently told her that she had ruined him. There was no reports of threats against her on the tapes, just angry, frustrated messages.

What happened next was unbelievable. Ms. Duley swore out a peace warrant on Dr. Ivins. Thats not the incredible part. The incredible part is what she SAID in the documentation. The Smoking Gun has a copy of the document here: http://www.thesmokinggun.com/archive/years/2008/0801081anthrax1.html?link=rssfeed

"Duley referred to Ivins as a "client" who "has a history dating to his graduate days of homicidal threats, actions, plans, threats & actions towards therapist." Duley added that Ivins's psychiatrist called him "homicidal, sociopathic with clear intentions," and that "FBI involved, currently under investigation & will be charged w/ 5 capital murders. I have been subpoena to testify before a federal grand jury August 1, 2008 in Washington, D.C."

Please take a look at this document. It is shocking both in the written content and by the glaring misspellings, grammatical errors and lack of structure. (I believe this matters, I am not just being a language snob.)

Most of the media reported the content of this document as straight-up fact, and let the readers believe that she was reporting information that she knew firsthand. This could almost certainly not have been the case.

2008 (Aug 05) - Blogspot Something Is Strange - "More on Jean C. Duley"

Source : [HW007I][GDrive

This is one of the weirdest cases I have ever seen. Not only is there this whole business of Duley, which has been explored pretty thoroughly here, but get a whiff of THIS: apparently, unnamed officials say that the motive for the anthrax attacks is (I am not making this up)obsession with a sorority from 30 years ago. (which fits nice and neat with Duley's odd "going back to his graduate days" statement.)

Here's the deal - the anthrax was supposedly mailed from a mailbox on campus in Princeton NJ. This mailbox sits about 100 yards away from a Kappa Kappa Gamma storage facility. (There is no actual sorority house on campus.) So, Ivins was reportedly spurned by a sorority girl at HIS college, 30 years ago, prompting him to send the poison from that location. I know - WUT?

There is no mention of why the anthrax was mailed to media sources and politicians rather than hot college girls (incidentally - Hood College is right down the street from both his house and Ft. Detrick, and full of them), but that's not important. (The *officials* did not mention it, but Ivins' DAD was actually a Princeton guy! That is proof, for sure.) Ivins' has no apparant personal history with Princeton.

Now get this: The *officials* say that there is no proof that Ivins was in NJ, but that he "could have gone after work". Put this in context. The first mailing was postmarked a week after 9/11. Yes, THE nine-eleven. NJ is about a 3-4 hour drive from Frederick MD, at best. What do you suppose the possibility is that Ivins could show up 6-8 hours late from work, and that his wife would not have already called the FBI? Remember it was a WEEK after 9/11. This guy worked in a bio-weapons lab. hello? At the very least, if something so weird had happened, so soon after that, she would have REMEMBERED it. It was a Tuesday. There is obviously no indication that he missed work that day or the next.

Does anyone else think that the FBI is grabbing at straws here? The BS about tracking the DNA is just that - BS. But even if it weren't BS - the fact remains that many people had access to the anthrax. Security was lax back then.

And one of the most important aspects of this case is that Ivins lacked the skills and ability to turn HIS anthrax into the powder form. That is apparently a very specific technical ability, and one which no one believes he had.

2008 (Aug 05)  - Blogspot Something Is Strange - "Wall Street Journal Opinion : Bruce Ivins Wasn't the Anthrax Culprit, By RICHARD SPERTZEL"

Source : [HW007K][GDrive]  

Over the past week the media was gripped by the news that the FBI was about to charge Bruce Ivins, a leading anthrax expert, as the man responsible for the anthrax letter attacks in September/October 2001.

But despite the seemingly powerful narrative that Ivins committed suicide because investigators were closing in, this is still far from a shut case. The FBI needs to explain why it zeroed in on Ivins, how he could have made the anthrax mailed to lawmakers and the media, and how he (or anyone else) could have pulled off the attacks, acting alone.

I believe this is another mistake in the investigation.

Let's start with the anthrax in the letters to Sens. Tom Daschle and Patrick Leahy. The spores could not have been produced at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, where Ivins worked, without many other people being aware of it. Furthermore, the equipment to make such a product does not exist at the institute.

Information released by the FBI over the past seven years indicates a product of exceptional quality. The product contained essentially pure spores. The particle size was 1.5 to 3 microns in diameter. There are several methods used to produce anthrax that small. But most of them require milling the spores to a size small enough that it can be inhaled into the lower reaches of the lungs. In this case, however, the anthrax spores were not milled.

