Medical Cases

Clinical Studies and Case Reports

 

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

Title

Author(s)

Year

Medication

(s)

Design –

Major outcome(s)

 

Show

Pain

A Randomized, Controlled Study to Investigate the Analgesic Efficacy of Single Doses of the Cannabinoid Receptor-2 Agonist GW842166, Ibuprofen or Placebo in Patients With Acute Pain Following Third Molar Tooth Extraction.

Ostenfeld T, Price J, Albanese M, Bullman J, Guillard F, Meyer I, Leeson R, Costantin C, Ziviani L, Nocini PF, Milleri S.

2011

Other cannabinoids

Controlled study

No superior analgetic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid GW842166 over placebo.

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Obsessive compulsive disorder

Dronabinol, a cannabinoid agonist, reduces hair pulling in trichotillomania: a pilot study.

Grant JE, Odlaug BL, Chamberlain SR, Kim SW.

2011

Delta-9-THC

Open study

Statistically significant reduction in symptom severity.

Show

Increased Blood Pressure Following Abrupt Cessation of Daily Cannabis Use.

Vandrey R, Umbricht A, Strain EC.

2011

Cannabis;Nabilone

Survey

In 6 of 13 subjects blood pressure increased significantly after cessation of cannabis use.

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Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Nausea/vomiting;Pain;Spasticity

[Cannabinoids in children] [Article in German] Cannabinoide bei Kindern.

Gottschling S.

2011

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Reduced pain, spasticity and improved appetite and nausea

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Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may palliate altered chemosensory perception in cancer patients: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.

Brisbois TD, de Kock IH, Watanabe SM, Mirhosseini M, Lamoureux DC, Chasen M, Macdonald N, Baracos VE, Wismer WV.

2011

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC improved taste and appetite

Show

Subjective and Physiological Effects After Controlled Sativex and Oral THC Administration.

Karschner EL, Darwin WD, McMahon RP, Liu F, Wright S, Goodwin RS, Huestis MA.

2011

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol

Controlled study

Oral THC and the cannabis extract Sativex produced similar effects

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Anxiety

Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naοve Social Phobia Patients.

Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Chagas MH, de Oliveira DC, De Martinis BS, Kapczinski F, Quevedo J, Roesler R, Schrφder N, Nardi AE, Martνn-Santos R, Hallak JE, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA.

2011

Cannabidiol

Controlled study

Cannabidiol significamtly reduced anxiety.

Show

Separate and combined effects of the cannabinoid agonists nabilone and Δ(9)-THC in humans discriminating Δ(9)-THC.

Lile JA, Kelly TH, Hays LR.

2011

Delta-9-THC;Nabilone

Controlled study

THC caused similar effects as nabilone

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Anxiety

Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report.

Crippa JA, Derenusson GN, Ferrari TB, Wichert-Ana L, Duran FL, Martin-Santos R, Simυes MV, Bhattacharyya S, Fusar-Poli P, Atakan Z, Santos Filho A, Freitas-Ferrari MC, McGuire PK, Zuardi AW, Busatto GF, Hallak JE.

2011

Cannabidiol

Controlled study

CBD reduces anxiety in patients with generalized social anxiety disorder.

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The cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol does not affect visceral sensitivity to rectal distension in healthy volunteers and IBS patients.

Klooker TK, Leliefeld KE, Van Den Wijngaard RM, Boeckxstaens GE.

2011

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC did not modify visceral perception to rectal distension.

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Pain

Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life.

Fiz J, Durαn M, Capellΰ D, Carbonell J, Farrι M.

2011

Cannabis

Open study

The use of cannabis was associated with reduction of some fibromyalgia symptoms.

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Cannabinoid effects on ventilation and breathlessness: A pilot study of efficacy and safety.

Pickering EE, Semple SJ, Nazir MS, Murphy K, Snow TM, Cummin AR, Moosavi S, Guz A, Holdcroft A.

2011

Cannabis

Controlled study

With cannabis participants felt less "air hunger" compared to placebo.

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Cancer

Spontaneous regression of septum pellucidum/forniceal pilocytic astrocytomas-possible role of Cannabis inhalation.

Foroughi M, Hendson G, Sargent MA, Steinbok P.

2011

Cannabis

Uncontrolled case report

Spontaneous regression of benign brain tumour may have been associated with cannabis use.

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Multiple sclerosis;Spasticity

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, enriched-design study of nabiximols* (Sativex(®) ), as add-on therapy, in subjects with refractory spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis.

Novotna A, Mares J, Ratcliffe S, Novakova I, Vachova M, Zapletalova O, Gasperini C, Pozzilli C, Cefaro L, Comi G, Rossi P, Ambler Z, Stelmasiak Z, Erdmann A, Montalban X, Klimek A, Davies P; the Sativex Spasticity Study Group.

2011

Cannabis

Controlled study

The cannabis extract significantly reduced spasticity.

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Tourette's syndrome

Cannabinoids improve driving ability in a Tourette's patient.

Brunnauer A, Segmiller FM, Volkamer T, Laux G, Mόller N, Dehning S

2011

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

THC improved driving ability

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Gastrointestinal disorder;Inflammation

Cannabis use amongst patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Lal S, Prasad N, Ryan M, Tangri S, Silverberg MS, Gordon A, Steinhart H.

