Bud Ray Pembroke (born 1931)

1967 - "The Computer Instruction NETWORK" in US Senate Hearings

1967-usa-senate-education-legislation-hearings-committee-on-labor-and-public-welfare.pdf [HG005Z][GDrive]

Just s-1125-hr-7819 - [HG0060][GDrive]

page 3 - title

page 4 - attendance

Note -


WAYNE MORSE, Oregon, Chairman

pg 477

Senator Herbert Lehman offered Morse his seat on the Labor Committee, which Morse ultimately accepted.[43]


CI network 478 to 481

482 to 485


1968 (April) - DEC User's Society - Papers



1968-04-dec-users-society-spring-1968-papers-and-presentations-pg-49-img-1 to 1968-04-dec-users-society-spring-1968-papers-and-presentations-pg-53-img-1

"CINET-BASIC'" = "Computer Instruction NETWORK - BASIC "


The presentation will cover the present use of the PDP-Sis as a portable computer in several curricular areas in schools within the Computer Instruction NETWORK. The use of machine language will be discussed along with the use of CINIC as a "Load and Go" conversational compiler. CINIC "Computer Instruction NETWORK Instructional Compiler" was patterned after a subset of BASIC for the 4K core memory of the PDP-Sis.

The authors will include a description of the instructions, examples of programs, and a candid explanation of advantages and limitations of this language.

The Computer Instruction NETWORK is an ESEA Title III Federal Project, covering a four-county area in Oregon. Our purpose is to assist high school students in the learning of computer concepts. Computers as an area of study, is our main goal, rather than using computers to assist the student in problem-solving in other phases of the curriculum. We feel that in order ~o fulfill our objectives, a student must have hands-on experience. Each pupil should be able to press the buttons in running his own program. Computers are supplied for each of the schools cooperating in the C. I. NETWORK. We have been using the least expensive general-purpose PDP-Bls and other similar machines. These are portable enough to allow a sharing of machinery among several schools.

We strive to make effective use of classroom time.

In addition to the computer and the on-line teletype, each classroom also has another teletype leased from the telephone company. Thus, one student can be pre-punching programs on tape, while another is running or debugging his program.

Also, to conserve machine time during the class period, we use what we call load-and-go preparation programs. These allow the student to pre-punch an appropriate tape on the off-line teletype, and read it into the computer. As the tape is being read, the preparation program is translating the teletype codes into machine language instructions which are immediately stored in the computer's memory. Now as soon as the tape has been read, the program is ready to be run. There is no waiting for intermediate tapes to be punched or processed. Operational at the present time are the Machine Language Loader (MALL) and C. I. NETWORK's Instructional Compiler (CINIC). Assembly Loader of C. I. NETWORK (ALCIN) is still in the developmental stage.

The Machine Language Loader program allows the programmer to type the first address of a block of computer storage, and then type the instructions or data to be deposited in that block. The MALL program translates the octal teletype codes into machine binary configuration and deposits each word in successive storage locations. A new block may be started at any time, by typing the first address of that block. When using this procedure, the only storage locations not available to the programmer are the page and a half containing the RIM, BIN, and MALL loading programs.

As the student learns the language that the computer uses, he can grasp a much clearer idea of the concepts involved in machine operation. One way of teaching about an instruction or programming concept is to allow the machine to be in Single In~ruction mode. The students can observe the various registers and notice how the computer deals with the data and addresses during each instruction.

Debugging can be done in a similar way. A student can try a program that does not run correctly, operating one instruction after the other on his own.

By observing the console lights, he can find the incorrect steps in his procedure. This, of course, is meaningful only to the programmer who is familiar with the octal representation of the instructions, data, and addresses.