What's more, they were also tailored to make them potentially more dangerous. According to a FBI news release from November 2001, the particles were coated by a "product not seen previously to be used in this fashion before." Apparently, the spores were coated with a polyglass which tightly bound hydrophilic silica to each particle. That's what was briefed (according to one of my former weapons inspectors at the United Nations Special Commission) by the FBI to the German Foreign Ministry at the time.

Another FBI leak indicated that each particle was given a weak electric charge, thereby causing the particles to repel each other at the molecular level. This made it easier for the spores to float in the air, and increased their retention in the lungs.

In short, the potential lethality of anthrax in this case far exceeds that of any powdered product found in the now extinct U.S. Biological Warfare Program. In meetings held on the cleanup of the anthrax spores in Washington, the product was described by an official at the Department of Homeland Security as "according to the Russian recipes" -- apparently referring to the use of the weak electric charge.

The latest line of speculation asserts that the anthrax's DNA, obtained from some of the victims, initially led investigators to the laboratory where Ivins worked. But the FBI stated a few years ago that a complete DNA analysis was not helpful in identifying what laboratory might have made the product.

Furthermore, the anthrax in this case, the "Ames strain," is one of the most common strains in the world. Early in the investigations, the FBI said it was similar to strains found in Haiti and Sri Lanka. The strain at the institute was isolated originally from an animal in west Texas and can be found from Texas to Montana following the old cattle trails. Samples of the strain were also supplied to at least eight laboratories including three foreign laboratories. Four French government laboratories reported on studies with the Ames strain, citing the Pasteur Institute in Paris as the source of the strain they used. Organism DNA is not a very reliable way to make a case against a scientist.

The FBI has not officially released information on why it focused on Ivins, and whether he was about to be charged or arrested. And when the FBI does release this information, we should all remember that the case needs to be firmly based on solid information that would conclusively prove that a lone scientist could make such a sophisticated product.

From what we know so far, Bruce Ivins, although potentially a brilliant scientist, was not that man. The multiple disciplines and technologies required to make the anthrax in this case do not exist at Army's Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Inhalation studies are conducted at the institute, but they are done using liquid preparations, not powdered products.

The FBI spent between 12 and 18 months trying "to reverse engineer" (make a replica of) the anthrax in the letters sent to Messrs. Daschle and Leahy without success, according to FBI news releases. So why should federal investigators or the news media or the American public believe that a lone scientist would be able to do so?

Mr. Spertzel, head of the biological-weapons section of Unscom from 1994-99, was a member of the Iraq Survey Group.

2008 (Aug 05)  - Blogspot Something Is Strange - "Washington Post 8/5/08 ...   By Carrie Johnson, Joby Warrick and Marilyn W. Thompson"

Source : [HW007M][GDrive]  

Bruce E. Ivins, the government's leading suspect in the 2001 anthrax killings, borrowed from a bioweapons lab that fall freeze-drying equipment that allows scientists to quickly convert wet germ cultures into dry spores, according to sources briefed on the case.

Ivins's possession of the drying device, known as a lyopholizer, could help investigators explain how he might have been able to send letters containing deadly anthrax spores to U.S. senators and news organizations.

The device was not commonly used by researchers at the Army's sprawling biodefense complex at Fort Detrick, Md., where Ivins worked as a scientist, employees at the base said. Instead, sources said, Ivins had to go through a formal process to check out the lyopholizer, creating a record on which authorities are now relying. He did at least one project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that would have given him reason to use the drying equipment, according to a former colleague in his lab.

Ivins committed suicide last week. As authorities in Washington debated yesterday how to close the long investigation of him -- a step that would signal they think no one else is culpable in the anthrax attacks -- more details began to emerge about the nature of the case they developed against him.

In recent months, investigators have collected circumstantial building blocks in an effort to establish Ivins's alleged role in the attacks, which traumatized the nation and prompted stringent mail-handling policies. Letters containing the anthrax spores killed five people, including two D.C. area postal workers, and sickened 17 others.

Scientific analysis helped researchers pinpoint the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases as the likely source of the powder, which was the Ames strain of anthrax bacteria used in various projects at Fort Detrick. Further testing allowed them to narrow down the age of the substance, concluding that it had been cultivated no more than two years before the attacks

Eventually, through more elaborate DNA testing of the power and tissue cultures from the victims, they determined that the powder probably came from supplies made by Ivins, to which about 10 other people had access. Authorities last week cited "new and sophisticated scientific tools" that helped advance the investigation.