2011

Cannabis

Survey

Cannabis use is frequent in patients with chronic intestinal inflammation

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Medical cannabis use in post-traumatic stress disorder: a naturalistic observational study.

Reznik I.

2011

Cannabis

Open study

In most cases a significant improvement in quality of life and pain, with some positive changes in severity of posttraumatic stress disorder was observed.

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The medicinal use of cannabis and cannabinoids: an international survey on methods of intake.

Hazekamp A, Grotenhermen F, Abrams D, Russo E, Ware M, Navarrete-Varo R, Brenneisen R, Mόller-Vahl K.

2011

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC;Nabilone

Survey

Preferred modes of use were smoking of cannabis (62.9 per cent), inhalation of cannabis with a vaporizer (23.6 per cent), oral use of cannabis in baked goods (7.9 per cent), oral use of cannabis as a tea (2.4 per cent), and oral use of dronabinol/Marinol (1.8 per cent).

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Diarrhoea;Gastrointestinal disorder;Inflammation

Treatment of Crohn's disease with cannabis: an observational study.

Naftali T, Lev LB, Yablekovitz D, Half E, Konikoff FM.

2011

Cannabis

Open study

Of the 30 patients 21 improved significantly

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Diarrhoea;Gastrointestinal disorder

Pharmacogenetic Trial of a Cannabinoid Agonist Shows Reduced Fasting Colonic Motility in Patients with Non-Constipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Wong BS, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Carlson P, Szarka LA, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR.

2011

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

Dronabinol reduces fasting motility of the colon in IBS patients with diarrhoea

Show

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind crossover trial.

Weber M, Goldman B, Truniger S.

2010

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

No changement of cramps with this dose of THC

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Cancer

Marijuana use is not associated with cervical human papillomavirus natural history or cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative women.

D'Souza G, Palefsky JM, Zhong Y, Minkoff H, Massad LS, Anastos K, Levine AM, Moxley M, Xue XN, Burk RD, Strickler HD.

2010

Cannabis

Open study

Cannabis use is not associated with cervical human papillomavirus natural history or cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative women.

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Nausea/vomiting

Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

Choukθr A, Kaufmann I, Kreth S, Hauer D, Feuerecker M, Thieme D, Vogeser M, Thiel M, Schelling G.

2010

Open study

Subjects who developed motion sickness had lower endocannabinoid levels in blood.

Show

Nausea/vomiting

Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

Choukθr A, Kaufmann I, Kreth S, Hauer D, Feuerecker M, Thieme D, Vogeser M, Thiel M, Schelling G.

2010

Open study

Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7) showed lower endocannabinoid levels during parabolic flights.

Show

Spasticity

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, double-blind crossover trial.

Weber M, Goldman B, Truniger S.

2010

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

There were no effects on cramp intensity, number of cramps and fasciculation intensity.

Show

Tourette's syndrome

Oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report.

Hasan A, Rothenberger A, Mόnchau A, Wobrock T, Falkai P, Roessner V.

2010

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

THC improved tics allowing parallel stimulant treatment of comorbid ADHD.

Show

Appetite loss/weight loss

Cannabidiol attenuates the appetitive effects of Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans smoking their chosen cannabis.

Morgan CJ, Freeman TP, Schafer GL, Curran HV.

2010

Cannabis

Open study

Effects depended on the ratio of CBD and THC with high CBD reducing appetite enhancing effects of THC.

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Spasticity;Spinal cord injury

A randomized, double-blinded, crossover pilot study assessing the effect of nabilone on spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury.

Pooyania S, Ethans K, Szturm T, Casey A, Perry D.

2010

Nabilone

Controlled study

There was a significant decrease in spasticity by nabilone.

Show

Dystonia

Tardive Dystonia and the Use of Cannabis.

Beckmann Y, Seηil Y, Gόngφr B, Yiğit T.

2010

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Significant improvement by cannabis and dronabinol.

Show

Dramatic improvement of refractory Isaacs' syndrome after treatment with dronabinol.

Meyniel C, Ollivier Y, Hamidou M, Pιrιon Y, Derkinderen P.

2010

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Dramathic improvement of symptoms (profuse sweating, muscular twitching, weight loss)

Show

The relationship between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder in a methadone maintenance treatment program.

Villagonzalo KA, Dodd S, Ng F, Mihaly S, Langbein A, Berk M.

2010

Cannabis

Survey

Cannabis may be used to self-treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Show

Improvement in refractory psychosis with dronabinol: four case reports.

Schwarcz G, Karajgi B.

2010

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Significant improvement in four patients

Show

Pain

An Open-Label Comparison of Nabilone and Gabapentin as Adjuvant Therapy or Monotherapy in the Management of Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy.

Bestard JA, Toth CC.

2010

Nabilone

Open study

The benefits of nabilone are similar as gabapentin

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Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy

Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Duran M, Pιrez E, Abanades S, Vidal X, Saura C, Majem M, Arriola E, Rabanal M, Pastor A, Farrι M, Rams N, Laporte JR, Capellΰ D.

2010

Cannabis

Controlled study

Cannabis was superior to placebo in reducing nausea and vomiting in patients refractory to other medications

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Pain

Effect of dronabinol on central neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

Rintala DH, Fiess RN, Tan G, Holmes SA, Bruel BM.

2010

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

No significant difference between THC and diphenhydramine.