Since the C. I. NETWORK is, in most cases, teaching the most basic concepts of computer use to completly inexperienced people, we must start slowly and simply. The first programs are restricted to page zero. This eliminates much of the complicated explanation that would have to

1968 (July 16) - NSF / federal funding




1968 - DEC Users Society - CINET-BASIC - Papers presented by Bud Pembroke



Papers -


Bud R. Pembroke and Dave Gillette, Computer Instruction NETWORK, Salem, Oregon

This paper will concern itself with the use of CINET -BASIC in the classroom. It will include sample problems and a discussion of the variations between this BAS IC and other existing BAS IC languages. CINET -BAS IC (Computer Instruction NETwork's BAS IC) was written using FOCAL's subroutines for the standard PDP-S series with 4K memory and ASR-33 Teletype.



1968 (Oct 21) - FULL CINET-BASIC User Guide (catalog Number 8-159)





1969 (Sep) - Mentioned in book by Judith B. Edwards


Source - [HB004D][GDrive]


In 1962 two teachers in Oregonschools 30 miles apart began experi-menting with teaching about computers.During the next three years, Mrs.Marian Putnam at North Salem HighSchool and Mr. Bud Pembroke at LakeOswego High School successfullyincorporated one-month units in computerconcepts into existing mathematics courses.

Students in these classes learned about computersby actually programmingand operating a simple digital computer.The classroom computer had beendeveloped several years earlier at OregonCollege of Education with a grantfrom the National Science Foundation.

The Salem School District and the StateDepartment of Education,

together with the Marion County IntermediateEducation


'strict, decided in1965 the good things happening in thesetwo schools should be studiedandexpanded to other districts.

A proposal for a planning grant waswritten and funded under TitleIIIof the Elementary and Secondary EducationAct.Forty secondary schools ina four-county areaparticipated in the eight-month planningphase which began!n the summer of 1966.It resulted in an operational grantfor a program,which began in the summer of1967.The, Title III` ;project, called ComputerInstruction NETWORK, has operatedthrough the Marion County lEDand has received some $100,000 per year foreach of three years.

Several new procedures for computer instruction have been tried andevaluated.The results of these experiences are reported in this monographto help other schools plan and implement programs for teaching with and about computers.



Sharpe, William F.BASIC:An Introduction to Computer ProgrammingUsing the BASIC Language.New York, N. Y.:The Free Press, 1967.

The first half of the book describes BASIC and its useand containsa set of problems andsolutions for each chapter.The last halfhas four appe dices, two explaining the Dartmouthand Universityof Washington systems, one containing a shortlibrary of BASICprograms and one being a summaryof the language.Some previousknowledge ofowcharting would be helpful to a reader sincethere is none included.The problems and library programs aregenerally oriented to economics and the social scie cesrather thanphysical sciences.


1969 (November) - DEC User's Society Catalog - Mentioning of CINET-BASIC and Bud Pembroke



DECUS No. 8-159


Bud Pembroke and David Gillette, Computer Instruction NETWORK, Salem, Oregon

This interpretive compiler was patterned after Dartmouth's BASIC. It was built by modifying DEC'S FOCAL, and uses many of the same subroutines and/or methods. Error messages are given in terms of an error number and line number.

Storage Requirement: Main program locations 0000-3252 and 4600-7600 and user's code from 3252 on.

Minimum Hardware; A PDP-8 with 4K and an ASR-33









CINET-BASIiCs a binary-fotmat program originally written for DEC's PDP-8 computer by Bud Pembroke and David Gillette of the Computer Instruction Network, Salem, Oregon. The program is fully compatible with the PCM-12 computer manufactured by PCM, Inc., San Ramon, California. While not as powerful as the other BASIC language interpreters available from DEC for the PDP-8 series computers, CINET-BASIiCs nonetheless a powerful programming tool in the hands of an experienced programmer. For the beginner, it is perhaps easier to learn than most forms of BASIC, due to the abbreviated list of available instructions. The interpreter requires a PCM-12w ith 4096 words of memory and a Model 33 or 35 Teletype or CRT terminal as a minimum system configuration. The Teletype machine wi 11 a 11 ow use of paper tape; a CRT terminal used for input/output will require use of a separate paper tape reader for program entry, or optionally, an audio cassette recorder with the cassette form of the interpreter. No listing of the interpreter is available.

