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重要法偈

《重要法偈》Dhammagāthā


✩  禮佛偈 Vandanā


Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammā Sambuddhassa.

皈命──於世尊、阿羅漢、正等覺者

~ 《婆羅門相應‧Dhanañjānīsutta 陀然闇仁》 (SN 7.1, 187)


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✩  三皈依 Ti-saraṇa


Buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi;

我以佛為皈依處,

Dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi;

我以法為皈依處,

Saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi.

我以僧伽為皈依處。

~《因緣相應‧Acelakassapasutta 阿支羅》 (SN 12.17)


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✩  自洲、法洲 ―➢ 自燈明,法燈明!


    “Ye hi keci, ānanda, etarahi vā mama vā accayena attadīpā viharissanti attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā, dhammadīpā dhammasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā, tamatagge me te, ānanda, bhikkhū bhavissanti ye keci sikkhākāmā”ti.

    「阿難!於現在,或我滅後,若有人『以自燈明,隨時自歸依,不歸依他人;以法燈明,隨時法歸依,不歸依他人』者──阿難!彼等,於我比丘眾中,將在最高境地,必定樂於修學。」

~《長部經典‧Mahāparinibbānasutta 大般涅槃經》(DN 16, 165)


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✩  諸佛通偈


Sabbapāpassa akaraṇaṃ, kusalassa upasampadā;
Sacittapariyodapanaṃ, etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.


諸惡莫作,眾善奉行,自淨其意,是諸佛教。

~《法句經‧Ānandattherapañhavatthu 阿難問諸佛教誨》 (Dhp 14.4, 183)


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✩ 原始佛陀的教說,應與「三法印」相應──


“Sabbe saṅkhārā aniccā, sabbe saṅkhārā dukkhā, sabbe dhammā anattā.”

諸行無常,諸行是苦,諸法無我。

~《法句經‧Maggavagga 道品》(Dhp 277-279)


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✩ 原始佛陀的教說,應與「無常偈」相應──


“Aniccā vata saṅkhārā, uppādavaya dhammino;
Uppajjitvā nirujjhanti, tesaṃ vūpasamo sukho”ti.


諸行無常,是生滅法;
生滅滅已,寂滅為樂。

~《無始相應‧Vepullapabbatasutta 毘富羅山》(SN 15.20, 143)


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✩  原始佛陀的教說,應與「四聖諦」相應──


「月可令熱,日可令冷,
    佛說四諦,不可令異。」

苦諦實苦,不可令樂;
    集真是因,更無異因;
    苦若滅者,即是因滅,因滅故果滅;
    滅苦之道,實是真道,更無餘道。」

當勤精進,早求解脫;
    以智慧明,滅諸痴暗。」
~《佛遺教經》


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✩  不放逸 Appamādena


Vayadhammā saṅkhārā, appamādena sampādetha.

諸行皆是壞滅之法,
應自精進不放逸。


~《長部經典‧Mahāparinibbānasutta 大般涅槃經》 (DN 16, 183)


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✩  一夜賢者偈 Bhaddekaratta gāthā


Atītaṃ nānvāgameyya, nappaṭikaṅkhe anāgataṃ;
勿追於過去,勿願於未來;
     
Yadatītaṃ pahīnaṃ taṃ, appattañca anāgataṃ.
一切過去者,彼已皆捨棄,未來者未至!
       
Paccuppannañca yo dhammaṃ, tattha tattha vipassati;
而彼現在法,處處善觀察;

Asaṃhīraṃ asaṃkuppaṃ, taṃ vidvā manubrūhaye.
現觀五蘊法──不搖又不動,了知彼修習!

Ajjeva kiccamātappaṃ, ko jaññā maraṇaṃ suve;
唯應今日作──必須熱心作,誰知明日死?
         
Na hi no saṅgaraṃ tena, mahāsenena maccunā.
實謂無其事?不遇死大軍!

Evaṃ vihāriṃ ātāpiṃ, ahorattamatanditaṃ;
熱心如是住,晝夜不懈怠;

Taṃ ve bhaddekarattoti, santo ācikkhate muni.
此一夜賢者,謂靜寂默者。

~《中部經典‧Bhaddekarattasutta 一夜賢者經》(MN 131)


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✩  四預流果 Cattāri sotāpannassa aṅga


成就四不壞信 Cattāri aveccapasāda samannāgata

   ☆ 由「有信」於「親近善士」,成就「佛不壞信」 ➾ 由「慚愧」於「聽聞正法」,成就「法不壞信」 ➾ 由「精進」於「如理作意」,成就「僧不壞信」 ➾ 由「有慧」於「法隨法行」,成就「戒不壞信」。

一、  佛不壞信 Buddhānussati


    ⑴ Itipi so Bhagavā ① arahaṃ ② sammāsambuddho ③ vijjācaraṇasampanno ④ sugato ⑤ lokavidū ⑥ anuttaro ⑦ purisadammasārathi ⑧ satthā devamanussānaṃ ⑨ buddho ⑩ Bhagavā.