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Multiple sclerosis

Randomized controlled trial of Sativex to treat detrusor overactivity in multiple sclerosis.

Kavia RB, De Ridder D, Constantinescu CS, Stott CG, Fowler CJ.

2010

Cannabis

Controlled study

The cannabis extract had some effect on overactive bladder symptoms.

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Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS

Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose dronabinol maintenance in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: a controlled laboratory study.

Bedi G, Foltin RW, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Comer SD, Vosburg SK, Haney M.

2010

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

Tolerance developed to the appetite-increasing effects of THC.

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Pain

Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial.

Ware MA, Wang T, Shapiro S, Robinson A, Ducruet T, Huynh T, Gamsa A, Bennett GJ, Collet JP.

2010

Cannabis

Controlled study

Cannabis improved pain and sleep quality.

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Cancer;Pain

Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group Study of the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of THC:CBD Extract and THC Extract in Patients With Intractable Cancer-Related Pain.

Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT.

2010

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

A cannabis extract containing THC and CBD was superior in reducing pain than placebo.

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Bipolar disorders

Opposite relationships between cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

Ringen PA, Vaskinn A, Sundet K, Engh JA, Jσnsdσttir H, Simonsen C, Friis S, Opjordsmoen S, Melle I, Andreassen OA.

2010

Cannabis

Survey

In bipolar disorder subjects, cannabis use was associated with better neurocognitive function, but the opposite was the case for the schizophrenia subjects.

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Pain

Randomised Placebo Controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial of Cannabis Based Medicinal Product (Sativex) in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Depression is a Major Confounding Factor.

Selvarajah D, Gandhi R, Emery CJ, Tesfaye S.

2010

Cannabis

Controlled study

No difference between cannabis extract and placebo.

Show

Pain

The effects of nabilone on sleep in fibromyalgia: results of a randomized controlled trial.

Ware MA, Fitzcharles MA, Joseph L, Shir Y.

2010

Nabilone

Controlled study

Improvement of sleep by nabilone.

Show

PTSD contributes to teen and young adult cannabis use disorders.

Cornelius JR, Kirisci L, Reynolds M, Clark DB, Hayes J, Tarter R.

2010

Cannabis

Survey

People with PTSD have a higher risk for cannabis use

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Pain

Adjuvant topical therapy with a cannabinoid receptor agonist in facial postherpetic neuralgia.

Phan NQ, Siepmann D, Gralow I, Stδnder S.

2010

Other cannabinoids

Open study

Five of eight patients experienced a good pain relief

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HIV/AIDS;Pain

Smoked medicinal cannabis for neuropathic pain in HIV: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.

Ellis RJ, Toperoff W, Vaida F, van den Brande G, Gonzales J, Gouaux B, Bentley H, Atkinson JH.

2009

Cannabis

Controlled study

Significant pain relief with cannabis.

Show

Treatment of a hyperkinetic movement disorder during pregnancy with dronabinol.

Farooq MU, Ducommun E, Goudreau J.

2009

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Improvement of her hyperkinetic movement disorder with no signs of tolerance

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Effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans.

Beaumont H, Jensen J, Carlsson A, Ruth M, Lehmann A, Boeckxstaens GE.

2009

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC reduced acid reflux episodes in the first hour after a meal.

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Multiple sclerosis

Psychopathological and cognitive effects of therapeutic cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis: a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study.

Aragona M, Onesti E, Tomassini V, Conte A, Gupta S, Gilio F, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M.

2009

Cannabis

Controlled study

Cannabis did not impair cognition

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Nausea/vomiting;HIV/AIDS;Pain;Depression;Anxiety

Marijuana Effectiveness as an HIV Self-Care Strategy.

Corless IB, Lindgren T, Holzemer W, Robinson L, Moezzi S, Kirksey K, Coleman C, Tsai YF, Sanzero Eller L, Hamilton MJ, Sefcik EF, Canaval GE, Rivero Mendez M, Kemppainen JK, Bunch EH, Nicholas PK, Nokes KM, Dole P, Reynolds N.

2009

Cannabis

Survey

Participants rated cannabis as similar effective as other medications for the treatment of their symptoms.

Show

Relief oriented use of marijuana by teens.

Bottorff JL, Johnson JL, Moffat BM, Mulvogue T.

2009

Cannabis

Survey

20 participants said that they used cannabis to treat health problems.

Show

Intestinal Lymphatic Transport Enhances the Post-Prandial Oral Bioavailability of a Novel Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist Via Avoidance of First-Pass Metabolism.

Trevaskis NL, Shackleford DM, Charman WN, Edwards GA, Gardin A, Appel-Dingemanse S, Kretz O, Galli B, Porter CJ.

2009

Other cannabinoids

Controlled study

Systemic bioavailability of the cannabinoid CRA13 increased by more than 4-fold if taken together with a fat-rich meal.

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Headache/migraine

Cluster attacks responsive to recreational cannabis and dronabinol.

Robbins MS, Tarshish S, Solomon S, Grosberg BM.

2009

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Cannabis and THC aborted attacks of headaches.

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Dependency/withdrawal

Intermittent marijuana use is associated with improved retention in naltrexone treatment for opiate-dependence.

Raby WN, Carpenter KM, Rothenberg J, Brooks AC, Jiang H, Sullivan M, Bisaga A, Comer S, Nunes EV

2009

Cannabis

Open study

Better adherence to natrexone therapy with intermittend cannabis use

Show

Synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) can improve the symptoms of schizophrenia.

