Spirochetes and MS References
Reference collection shared by Joanne Drayson at Sunday, August 29, 2010
There are more than 50 such MS-spirochete references prior to World War II and going back to as far as 1911, and published in journals as the Lancet.
1911 Buzzard Spirochetes in MS Lancet
1913 Bullock MS Agent in Rabbits Lancet
1917 Steiner Spirochetes The Cause of MS Med Kiln
1918 Simmering Spirochetes in MS by Darkfield Micro
1918 Steiner G. Guinea Pig Inoculation with MS infectious agent from Human
1919 Steiner MS Agent Inoculation into Monkeys
1921 Gye F. MS Agent In Rabbits Brain 14:213
1922 Kaberlah MS Agent In Rabbits Deutch Med Works
1922 Sicard MS Spirochetes in Animal Model Rev Neurol
1922 Stepanopoulo Spirochetes in the CSF of MS Patients
1923 Shhlossman MS Agent in Animal Model Rev Neuro
1924 Blacklock MS Agent in Animals J. of Path and Bac
1927 Wilson The Rat as A Carrier of MS British Med Journal
1927 Steiner G Understanding the Pathogenesis of MS
1928 Steiner Spirochetes in the Human Brain of MS Patients
1933 Simons Spirochetes in the CSF of MS Patients
1939 Hassin Spirochete-like formations in MS
1948 Adams Spirochetes within the Ventricle Fluid of Monkeys Inoculated from Human MS
1952 Steiner Acute Plaques in MS and The Pathogenic Role of Spirochetes as the Etiological Factor Journal of Neuropathology and Exp Med 11: No 4:343 1952
1954 Steiner Morphology of Spirochaeta Myelophthora (Myelin Loving) In MS Journal of Neuropathology and Exp Neurol 11:4 343 1954
1957 Ichelson R. Cultivation of Spirochetes from Spinal Fluids of MS Cases with Negative Controls Procl. Soc. Exp. Biol Med 70:411 1957
Commentary below by Ivan Hooper...
If you follow the European Medical Literature concerning Multiple Sclerosis from 1911 to 1939, you find that in France, Germany and England; there were independent researchers all observing similar things and coming to similar conclusions:
1) Spirochetes are often found in conjunction with the lesions in the brains of patients who have died with MS.
2) These spirochetes can be isolated and can infect many mammalian animal models; including: mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs, and primates.
3) The spirochetes could be re-isolated from the brains of the infected animals and be inoculated into more un-infected animals and re-isolated from their brains.
Why in the 21st century have spirochetes been ignored as infectious agents of the human brain?
The short answer is that to save time and money we no longer do things old school by which I mean:
no one does brain autopsies and physically stains or cultures for the bacteria.
Instead we have gotten lazy and cheap in our research and tried to rely on blood tests and CSF fluid to give us the answers. But those tests are wholly inadequate to detect living spirochetes sequestered inside brain cells.
Now this is the important part about detecting spirochetes within human tissues. First you cannot find spirochetes if you don’t properly stain the tissue for them. Spirochetes are completely invisible under the microscope without special stains.
In 1911, chemists and microbiologists only had silver stains that stained nucleic acids, and for some reason these stains caused the entire spirochete to turn black and opaque. (It turns out that Borrelia’s nucleic acid is nearly evenly distributed under its inner membrane like a web of DNA that fits the entire bacterium like a nylon stocking surrounding the cytoplasm. In other words the silver stain outlines the shape of the bacterium.)
The trouble with silver stains is that they cannot enter human cells. So for nearly a century it was reported that spirochetes were mostly extracellular and found outside all human cells. Not only was this a wrong conclusion based on inadequate methods, but the consequences of not recognizing an intracellular infection was and still is dire. Why?
Because intracellular infections can be incurable or at the very least more difficult to treat; there is almost no way to determine an end point where a bacteriological cure has been obtained.
Next is that spirochetes are known to disappear by changing to cyst forms, and also by going intracellular.
So these puzzled researchers that were only seeing classical formed spirochetes in 1 in 20 MS patients, may have been seeing them all along and not realizing what they were seeing. How can we conclude this?
Researchers wanted to see if the infectious agent was still in MS lesions despite no visible spirochetes.
Researchers removed brain tissue at necropsy of human patients and inoculated the tissue into uninfected animals. In some cases, this caused the infection to occur and show up in the brain of the animals; sometimes the classical-form spiral shaped spirochetes emerged.
All of this meticulous work was done prior to WW II, and completely untainted by today’s politics and special interests; yet this body of work is being wholly ignored.
The above should be of interest to anyone suffering with Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's, Motor Neurons or any other Neurological Illness.