The CINET-BASIiCn terpreter is available to members of the Digital Equipment Corporation User's Society (DECUSi)n paper-tape form. Ordered from DECUS,

CINET-BASIcCo mes with a PDP-8 oriented write-up. The DECUSca talog number is


This BASIC-language interpreter has been successfully checked out by PCM, Inc. on the PCM-12 computer. However, PCM makes no representation of any kind as to the accuracy, reliability or performance of this software,, and assumes no responsibility for the use of CINET-BASIiCn the user's equipment or system.

PCM reserves the right to change, modify, delete or add to the information given in this manual, and to the binary paper tape, at any time without notice.

NOTE: DEC, PDP, FOCAaLn d DECUSar e registered trademar~s of Digital Equipment Corporation, Maynard, MA. Teletype is a registered trademark of the Teletype Corporation, Skokie, IL.





Jul 12, 2018, 11:28:04 AM

to ed.sp...@gmail.com, AndyB, PiDP-8

From what I have heard, the TSS8 BASIC is ghastly compared to all of the other PDP-8 BASIC implementations, not that they are all that equal in capability either, but they occupy different corners of the same "universe" at least whereas the TSS8 one is in "uncharted space".

Many of the implementations of PDP-8 BASIC [the rest of them!] are the product of a small number of people, all my long-term friends.and colleges from Brookllyn Poly. They all bounced ideas off of each other, and thus they have common "roots" in many ways.

There is also an effect of "perfecting" their craft, thus the newer ones in certain ways exceed the previous ones [but not necessarily and of course there are steps backwards]..

There is actually one additional "BASIC" that is definitely worse: So-called CINET "BASIC".

This is a sham program. It is nothing more than patched FOCAL so the command names seem to be somewhat more BASIC-like. That said, FOCAL is not written to flow the same way as BASIC, thus even if you state some code within it somewhat successfully, it won't work the same way! In fact, FOCAL shares some of the same limitations of later languages such as PASCAL that are incapable of breaking out of loops because there is no proper stack manipulation. You seem to break out, yet it continues to execute from the top anyway!

[Note: FOCAL is more of a "structured" language because it really doesn't implement unconditional GOTO; in loops it just can make "local" changes and the statements are all performed with a DO statement, etc.

BASIC to be faithful must be able to purge any stack in place so that when you leave an interative loop, you really leave it. This is taken for granted in languages such as FORTRAN and PL/I where the stacks are either non-existent or carefully defined.

A different project at Brooklyn Poly [some of the same people worked on that as well] was based on a descriptor language, etc. where the following two key elements were implemented:

a) Mark the stack. This means that if necessary, this is the one you will want to reference. Each marked position has a unique number.

b) Purrge to mark. Any and all stack elements are removed all the way back to the proper marked stack element. Thus, the stack is always properly cleaned up.

When such language elements are allowed to be handled without regard to standards, ineveitably code written in one cannot run in another, etc.



PCM-12 computer

Floppy Interface for PCM-12 Computer

Users of the PDP-8 compatible

PCM-12 microcomputer can attach the

Data Systems Design Model 210 floppy

disk system to their computers through

this interface module. The 12440

module enables users to execute all

PDP-8 floppy disk diagnostics and makes

the PCM-12 compatible with the mass

storage operating systems developed for

the PDP-8. The PCM-12, built around

the Intersil IM6100 microprocessor, can

be used as a direct replacement for

PDP-8s in many applications. The 12440

interface module sells for $259 assembled

and $169 in kit form, with

volume discounts of 10 to 25 percent,

from Pacific Cyber/Metrix Inc, 3120

Crow Canyon Rd, San Ramon CA


Circle 636 on inquiry card.