Schwarcz G, Karajgi B, McCarthy R.

2009

Cannabis

Open study

Improvement in 4 of 6 participants, of whom 3 showed a significant improvement.

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Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis

Lack of effect of cannabis-based treatment on clinical and laboratory measures in multiple sclerosis.

Centonze D, Mori F, Koch G, Buttari F, Codecΰ C, Rossi S, Cencioni MT, Bari M, Fiore S, Bernardi G, Battistini L, Maccarrone M.

2009

Cannabis

Controlled study

There was no effect of the cannabis extract on spasticity

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Spasticity;Pain

Reposition of a dislocated shoulder under use of cannabis.

Schweizer A, Bircher HP.

2009

Cannabis

Uncontrolled case report

Pain and muscular tone decreased and the shoulder was relocated easily.

Show

Dependency/withdrawal

White matter integrity in adolescents with histories of marijuana use and binge drinking.

Jacobus J, McQueeny T, Bava S, Schweinsburg BC, Frank LR, Yang TT, Tapert SF.

2009

Cannabis

Open study

Brain damage was less in alcohol users who used also cannabis than in alcohol only users.

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Dependency/withdrawal

Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

Reiman A.

2009

Cannabis

Survey

40 % use cannabis to substitute for alcohol, 26 % to substitute for illegal drugs

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Pain

Characteristics of patients with chronic pain accessing treatment with medical cannabis in Washington State.

Aggarwal SK, Carter GT, Sullivan MD, ZumBrunnen C, Morrill R, Mayer JD.

2009

Cannabis

Open study

88 % suffer from more than one pain syndrome

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Cancer

A population-based case-control study of marijuana use and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Liang C, McClean MD, Marsit C, Christensen B, Peters E, Nelson HH, Kelsey KT.

2009

Cannabis

Survey

Subjects who used cannabis had a reduced cancer risk.

Show

Multiple sclerosis;Pain

Cannabinoid-induced effects on the nociceptive system: a neurophysiological study in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Conte A, Bettolo CM, Onesti E, Frasca V, Iacovelli E, Gilio F, Giacomelli E, Gabriele M, Aragona M, Tomassini V, Pantano P, Pozzilli C, Inghilleri M.

2009

Cannabis

Controlled study

The study provides objective neurophysiological evidence that cannabinoids modulate the nociceptive system.

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Nausea/vomiting

Use of medical marijuana for treatment of severe intractable nausea after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: case report.

Merriman AR, Oliak DA.

2008

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

THC relieved nausea refractory to other medications

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Pain

Comparison of analgesic effects and patient tolerability of nabilone and dihydrocodeine for chronic neuropathic pain: randomised, crossover, double blind study.

Frank B, Serpell MG, Hughes J, Matthews JN, Kapur D.

2008

Nabilone

Controlled study

Nabilone as effective as hydrocodeine in treating neuropatic pain

Show

Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss

Evaluation of oral cannabinoid-containing medications for the management of interferon and ribavirin-induced anorexia, nausea and weight loss in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C virus.

Costiniuk CT, Mills E, Cooper CL

2008

Delta-9-THC;Nabilone

Open study

Improvement of appetite and reduction of nausea and vomiting by nabilone and dronabinol (THC)

Show

Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Pain

Adjunctive nabilone in cancer pain and symptom management: a prospective observational study using propensity scoring.

Maida V, Ennis M, Irani S, Corbo M, Dolzhykov M.

2008

Nabilone

Open study

Significant improvement of pain

Show

Pain

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Cannabis Cigarettes in Neuropathic Pain.

Wilsey B, Marcotte T, Tsodikov A, Millman J, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Fishman S.

2008

Cannabis

Controlled study

Significant improvement of pain

Show

Improvement in refractory obsessive compulsive disorder with dronabinol.

Schindler F, Anghelescu I, Regen F, Jockers-Scherubl M.

2008

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Significant symptom improvement

Show

Multiple sclerosis;Dystonia

Current status of cannabis treatment of multiple sclerosis with an illustrative case presentation of a patient with MS, complex vocal tics, paroxysmal dystonia, and marijuana dependence treated with dronabinol.

Deutsch SI, Rosse RB, Connor JM, Burket JA, Murphy ME, Fox FJ.

2008

Delta-9-THC

Open study

Significant improvement of symptoms

Show

Pain

Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers.

Kraft B, Frickey NA, Kaufmann RM, Reif M, Frey R, Gustorff B, Kress HG.

2008

Cannabis

Controlled study

The cannabis extract showed no analgesic effect in acute experimental pain

Show

Pain

Analgesic and antihyperalgesic effects of nabilone on experimental heat pain.

Redmond WJ, Goffaux P, Potvin S, Marchand S.

2008

Nabilone

Controlled study

Nabilone did not reduce experimental heat pain

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Alzheimer's disease

The cannabinoid receptor agonist nabilone for the treatment of dementia-related agitation.

Passmore MJ.

2008

Nabilone

Uncontrolled case report

Dramatic reduction in the severity of agitation and other behavioural symptoms

Show

Dependency/withdrawal

Use of dronabinol for cannabis dependence: two case reports and review.

Levin FR, Kleber HD.