Ivins was not charged before his death July 29. Paul F. Kemp, his attorney, has repeatedly asserted Ivins's innocence, and colleagues and friends say government officials fixed on the wrong man in a race to close a seven-year investigation rife with dead ends and missteps. They also note that other U.S. scientists had access to some of the same material and equipment that authorities apparently used to focus on Ivins.

The lyopholizer Ivins used in the fall of 2001 is commonly employed by pharmaceutical companies and laboratories, as well as food processors, to freeze a liquid broth of bacteria and quickly transform it into a dry solid without a thawing stage.

Scientists and biodefense experts familiar with USAMRIID's procedures say that Ivins's department rarely used such freeze-dryers, because the researchers there worked with anthrax bacteria in a liquid form.

"Dry anthrax is much harder to work with," said one scientist familiar with Ivins's lab. A lyopholizer would fit inside the ventilated "biosafety cabinet" at the lab and could have been used without drawing notice, the scientist said. The machine could have processed a few small batches of anthrax liquid in less than a day, he said.

Other biodefense experts noted that the drying step could have been carried out with equipment no more complicated than a kitchen oven. "It is the simplest . . . but it is the least reproducible," said Sergei Popov, a former Soviet bioweapons scientist who now specializes in biodefense at George Mason University. "If you go too fast you get 'sand,' " he said, referring to the coarser anthrax powder used in the first attacks, in September 2001

The second batch of letters contained a much finer powder. "To me, it all indicates that the person experimented with the ways to dry the spores and produced small batches -- some of them not so successfully -- he later used to fill up different envelopes," Popov said. "The spores are naturally clumpy. As I understand, he just overbaked the first batches."

Many of the key documents that would have supported the prosecution of Ivins could be unveiled this week after Justice Department and FBI officials meet with families of the anthrax victims. Authorities were contacting relatives yesterday and seeking a time to meet.

Investigators have been wrong before about who may have perpetrated the attacks. In June, the Justice Department agreed to pay Steven J. Hatfill, a former Fort Detrick researcher once labeled a "person of interest" in the case, a $5.8 million settlement to forgo a privacy lawsuit.

Significant mysteries remain, including whether the attacks that involved letters mailed from Florida and Princeton, N.J., could have been carried out by one person. And many questions remain about Ivins.

Safety officials and lawmakers have wondered how the scientist was able to maintain his security clearance despite emotional problems that led Jean C. Duley, a therapist, to seek a protective order against him last month.

The Army issued final rules last week that would cover workers who act in an aggressive or threatening manner. Those employees would be denied access to toxic or lethal biological agents under the revised regulations. Other potentially disqualifying personality traits include "arrogance, inflexibility, suspiciousness, hostility . . . and extreme moods or mood swings," according to the document.

A spokeswoman for USAMRIID said Fort Detrick had been operating under interim rules covering the same behavior for some time.

Response: August 05, 2008 @ 08:20 AM: frederick.county http://www.fredericknewspost.com/sections/news/display_comments.htm?StoryID=78406#postComments

The freeze-drying equipment that Ivins signed out, whereby one could conceivably make dry anthrax spores, was part of his job, wherein he was working on a project for DARPA. He was told to do so, so that item still does not make the indiviidual suspicious. One huge danger in any investigation is stating that "this is the suspect so now find anything that ties the suspect to the crime," is that anything circumstantialis brought in. For example, regarding the New Jersey sorority tie, the investigators originally brought a picture of Hatfill to the sorority and asked individuals therein if they ever saw Hatfill by the mailbox where the letters were allegedly mailed. And the FBI still cannot tie Ivns to being at that mailbox.

2008 (August 07) - The Baltimore Sun (Pages A1 and A6) : "All files pointed to Ivins, FBI Says" 

 Full newspaper page A1 : [HN02G0][GDrive]  /  Clip above :  [HN02G1][GDrive
Full newspaper page , page A6 : [HN0180][GDrive] /  Clip above : [HN0181][GDrive

2008 (Aug 09)  - Blogspot Something Is Strange - "Katherine Heerbrandt 08/08/08 Frederick News Post -   Finding Dr. Evil "

Source : [HW007P][GDrive 

A USA Today article in October 2004, opens with a description of Bruce Ivins' mindset during the anthrax leaks at USAMRIID:

"Bruce Ivins was troubled by the dust, dirt and clutter on his officemate's desk, and not just because it looked messy. He suspected the dust was laced with anthrax."