page 698


CINET-BASIC 8-655 Revised: 2 February 1978 Author: Bud Pembroke and David Gillette Computer Instruction Network Revised by: G. Chase, OSB Portsmouth Abbey School, RI Operating System: Paper Tape Source Language: PAL-III,ODT Memory Required: 4K Special Hardware Required: Teletype with reader/punch recom-mended Abstract: CINET·BASIC is an interpretive compiler patterned after the original Dartmouth BASIC. It was built by modifying FOCAL-69, and uses many of the same subroutines and/or methods. Included are statements such as Let, Print, GO TO, IF-then, For and Next, GOSUB and Return, Input; and commands such as RUN, Edit, ERASE, LIST and Interrupt. Error messages are given in terms of an error number and line number. The program occupies locations 0000-3252 and 4600-7600. The user's written BASIC code is stored from 3252 on. This working storage can be expanded by deleting the trigonometric and exponential functions. Revisions included with this tape include new versions of the internal 'ALIGN' and 'FIX' routines. The "INT (X)" function now yields the correct result regardless of the value of the argument. A second patch implements the "SGN (X)" function with the restriction that it yields a + I result if X = 0, and it requires the use of core locations 7600-7610. DECUS 8-655 includes a revised binary tape of CINET-BASIC, and can be loaded without a checksum error. Note: Sources and listings of CINET-BASIC are not available. Media Price Code: A2, F6


Source : [HC003W][GDrive]

18 PDP-8 Abstracts CINET-BASIC and Patches, Version: February 1978 Author: Bud Pembroke and David Gillette, Computer Instruction NETWORK, Salem, OR Revised by: (Rev Dom) Geoffrey Chase, Portsmouth Abbey School, Portsmouth, RI Operating System: Paper Tape Snun:e Language: PAL-III, Memory Required: 4K 8-655 Abstract: CINET-BASIC is an interpretive compiler patterned after the original Dartmouth BASIC. It was built by modifying FOCAL-69, and uses many of the same subroutines and/or methods. Included are statements such as Let, Print, GO TO, IF-THEN, For and Next, GOSUB and Return, Input; and commands such as RUN, EDIT, ERASE, LIST and Interrupt. Error messages are given in terms of an error number and line number. The program occupies locations 0000-3252 and 4600-7600. The user's written BASIC code is stored from 3252 on. This working storage can be expanded by deleting the trigonometric and exponential functions. Revisions included with this tape include new versions of the internal 'ALIGN' and 'FIX' routines. The "INT (X)" function now yields the correct result regardless of the value of the argument. A second patch implements the "SGN (X)" function with the restriction that it yields a + I result if X = 0, and it requires the use of core locations 7600-7610. Note: DECUS No. 8-655 includes a revised binary tape of CINET-BASIC, and can be loaded without a checksum error. It replaces DECUS No. 8-159, CINET-BASIC which is now obsolete. No Source Available. Media PrIce Code: A3, F7

Google search for "Computer Instruction NETWORK"




Bread Trucks and Breakthroughs: Notes from the Early Days of Educational Computing

August 5, 2013 | By Fritz Holznagel

A photo of an old van with students lined up at the back and the words 'Computer Instruction Network' on the sideBread truck computing in Oregon, circa 1968. (Photo via Judy Allens’ online memoirs)

My uncle Don Holznagel recently surprised us with an email about Douglas Engelbart, the computer scientist who invented the mouse and other key features of modern computing:

“Jean alerted me to your item on Douglas Engelbart. I attended the Engelbart session referenced in all the recent news accounts of his death — the ‘mother of all demos’ where he demonstrated the mouse in text editing, hypertext, etc.”


Don spent much of his career in computer education. I remember visiting him in Minnesota in 1971 and playing a Civil War game on their huge mainframe computer there. It would print out the situation on paper: “You have 100 cannonballs, 1000 musket rounds,” and so forth. Then it would ask something like: “Attack or retreat?” You’d type in a response and then it would print out the new set of changed circumstances to deal with. It was a big deal for a kid in those days.

I asked Don if he’d share with our readers his impressions of the Engelbart presentation and other details of that era in computing. Our interview is below.