2008

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

THC reduced withdrawal symptoms in cannabis dependence

Show

Pain

Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.

Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D.

2008

Nabilone

Controlled study

Nabilone improved symptoms and was well-tolerated

Show

Pain

Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy.

Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN.

2008

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC reduced pain

Show

Cancer

Nabilone for the treatment of paraneoplastic night sweats: a report of four cases.

Maida V.

2008

Nabilone

Open study

Significant improvement of night sweats within 2 days

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Pain

A prospective identification of neuropathic pain in specific chronic polyneuropathy syndromes and response to pharmacological therapy.

Toth C, Au S.

2008

Cannabis;Nabilone

Open study

Similar treatment effects and side effects of cannabinoids compared to other medications

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Pain

Open-label, add-on study of tetrahydrocannabinol for chronic nonmalignant pain.

Haroutiunian S, Rosen G, Shouval R, Davidson E.

2008

Delta-9-THC

Open study

5 patients reported adequate response to the treatment.

Show

Epilepsy

Marijuana: an effective antiepileptic treatment in partial epilepsy? A case report and review of the literature.

Mortati K, Dworetzky B, Devinsky O.

2007

Cannabis

Uncontrolled case report

Significant improvement of epilepsy with the use of cannabis.

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Pain

Dose-dependent effects of smoked cannabis on capsaicin-induced pain and hyperalgesia in healthy volunteers.

Wallace M, Schulteis G, Atkinson JH, Wolfson T, Lazzaretto D, Bentley H, Gouaux B, Abramson I.

2007

Cannabis

Controlled study

A medium dose of cannabis reduced pain, while a high dose increased pain induced by capsaicin

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Multiple sclerosis;Pain

Oromucosal ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial.

Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Young CA.

2007

Cannabis

Open study

No development of tolerance within a period of two years of treatment

Show

[Fitness to drive in spite (because) of THC] [Article in German]

Strohbeck-Kόhner P, Skopp G, Mattern R.

2007

Cannabis

Uncontrolled case report

Significant improvement of driving-related performance

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Pain

Sativex successfully treats neuropathic pain characterised by allodynia: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Nurmikko TJ, Serpell MG, Hoggart B, Toomey PJ, Morlion BJ, Haines D.

2007

Cannabis

Controlled study

Significant improvement in pain by cannabis

Show

Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study.

Abrams DI, Vizoso HP, Shade SB, Jay C, Kelly ME, Benowitz NL

2007

Cannabis

Controlled study;Basic research

Vaporization of cannabis is a safe and effective mode of delivery of THC

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Appetite loss/weight loss

Anorexia of aging in long term care: is dronabinol an effective appetite stimulant? - a pilot study.

Wilson MM, Philpot C, Morley JE

2007

Delta-9-THC

Open study

A trend towards weight gain

Show

Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS

THC improves appetite and reverses weight loss in AIDS patients

Dejesus E, Rodwick BM, Bowers D, Cohen CJ, Pearce D

2007

Delta-9-THC

Open study

THC improved appetite and weight and reduced nausea

Show

Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS

Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.

Haney M, Gunderson EW, Rabkin J, Hart CL, Vosburg SK, Comer SD, Foltin RW

2007

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC and cannabis caused an increase in caloric intake and weight

Show

Nausea/vomiting;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy

Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination with ondansetron versus ondansetron alone for delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Meiri E, Jhangiani H, Vredenburgh JJ, Barbato LM, Carter FJ, Yang HM, Baranowski V.

2007

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

Dronabinol was as effective as ondansetron in reducing nausea and vomiting. Combination therapy was not more effective.

Show

Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis

Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis

Collin C, Davies P, Mutiboko IK, Ratcliffe S, for the Sativex Spasticity in MS Study Group

2007

Cannabis

Controlled study

Significantly reduction in spasticity

Show

HIV/AIDS;Pain

Cannabis in painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Abrams DI, Jay CA, Shade SB, Vizoso H, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham MC, Petersen KL.

2007

Cannabis

Controlled study

Smoked cannabis was well tolerated and effectively relieved chronic neuropathic pain from HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.

Show

Glaucoma

Dronabinol and retinal hemodynamics in humans.

Plange N, Arend KO, Kaup M, Doehmen B, Adams H, Hendricks S, Cordes A, Huth J, Sponsel WE, Remky A.

2007

Delta-9-THC

Open study

THC reduced intraoculat pressure and improved blood circulation in the retina.

Show

Pain

Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia.

Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethansand Daryl K.

2007

Nabilone

Controlled study

Significant reduction of pain and improvement of quality of life with nabilone

Show

Pain

Efficacy of dronabinol as an adjuvant treatment for chronic pain patients on opioid therapy

Narang S, Gibson D, Wasan AD, Ross EL, Michna E, Nedeljkovic SS, Jamison RN

2007

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study;Open study

THC had an additional effect on pain relief

Show

Spasticity;Spinal cord injury;Pain

Sativex® in the Treatment of Central Neuropathic Pain due to Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomised Controlled Study

Berman J & the Sativex Spinal Cord Injury Study Group, Bosworth T2 Guy G & Stott C.

2007

Cannabis

Controlled study

primary outcome mean NRS 11 poitn pain scale - nod difference - BPI secondary ourcome benefit - significant at p<0.032

Show

Effects of a cannabinoid receptor agonist on colonic motor and sensory functions in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

Esfandyari T, Camilleri M, Busciglio I, Burton D, Baxter K, Zinsmeister AR.