Given years of sloppy practices, highlighted in a 361-page Army report, some experts questioned the ability of prosecutors to ultimately make a case against the anthrax killer.

"Any defense lawyer should read this report carefully and keep it in mind when DNA results are being quoted against his (or) her client," says Martin Hugh-Jones of Louisiana State University, a leading expert on anthrax.

Fast forward four years. The FBI is satisfied. Case closed. The deadly missives were apparently sent by none other than a researcher who'd assisted in the investigation.

So the perpetrator was in the FBI's own backyard from the start, just not the one it investigated for years. Not until some breakthrough science technique was developed did the FBI go back to square one.

Never mind the mile-wide holes concerning motive, opportunity and the lack of direct evidence in the case. (Nothing turned up in the search of Ivins' home or car that ties him to the mailings. The new science that nailed him has yet to be vetted by outside experts. He cannot be placed in Trenton, N.J., when the letters were mailed, and his extracurricular lab work began in August 2001, making it possible Ivins was working on his anthrax vaccine that had just lost FDA approval.)

Forget that Ivins was convicted without contributing to his defense. And as Hugh-Jones said, a defense attorney could have a field day with the case.

That's only part of the problem.

The FBI zeroed in on another kooky scientist, pouring millions into sniffing after him for any connection to the crime. This is the same agency that waited nine months to canvass New Jersey drop boxes, the same agency that believed the anthrax came from Detrick, but entrusted a large part of its investigation to Detrick scientists.

When doubts surfaced about Ivins, why was he allowed anywhere near the labs? From FBI accounts, Ivins was a dangerous man who became increasingly crazed when he came under the FBI microscope, yet he was allowed to continue his work at Detrick. Talk about insanity.

Whether you believe the FBI got its man or there's more to the story, a review of the investigation is in order. If in fact Ivins was the country's own Dr. Evil, what does that say about our ability to be victorious in the "war against terror?"

The killer targeted government and the media and the FBI embarked on its most costly and exhaustive investigation in history. Fear helped catapult us into the Patriot Act and a war that's cost the lives of thousands of Americans and hundreds of thousands of civilians. This deserves more than pinning it on a dead man and walking away

House Republican and chairman of the Intelligence Oversight Panel Rush Holt is skeptical and he should be. 

In an e-mail statement, Holt wants to know "why investigators remained focused on Dr. Hatfill long after they had begun to suspect Dr. Ivins of the crime and why investigators are so certain that Ivins acted alone. In addition, there are important policy questions for handling any future incidents of bioterrorism. I will continue to conduct additional oversight on this issue over the course of the next several months." 

We'll be watching.

kheerbrandt@yahoo.com

POSTED BY ADMIN AT 11:55 AM   

2008 (Aug 09)  - Blogspot Something Is Strange - "AP News article 08/09/08 ... 'KKG sister claims stalking' .. Microbiologist says anthrax suspect was stalker /  By BEN NUCKOLS"

Source : [HW007O][GDrive]  

A microbiologist claims she was stalked for decades by Bruce Ivins, the suspect in the deadly anthrax mailings of 2001 who, according to court documents, was obsessed with the sorority she joined in college.

Nancy L. Haigwood and her former husband, Carl J. Scandella, also think Ivins may have wanted to get close to her when he moved in down the street from the couple in the suburbs of Washington in the early 1980s.

Ivins, an Army scientist, committed suicide last week as federal authorities prepared to charge him with killing five people by sending anthrax spores in the mail. The letters were dropped in a mailbox near a Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority office in Princeton, N.J., and prosecutors have suggested Ivins chose that location because of its proximity to the office.

In another development, the Justice Department sent a letter to the lawyer for Steven Hatfill, another military scientist who was a colleague of Ivins, formally exonerating Hatfill after saying earlier this week that Ivins was the only suspect. In 2002, law enforcement officials called Hatfill a "person of interest" in the investigation, a claim that brought a lawsuit from Hatfill the following year.

The federal government awarded Hatfill $5.8 million to settle his violation of privacy lawsuit against the Justice Department earlier this year. Hatfill claimed the Justice Department violated his privacy rights by speaking with reporters about the case

In the case of Haigwood, now the director of the Oregon National Primate Research Center, she said she suspected Ivins in the anthrax mailings as early as November 2001, when he e-mailed her, his immediate family and other scientists a photo of himself working with what he called "the now infamous 'Ames' strain" of anthrax, which was used in the attacks. She reported her suspicions to the FBI in 2002 and, at the behest of investigators, kept in touch with Ivins by e-mail and shared their correspondence with investigators.