     如是,世尊實是:「① 阿羅漢──應供者、② 正遍知──正等覺、③ 明行足者、④ 善逝者、⑤ 世間解者、⑥ 無上士者、⑦ 調御丈夫者、⑧ 天人師、⑨ 佛、⑩ 世尊。」

    Indeed, the Blessed One is ① worthy and ② rightly self-awakened, ③ consummate in knowledge & conduct, ④ well-gone, ⑤ an expert with regard to the world, ⑥ unexcelled ⑦ as a trainer for those people fit to be tamed, ⑧ the Teacher of divine & human beings, ⑨ awakened, ⑩ blessed.
(Such indeed is the Blessed One, ① exalted, ② omniscient, ③ endowed with knowledge and virtues, ④ gone beyond, ⑤ knower of the worlds, ⑥ a guide incomparable ⑦ for the training of individuals, ⑧ teacher of gods and men, ⑨ enlightened ⑩ and holy.)


佛隨念



二、  法不壞信 Dhammānussati


    ⑵ Svākkhāto Bhagavatā dhammo ① sandiṭṭhiko ② akāliko ③ ehipassiko ④ opaneyyiko ⑤paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī.

     於正法成就不壞信,即:「世尊善說,① 現見之法、② 能超越時,③ 即身近觀,言能知見,④ 攝入引導、⑤ 唯智者所親證。」
     (世尊說正法律──「現見法,離熾燃;不待時節,通達涅槃;即身觀察,緣自覺知。」)

    The Dhamma is well-expounded by the Blessed One, ① to be seen here & now, ② timeless, ③ inviting verification, ④ pertinent, ⑤ to be realized by the wise for themselves.
(Well-expounded is the Dhamma by the Blessed One, ① to be self-realised; ② with immediate fruit; ③ to be but approached to be seen; ④ capable of being entered upon; ⑤ to be attained by the wise, each by himself.)


法隨念



三、  僧不壞信 Saṅghānussati


     ⑶ ① Suppaṭipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ② ujuppaṭipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ③ ñāyappaṭipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ④ sāmīcippaṭipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, yadidaṃ ⑤ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho ⑥ āhuneyyo ⑦ pāhuneyyo ⑧ dakkhiṇeyyo ⑨ añjalikaraṇīyo ⑩ anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā.

     世尊之聖弟子僧伽,即:「① 具足勝妙行、② 具足質直行、③ 具足如理行、④ 具足如法行,所謂 ⑤ 四雙八輩。世尊之聖弟子僧伽, ⑥ 應恭敬、⑦ 尊重、⑧ 供養、⑨ 合掌禮拜、⑩ 是世間之無上福田。」
     ( ① 具足勝妙行──指「親近善士」、② 具足質直行──指「聽聞正法」、③ 具足如理行──指「如理作意」、④ 具足如法行──指「法隨法行」)

    The Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples ① who have practiced well...② who have practiced straight-forwardly...③ who have practiced methodically...④ who have practiced masterfully-in other words, ⑤ the four types of noble disciples when taken as pairs, the eight when taken as individual types-they are the Sangha of the Blessed One's disciples: ⑥ worthy of gifts, ⑦ worthy of hospitality, ⑧ worthy of offerings, ⑨ worthy of respect, ⑩ the incomparable field of merit for the world.

(① Of good conduct is the Order of the Disciples of the Blessed One.
② Of upright conduct is the Order of the Disciples of the Blessed One.
③ Of wise conduct is the Order of the Disciples of the Blessed One.
④ Of dutiful conduct is the Order of the Disciples of the Blessed One.

    This Order of the Disciples of the Blessed One, namely, ⑤ these Four Pairs of Persons,
⑥ is worthy of offerings.
⑦ is worthy of hospitality,
⑧ is worthy of gifts,
⑨ is worthy of reverential salutation,
⑩ is an incomparable field of merits to the World.)