2007

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC relaxes the colon and reduces postprandial colonic motility

Show

Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy

Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel.

Engels FK, de Jong FA, Sparreboom A, Mathot RA, Loos WJ, Kitzen JJ, de Bruijn P, Verweij J, Mathijssen RH.

2007

Cannabis

Open study

Cannabis did not influence the pharmacokinetics of the two anti-cancer drugs

Show

Bipolar disorders

The effect of extreme marijuana use on the long-term course of bipolar I illness: a single case study.

El-Mallakh RS, Brown C.

2007

Cannabis

Uncontrolled case report

Cannabis decreased the number of depressed days and increased the number of hypomanic days.

Show

Multiple sclerosis

Cannabis; adverse effects from an oromucosal spray.

Scully C.

2007

Cannabis

Open study

The spray caused reversible damage to the mucosa

Show

Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants.

O'Connell TJ, Bou-Matar CB.

2007

Cannabis

Survey

Show

Spasticity;Spinal cord injury

The treatment of spasticity with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in persons with spinal cord injury.

Hagenbach U, Luz S, Ghafoor N, Berger JM, Grotenhermen F, Brenneisen R, Mader M.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Open study

Significant improvement of spasticity with THC

Show

Multiple sclerosis

Randomised controlled study of cannabis-based medicine (Sativex®) in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis associated detrusor overactivity

de Ridder D, Constantinescu CS,Fowler C, Kavia R, Sarantis N.

2006

Cannabis

Controlled study

A significant reduction in the number of voids per day and during the night.

Show

Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis

A randomised controlled study of Sativex® in patients with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis

Collin C, Ambler Z, Kent R, McCalla R.

2006

Cannabis

Controlled study

Spasticity of patients who received cannabis and complied with the study protocol was significantly reduced compared to placebo.

Show

Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Pain;Depression;Anxiety

The synthetic cannabinoid nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients

Maida V.

2006

Nabilone

Open study

Nabilone treatment improved pain, nausea, appetite and several other symptoms

Show

Pain

Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine.

Roberts JD, Gennings C, Shih M.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

There was a synergistic effect between THC and morphine on the affective component of pain but not on the sensory component

Show

Pain

[(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and the opioid receptor agonist piritramide do not act synergistically in postoperative pain.] [Article in German]

Seeling W, Kneer L, Buchele B, Gschwend JE, Maier L, Nett C, Simmet T, Steffen P, Schneider M, Rockemann M.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

Application of THC reduced the need of an opioid to treat postoperative pain but the difference to placebo was not significant

Show

Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer;Cancer chemotherapy

[Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases.] [Article in German]

Zutt M, Hanssle H, Emmert S, Neumann C, Kretschmer L.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Open study

A significant increase in appetite and decrease in nausea in most patients.

Show

Dronabinol reduces signs and symptoms of idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a case report.

Raby WN, Modica PA, Wolintz RJ, Murtaugh K.

2006

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Improvement of signs and symptoms of the disease

Show

Cannabidiol monotherapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

Zuardi AW, Hallak JE, Dursun SM, Morais SL, Faria Sanches R, Musty RE, Crippa JA.

2006

Cannabidiol

Open study

CBD monotherapy was not effective in treatment-resistant schizophrenia

Show

Alzheimer's disease

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol for night-time agitation in severe dementia

Walther S, Mahlberg R, Eichmann U, Kunz D

2006

Delta-9-THC

Open study

Reduction in night-time agitation in actigraphy and in the neuropsychiatric inventory NPI

Show

Pain

A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management.

Holdcroft A, Maze M, Dore C, Tebbs S, Thompson S.

2006

Cannabis

Controlled study

The optimal dose was 10 mg Cannador, effectively reducing postoperative pain without serious side effects.

Show

Multiple sclerosis

The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS).

Freeman RM, Adekanmi O, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Wright D, Zajicek J.

2006

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

Cannabis and dronabinol caused a significant reduction in incontinence

Show

Spasticity;Spinal cord injury

[Respiratory failure due to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in a tetraplegic patient.]. [Article in German]

Neuburger M, Schley M, Schmelz M, Schuepfer G, Konrad C.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Uncontrolled case report

Dronabinol reduced spasticity but worsened respiration

Show

Cancer

A pilot clinical study of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme.

Guzman M, Duarte MJ, Blazquez C, Ravina J, Rosa MC, Galve-Roperh I, Sanchez C, Velasco G, Gonzalez-Feria L.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Open study

THC was well tolerated in this pilot study of intrakranial cannabinoid administration

Show

Pain

Delta-9-THC based monotherapy in fibromyalgia patients on experimentally induced pain, axon reflex flare, and pain relief.

Schley M, Legler A, Skopp G, Schmelz M, Konrad C, Rukwied R.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Open study

Five of the nine patients withdrew from the study due to side effects. Four patients experienced significant pain relief

Show

Appetite loss/weight loss;Cancer

Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-in-Cachexia-Study-Group

Strasser F, Luftner D, Possinger K, Ernst G, Ruhstaller T, Meissner W, Ko YD, Schnelle M, Reif M, Cerny T.