Haigwood, 56, met Ivins in the late 1970s when he was doing a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of North Carolina, where she earned her doctorate. She was cordial to him, but she noticed that he took an unusual interest in her Kappa membership.

In the summer of 1982, Haigwood moved in with Scandella, then her fiancee, in a townhouse in the Washington, D.C., suburb of Montgomery Village. On Nov. 30 that year, Scandella awoke to find the Greek letters "KKG" spray-painted on the rear window of his car and on the sidewalk and fence in front of the home. Although a police report filed by Scandella does not mention any possible suspects, Haigwood quickly concluded that Ivins was responsible.

"My address wasn't published, and I only lived there a short while before Carl and I got married and moved out of state," Haigwood said Friday. "No one knew my address or my phone number. You had to stalk me to figure this stuff out."

Records show that Ivins was living on the same street, about a block away, shortly after the incident. It was not clear when he moved in. Scandella did not know that Ivins had been their neighbor until he was told Friday by a reporter.

"I was blown away by that," Scandella said. "I had no idea he lived anywhere in the vicinity ... I wonder if it's possible that Ivins moved to that location to be close to Nancy."

Soon after the vandalism, Haigwood bumped into Ivins — she doesn't remember where — and accused him.

"I said, 'This happened and I'm sure you're the one who did it,' and he denied it," Haigwood said. "And I said, 'Well, I'm still sure you did.' What can you do at that point?

Ivins kept in touch with Haigwood via phone calls, letters and e-mails, and while some of the correspondence made her uncomfortable, she never cut off contact with him, a decision she later regretted. She said she sent him polite but curt replies.

"He seemed to know a lot about myself, my children, things I never remembered telling him, which always disturbed me," she said. "I kept him at arm's length as best I could."

She also suspected Ivins of writing a letter in her name to The Frederick News-Post that defended hazing by Kappa members.

Haigwood passed on her suspicions about Ivins to the FBI after the American Society for Microbiology noted that a microbiologist was probably responsible for the anthrax mailings and asked its members to think of possible suspects.

Their e-mail correspondence from 2002 on was brief and cordial, although Ivins did reveal that he was under a lot of stress.

Investigators have said that between 2000 and 2006, Ivins was prescribed antidepressants, antipsychotics and anti-anxiety drugs. The Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick in Frederick, Md., where Ivins worked, has offered no explanation for why he was allowed to work with some of the world's most dangerous toxins while suffering from serious mental health problems

It wasn't until November 2007, after the FBI raided his Frederick home, that Fort Detrick revoked his laboratory access, effectively putting him on desk duty. In the meantime, Haigwood said she worried about what Ivins was up to in the lab

"After a while, after I decided that he was probably the perpetrator, I was afraid of him," Haigwood said. "I thought that if he found out I had turned him in, he would go after me. And he knew how to do that. This is something his colleagues don't seem to recognize in him."

Haigwood said she was not aware of Ivins stalking any other Kappa sisters.

In an interview Friday, Kappa Kappa Gamma executive director Lauren Sullivan Paitson said the FBI asked in August 2007 for help documenting decades' worth of Ivins' contacts with the sorority, including breaking into the now-closed chapter house at the University of Maryland. The sorority disbanded at Maryland in 1992.

But before being contacted by the FBI, Paitson had been engaged in an editing war on Wikipedia.com with a writer by the name of "jimmyflathead" who threatened to post secret rituals and bad publicity about the sorority on the Web site. Court affidavits listed "jimmyflathead@yahoo.com" among Ivins personal e-mail addresses.

Only after the government asked for the sorority's help did Paitson realize that the online Kappa nemesis was the top suspect in the anthrax investigation.

"We already had firsthand experience with him, going back and forth," she said.

The sorority did not threaten Ivins with legal action as a result of the Wikipedia editing dispute, and Paitson said she was assured by the FBI that none of the Kappa chapters or members nationwide would be targeted with anthrax letters.

She declined to give more details, citing the privacy of the members of the sorority.

POSTED BY ADMIN AT 12:19 PM   

2008 (Aug 09)  - Blogspot Something Is Strange - "Editorial by Admin"

Source : [HW007R][GDrive]