Pediatrics. 2009 May;123(5):e835-41.
Lyme carditis in children: presentation, predictive factors, and clinical course.
Harvard Medical School, Division of Cardiac Intensive Care, Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Boston, 300 Longwood Ave, Bader 600, Boston, MA 02115, USA. email@example.com
OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify predictive factors for Lyme carditis in children and to characterize the clinical course of these patients. METHODS: We reviewed all cases of early disseminated Lyme disease presenting to our institution from January 1994 through July 2008, and summarized the presentation and course of those patients with carditis.
A case-control study was used to identify predictive factors for carditis. Controls were patients with early disseminated Lyme disease without carditis.
RESULTS: Of 207 children with early disseminated Lyme disease, 33 (16%) had carditis, 14 (42%) of whom had advanced heart block, including 9 (27%) with complete heart block. The median time to recovery of sinus rhythm in these 14 patients was 3 days (range: 1-7 days), and none required a permanent pacemaker.
Four (12%) of 33 patients with carditis had depressed ventricular systolic function, 3 (9%) of whom required mechanical ventilation, temporary pacing, and inotropic support. Complete resolution of rhythm disturbances and myocardial dysfunction occurred in 24 (89%) of 27 patients for whom follow-up data were available.
Most patients with carditis also had other systemic Lyme involvement. By using multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found that children >10 years of age, those with arthralgias, and those with cardiopulmonary symptoms were more likely to have carditis.
CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of presentation for children with Lyme carditis is broad, ranging from asymptomatic, first-degree heart block to fulminant myocarditis. Variable degrees of heart block are the most common manifestation and occasionally require temporary pacing.
Transient myocardial dysfunction, although less common, can be life-threatening. Advanced heart block resolves within 1 week in most cases.
In children with early disseminated Lyme disease, older age, arthralgias, and cardiopulmonary symptoms independently predict the presence of carditis.
PMID: 19403477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ann Intern Med. 1980 Jul;93(1):8-16.
Lyme carditis: cardiac abnormalities of Lyme disease.
We studied 20 patients, mostly young adult men, with cardiac involvement of Lyme disease. The commonest abnormality (18 patients) was fluctuating degrees of atrioventricular block; eight of them developed complete heart block.
Thirteen patients had evidence of more diffuse cardiac involvement: electrocardiographic changes compatible with acute myopericarditis (11 patients), radionuclide evidence of mild left ventricular dysfunction (five of 12 patients tested), or frank cardiomegaly (one patient). Heart involvement was usually preceded by erythema chronicum migrans and sometimes accompanied by meningoencephalitis, facial palsy, arthritis, elevated serum IgM levels, or cryoglobulins containing IgM.
The duration of cardiac involvement was usually brief (3 days to 6 weeks). The clinical picture in these patients has similarities to acute rheumatic fever; but in Lyme disease, complete heart block may be commoner, myopericardial involvement tends to be milder, and valves seem not to be affected.
PMID: 6967274 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]