2006

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

No difference between cannabis, THC and placebo

Show

[Topical cannabinoid agonists : An effective new possibility for treating chronic pruritus.] [Article in German]

Stander S, Reinhardt HW, Luger TA.

2006

Other cannabinoids

Open study

Topical application of a cream with N-palmitoyl ethanolamine had a good antipruritic effect in most patients.

Show

Pain

[Benefits of an add-on treatment with the synthetic cannabinomimetic nabilone on patients with chronic pain - a randomized controlled trial.] [Article in German]

Pinsger M, Schimetta W, Volc D, Hiermann E, Riederer F, Polz W.

2006

Nabilone

Controlled study

Nabilone caused a significant reduction in pain and improvement of quality of life.

Show

Pain

Effects of nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, on postoperative pain.

Beaulieu P.

2006

Nabilone

Controlled study

No pain reduction with nabilone.

Show

Multiple sclerosis;Pain

Low dose treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid Nabilone significantly reduces spasticity-related pain : A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

Wissel J, Haydn T, Muller J, Brenneis C, Berger T, Poewe W, Schelosky LD.

2006

Nabilone

Controlled study

Significant reduction of pain

Show

Glaucoma

Effect of Sublingual Application of Cannabinoids on Intraocular Pressure: A Pilot Study.

Tomida I, Azuara-Blanco A, House H, Flint M, Pertwee RG, Robson PJ.

2006

Delta-9-THC;Cannabidiol

Controlled study

Significant reduction of intraocular pressure

Show

Nausea/vomiting;Cancer chemotherapy;Pain

Cannabinoids in the management of intractable chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain.

Sutton IR, Daeninck P.

2006

Nabilone

Survey;Uncontrolled case report

Significant improvement in one case of intractable neuropathic pain and one case of refractory cinv

Show

Pain

Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis-based medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis.

Blake DR, Robson P, Ho M, Jubb RW, McCabe CS.

2006

Cannabis

Controlled study

Cannabis produced improvements in pain and sleep

Show

Efficacy and safety of dexanabinol in severe traumatic brain injury: results of a phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

Maas AI, Murray G, Henney H 3rd, Kassem N, Legrand V, Mangelus M, Muizelaar JP, Stocchetti N, Knoller N; Pharmos TBI investigators.

2006

Other cannabinoids

Controlled study

No effect of dexanabinol

Show

Nausea/vomiting

Survey of medicinal cannabis use among childbearing women: patterns of its use in pregnancy and retroactive self-assessment of its efficacy against 'morning sickness'.

Westfall RE, Janssen PA, Lucas P, Capler R.

2006

Cannabis

Survey

Cannabis effective against nausea and vomiting

Show

Pain

Experience with the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone in chronic noncancer pain.

Berlach DM, Shir Y, Ware MA.

2006

Nabilone

Open study

9 patients reported reduced pain intensity

Show

Nausea/vomiting

Prevention of nausea and vomiting following breast surgery.

Layeeque R, Siegel E, Kass R, Henry-Tillman RS, Colvert M, Mancino A, Klimberg VS.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Open study

Postoperative nausea and vomiting was reduced by prophylactic administration of dronabinol and prochlorperazine

Show

Effect of a cannabinoid agonist on gastrointestinal transit and postprandial satiation in healthy human subjects: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

Esfandyari T, Camilleri M, Ferber I, Burton D, Baxter K, Zinsmeister AR.

2006

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC retarded gastric emptying

Show

Nausea/vomiting

Cannabis use improves retention and virological outcomes in patients treated for hepatitis C.

Sylvestre DL, Clements BJ, Malibu Y.

2006

Cannabis

Open study

Participants who used cannabis maintained adherence to treatment more offen

Show

Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain

Long-term use of a cannabis-based medicine in the treatment of spasticity and other symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

Wade DT, Makela PM, House H, Bateman C, Robson P.

2006

Cannabis

Open study

Long-term use of cannabis maintains its therapeutic effects

Show

Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain

Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Chong MS, Wolff K, Wise K, Tanton C, Winstock A, Silber E.

2006

Cannabis

Survey

A subgroup of patients with severe disabilitiy appears to derive some benefit

Show

Pain

Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial.

Ware MA, Ducruet T, Robinson AR.

2006

Cannabis

Controlled study

Medical cannabis users can appreciate differences in herbal cannabis products

Show

Dependency/withdrawal

Concurrent cannabis use during treatment for comorbid ADHD and cocaine dependence: effects on outcome.

Aharonovich E, Garawi F, Bisaga A, Brooks D, Raby WN, Rubin E, Nunes EV, Levin FR.

2006

Cannabis

Open study

Moderate cannabis use had a positive effect of retention rates and abstinence from cocaine

Show

Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis

Cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis (CAMS) study: safety and efficacy data for 12 months follow up.

Zajicek JP, Sanders HP, Wright DE, Vickery PJ, Ingram WM, Reilly SM, Nunn AJ, Teare LJ, Fox PJ, Thompson AJ.

2005

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

Spasticity in the Ashworth scale was significantly reduced by an average of 1.82 in the THC group; no significant reduction in the cannabis group

Show

Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis

Cannabis-based medicinal extract (Sativex) produced significant improvements in a subjective measure of spasticity which were maintained on long-term treatment with no evidence of tolerance.

Robson P, Wade D, Makela P, House H, Bateman C

2005

Cannabis

Controlled study

Beneficial effects of cannabis on spasticity in MS seem to be maintained over long-term treatment, with no evidence of tolerance.