* * *

Who2: How did you get started with computing?

Don: I was introduced to Fortran programming in a summer math workshop in 1965. At the time I was teaching math to grades 10-12 in Parkrose, Oregon. I began to teach a unit on Fortran in an advanced math course, a 12th-grade Analysis class. We didn’t have computers in the schools at the time: I took the kids to the county data processing office on Saturdays so they could punch the cards and run the programs.

In 1967 I attended a workshop Judy Allen taught about the BASIC language, and became highly interested in the promise of computers in math and science. Judy was a pioneer in her own right in the introduction of computers to secondary school students.

Who2: How did you end up at the Engelbart presentation?

Don: Judy Allen was running a pioneering project in computers in education at the Marion County Education Service District in Salem, Oregon. She and I became acquainted and in June of 1968 she hired me into the project. She decided to send me to the Fall Joint Computer Conference in December 1968 to soak up the latest in computing.

A poster with Douglas Englebart's face and notes on his presentationA poster for Douglas Engelbart’s 1968 presentation. Image courtesy of the Bootstrap Institute.

The conference was at the San Francisco Convention Center, and the huge attendance was a mixture of computer science people and data processing types. Most were still using punched cards on batch processing computers, but many also were beginning to use interactive timesharing systems from terminals, which our project was also using in schools. I didn’t have a clue about Engelbart, but many in the audience were familiar with his research. However, all of us including the computer science types were blown away with his presentation and demonstration.

The detail that has stayed with me these 45 years is the image of Engelbart’s mouse demo, in which he used a common grocery list to show moving items around to reorder the list in categories, using only the mouse. I’ve remembered that image on many occasions, such as when the mouse was overshadowed by pressure pads in laptops. Even though the mouse was a research model, it worked almost flawlessly as did all of his demos.

You can actually see his presentation in a series of video clips online here. The grocery list is the substance of clip 5. In those days, this was astounding. In fact, the first 5 clips show how he grabbed everyone’s attention right from the start.

The news accounts say that the audience was awestruck, and I’ve used the word astounding to describe the event. You didn’t dare whisper to your neighbor for fear of missing something. Everyone there knew this was a turning point, that things in the field of human interaction with computers would never be the same. There was deafening applause at the end. I returned to the hotel and couldn’t adequately describe what I’d seen to my wife, Jean. I knew though that our use of interactive timesharing in schools was on the right track.

Who2: What was the general attitude toward computers in schools at the time?

Don: Essentially, few teachers and administrators envisioned them as useful in the classroom. They all knew that the payroll and class scheduling were done on a computer. The purpose of our project and a few others around the country funded at the same time was to explore and demonstrate other possibilities.

The first application that most teachers and administrators thought of was teaching kids to write programs. Their thought was that if computers are the future, we need to be preparing kids to use them. It seemed obvious then to parents and educators that an actual computer programming skill was what would give their kids a leg up on the future.

Nobody knew how computers could assist in teaching history or chemistry, and there was no software to help. Development of software, teacher guides, and teacher training was the work of the 1970s and ’80s.

Who2: It’s hard to remember, in these days of smart phones, that getting your hands on an actual computer used to be difficult.

Don: Yes. Developing microcomputers the size of typewriters came to fruition in the late ’70s, and into schools through the ’80s. Of course, you now hold in your hand computer power exceeding those by a huge margin.

Who2: How soon did you start to see any of the ideas Douglas Engelbart presented in actual working computers?

Don: It was a long time. I think the mouse was first marketed with the original Mac in 1984, but Apple had licensed it earlier in the development. In any case, it was 16 years from the Engelbart demo until it could be bought by any average person.

An IBM 1130 photo, with old-fashioned keyboard and a big ol' mainframeAn IBM 1130 computer console. Photo by Martin Skott, via Wikipedia.

Who2: What was your career with Judy Allen like?

Don: Judy’s project in Marion County was a federally-funded project called the Computer Instruction Network. The CIN project was based on three systems.