僧隨念



四、  戒不壞信 Sīlānussati


     ⑷ Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti ① akhaṇḍehi ② acchiddehi ③ asabalehi ④ akammāsehi ⑤ bhujissehi ⑥ viññuppasatthehi ⑦ aparāmaṭṭhehi ⑧ samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

    成就聖者所愛之戒,即:「① 不壞碎、② 無瑕疵、③ 無斑點、④ 無雜穢、⑤ 解脫自由、⑥ 智者所讚、⑦ 無執取、⑧ 導於定。」
     (① 不壞碎──指「正見」、② 無瑕疵──指「正思惟」、③ 無斑點──指「正語」、④ 無雜穢──指「正業」、⑤ 解脫自在──指「正命」、⑥ 智者讚歎──指「正精進」、⑦ 無執取──指「正念」、⑧ 導於定──指「正定」)

    He/she is endowed with virtues that are appealing to the noble ones: ① untorn, ② unbroken, ③ unspotted, ④ unsplattered, ⑤ liberating, ⑥ praised by the wise, ⑦ untarnished, ⑧ leading to concentration.


~《因緣相應‧Pañcaverabhayasutta 五罪畏(SN 12.41)


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✩  卡拉瑪經偈──佛陀法語


☆ 《卡拉瑪經》與《四大教法》的忠告 ☞ 「如是我聞」不能代表佛說!

    “❶ Mā anussavena, ❷ mā paramparāya, ❸ mā itikirāya, ❹ mā piṭakasampadānena, ❺ mā takkahetu, ❻ mā nayahetu, ❼ mā ākāraparivitakkena, ❽ mā diṭṭhinijjhānakkhantiyā, ❾ mā bhabbarūpatāya, ❿ mā samaṇo no garūti. Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanāva jāneyyātha – ‘① ime dhammā akusalā, ② ime dhammā sāvajjā, ③ ime dhammā viññugarahitā, ④ ime dhammā samattā samādinnā ahitāya dukkhāya saṃvattantī’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, pajaheyyāthā… Yadā tumhe, kālāmā, attanāva jāneyyātha – ‘⑤ ime dhammā kusalā, ⑥ ime dhammā anavajjā, ⑦ ime dhammā viññuppasatthā, ⑧ ime dhammā samattā samādinnā hitāya sukhāya saṃvattantī’ti, atha tumhe, kālāmā, upasampajja vihareyyāthā”ti.

    「❶ 汝等勿信風俗;❷ 勿輕信傳統;❸ 勿輕信聽聞;❹ 勿信因與經教相合;❺ 勿信基於推理;❻ 勿信基於研究;❼ 勿信情況考慮周詳;❽ 勿信見解卓越;❾ 勿信形象權威;❿ 勿信因此沙門,是我等祖師。

     卡拉瑪眾!若汝等發現──『① 此法是不善,② 此法是有罪,③ 此法是智者所訶毀,④ 如果實踐此法,能導致無益與苦!』卡拉瑪眾!其時,則應捨棄此法……。

     卡拉瑪眾!若汝等發現──『⑤ 此法是善,⑥ 此法是無罪,⑦ 此法是智者所稱讚,⑧ 如果實踐此法,能帶來利益快樂!』卡拉瑪眾!其時,則應圓滿受持!」

~《增支部經典‧三集‧Kesamuttisutta 卡拉瑪經》(AN 3.66)


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✩  三十二身分 Dvattiṃsa-ākāra


    ‘atthi imasmiṃ kāye ① kesā ② lomā ③ nakhā ④ dantā ⑤ taco, ⑥ maṃsaṃ ⑦ nhāru ⑧ aṭṭhi ⑨ aṭṭhimiñjaṃ ⑩ vakkaṃ, ⑪ hadayaṃ ⑫ yakanaṃ ⑬ kilomakaṃ ⑭ pihakaṃ ⑮ papphāsaṃ, ⑯ antaṃ ⑰ antaguṇaṃ ⑱ udariyaṃ ⑲ karīsaṃ [karīsaṃ ⑳ matthaluṅgaṃ (ka.)], ㉑ pittaṃ ㉒ semhaṃ ㉓ pubbo ㉔ lohitaṃ ㉕ sedo ㉖ medo, ㉗ assu ㉘ vasā ㉙ kheḷo ㉚ siṅghāṇikā ㉛ lasikā ㉜ mutta’nti.

     「在此身中,有① 頭髮、② 膚毛、③ 指甲、④ 牙齒、⑤ 皮膚,⑥ 肌肉,⑦ 筋腱、⑧ 骨、⑨ 髓、⑩ 腎,⑪ 心、⑫ 肝臟、⑬ 肋膜、⑭ 脾臟、⑮ 肺,⑯ 腸、⑰ 腸膈膜、⑱ 胃臟、⑲ 糞便、⑳ 腦,㉑ 膽汁、㉒ 痰、㉓ 膿、㉔ 血、㉕ 汗、㉖ 脂肪,㉗ 眼淚、㉘ 油、㉙ 唾液、㉚ 鼻涕、㉛ 骨液、㉜ 尿水。」

~《長部經典‧Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasutta 大念住經》 (DN 22, 377)


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