Show

Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial on cannabidiol vs. amisulpride in acute schizophrenia.

Leweke FM, Koethe D, Gerth CW, Nolden BM, Schreibe D, Hδnsel A, Neatby MA, Juelicher A

2005

Cannabidiol

Controlled study

CBD was as effective as amisulpride, a standard antipsychotic

Show

HIV/AIDS;Pain

Smoked cannabis therapy for HIV-related painful peripheral neuropathy: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Abrams DI, Jay CA, Vizoso H, Shade SB, Reda H, Press S, Kelly ME, Rowbotham M, Petersen K

2005

Cannabis

Controlled study

Smoked cannabis is effective in reducing HIV-related neuropathic pain

Show

Epilepsy

Treatment with CBD in oily solution of drug-resistant paediatric epilepsies.

Pelliccia A, Grassi G, Romano A, Crocchialo P

2005

Cannabidiol

Open study

Improvement of epilepsy without side effects

Show

Pain

Standardized cannabis extract in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

Ernst G, Denke C, Reif M, Schnelle M, Hagmeister H

2005

Cannabis

Controlled study

Cannabis did not reduce pain

Show

Multiple sclerosis;Pain

Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis.

Rog DJ, Nurmikko TJ, Friede T, Young CA.

2005

Cannabis

Controlled study

Cannabis is effective in reducing pain and sleep disturbance in patients with multiple sclerosis related central neuropathic pain

Show

Nausea/vomiting;HIV/AIDS

Marijuana use and its association with adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons with moderate to severe nausea.

de Jong BC, Prentiss D, McFarland W, Machekano R, Israelski DM.

2005

Cannabis

Open study

Cannabis improved adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV/AIDS

Show

Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS;Alzheimer's disease

Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV(+) marijuana smokers: acute effects on caloric intake and mood.

Haney M, Rabkin J, Gunderson E, Foltin RW.

2005

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC and cannabis cause increased caloric intake

Show

Appetite loss/weight loss

Dronabinol - eine mφgliche neue Therapieoption bei COPD-Patienten mit pulmonaler Kachexie [Dronabinol, a possible new therapeutic option in patients with COPD and pulmonal cachexia]

Bergmann K-C

2005

Delta-9-THC

Open study

On average 1,5 kg of weight gain and increase of walking distance

Show

Nausea/vomiting;Appetite loss/weight loss;HIV/AIDS;Pain;Anxiety

Cannabis use in HIV for pain and other medical symptoms.

Woolridge E, Barton S, Samuel J, Osorio J, Dougherty A, Holdcroft A.

2005

Cannabis

Survey

27% used cannabis for the treatment of various symptoms

Show

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction.

D'Souza DC, Abi-Saab WM, Madonick S, Forselius-Bielen K, Doersch A, Braley G, Gueorguieva R, Cooper TB, Krystal JH.

2005

Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

THC is associated with transient exacerbation in core psychotic and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

Show

Pain;Depression;Anxiety

Cannabis use in sickle cell disease: a questionnaire study.

Howard J, Anie KA, Holdcroft A, Korn S, Davies SC.

2005

Cannabis

Survey

36% had used cannabis to treat symptoms

Show

Dependency/withdrawal

Low efficacy of non-opioid drugs in opioid withdrawal symptoms.

Hermann D, Klages E, Welzel H, Mann K, Croissant B.

2005

Cannabis

Survey

Only low efficacy of cannabis in alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms

Show

Efficacy and tolerance of the cream containing structured physiological lipids with endocannabinoids in the treatment of uremic pruritus: a preliminary study.

Szepietowski JC, Szepietowski T, Reich A.

2005

Other cannabinoids

Open study

Improvement of pruritus with the cream

Show

The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey.

Ware MA, Adams H, Guy GW.

2005

Cannabis

Survey

Cannabis use was reported by 25 % of patients with chronic pain and 22 % of patients with multiple sclerosis

Show

Clinical improvement and reduction of immunosuppressive drug therapy in cannabis treated patients with crohn's disease.

Hergenrather JY, Mikuriya TH, Bearman D.

2005

Cannabis

Survey

The majority of patients found a substantial improvement of their symptoms

Show

Multiple sclerosis

Cannabinoid influence on cytokine profile in multiple sclerosis.

Katona S, Kaminski E, Sanders H, Zajicek J.

2005

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

There were no significant effects of cannabinoids on the cytokine profiles examined.

Show

Pain

Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial.

Berman JS, Symonds C, Birch R.

2004

Cannabis;Delta-9-THC

Controlled study

Significant pain relief and improvement of sleep

Show

Parkinson's disease

Cannabis for dyskinesia in Parkinson disease: a randomized double-blind crossover study.

Carroll CB, Bain PG, Teare L, Liu X, Joint C, Wroath C, Parkin SG, Fox P, Wright D, Hobart J, Zajicek JP.

2004

Cannabis

Controlled study

Cannabis had no treatment effect on levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

Show

Parkinson's disease

Survey on cannabis use in Parkinson's disease: subjective improvement of motor symptoms.

Venderova K, Ruzicka E, Vorisek V, Visnovsky P.

2004

Cannabis

Survey

25% of the respondents had taken cannabis and 45.9% of these described some form of benefit.

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