The “bread truck” — so-called because it was a delivery van of that style — housed an IBM 1130 computer with paper tape input. It was scheduled to visit about 16 or so high schools over 4 counties, about 2 a day if they weren’t far apart. Kids would write Fortran programs during the week, usually in a math class, and process them whenever the van showed up. We would drive it up to a school, trail 100 feet of cable to the nearest electric outlet, and plug in. The 3 others of us on the staff also drove that truck over four counties. Fun stuff!

The second method was to place teletype terminals with phone modems for several months in a number of schools (I don’t remember how many). We provided subscription access to GE Timesharing Systems which offered a version of the interactive BASIC language. Again usually in math classes, kids could write programs, but unlike the truck, they could go to the terminal and enter the programs when they were ready without waiting, and BASIC was easier to teach and use so you could focus on the problem to solve and not the language.

Photo of a boxy old computer, all metal and plugs, with 'Digital Equipment Corporation' written on topA PDP-8 computer, now on display at the Smithsonian. Photo by Wikipedia user Alkivar.

The third system was highly experimental. It was based on DEC PDP-8 mini-computers, which would fit on a card table and were about 10 inches high, with a teletype terminal. When I got to the project at the end of its first year, Judy and the two others had been writing their own version of interactive BASIC to fit in 8K storage. I couldn’t believe what they had accomplished. This meant that we could take an inexpensive computer to a school and leave it for awhile, and the kids could run as many programs as they wished without limited timeshare minutes or waiting on the truck schedule.

We used a small van to deliver it to a number of schools on a six-week schedule. This system was the wave of the future, and delivering it, doing teacher workshops, and writing teaching materials took most of my time. A neat aspect of the project was that we served small rural schools as well as the larger ones in Salem and Newberg.

Judy Allen also died in June, as it happens. Two pioneers in different parts of the field gone in a month. She was instrumental in my career in educational technology, twice hiring me for jobs: the first one in Salem and the next at the Northwest Regional Educational Lab in Portland (now Education Northwest).

Who2: What was the rest of your career like?

Don: After CIN in Salem, I worked for 10 years at TIES, a large school district cooperative in Minnesota, and then returned to Oregon to the Northwest Regional Educational Labs for 16 years. I finished my career in 1998 with 2 years at the Southeast Regional Lab in Greensboro, NC. It was an exciting time to work in educational technology, ranging from minicomputers to microcomputers to the Internet and two-way interactive video over 30 years. The most significant aspect over that time was that although many people were enamored of each new technical item, my work was focused on the improvement of instruction and the curriculum through software, which was the most important thing from my standpoint and in each of the places I worked.

Who2: You don’t happen to have any snapshots of you from the old days, do you? Bonus points if you’re wearing a pocket protector.

Don: Unfortunately, no. We did make a videotape in the last year of the CIN project which showed the 2 vans and some of the school locations. When I got back to Oregon, I contacted the County ESD video librarian and she said they had tossed it along with the other project materials after 10 years. In the 1970s in Minnesota and the 80s in Portland, we took some set-up shots with children of staff, but not in schools because you couldn’t take random classroom pics without getting parental permission for any kids that showed up. I don’t have any of the set-ups. I actually did use a pocket protector all the time in Minnesota!

* * *

Great stuff, and thanks to Don Holznagel for those fascinating details.

It’s worth pointing out that both Uncle Don and Douglas Engelbart were products of the Oregon public educational system — Don at Eastern Oregon College, and Engelbart at Oregon State. That’s the same public college system that produced Nobel-winner Linus Pauling (Oregon State) and so many other scientists and thinkers. Let us never stop funding public education.


Wedding? https://www.newspapers.com/image/198893603/?terms=%22bud%2Bpembroke%22

1977 - marriage - Bud R Pembroke to Ellen Fewick


Bud R Pembroke



Application Age:


Birth Date:

17 Jul 1931

Birth Place:

San Diego, California, USA

1969 - Gillette and Pembroke at the same wedding ..