Below are links to specific, seminal articles available on-line. Following this is a list of books and articles that have helped me develop my understanding of the interrelationship of drawing, thinking and learning.


Do, Gross and Zimring: Selected Writings!Aid96-drawing-reasoning.pdf

Goel: “ll-Structured Representations for Ill-Structured Problems”

Goldschmidt: “The Dialectics of Sketching”

Larkin and Simon: “Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words”

“Role of Drawing in Doubt”

Smith: Architects’ Sketches

Tsien/Williams “Slowness”

Tversky: What do Sketches say about Thinking?


Acton, Mary. Learning to Look at Paintings. London: Routledge, 1997.

Akin, Ömer. and Eleanor F. Weinel, Representation and Architecture. Silver Spring: Information Dynamics, 1982.

Akin, Ömer. Psychology of Architectural Design. London: Pion, 1986.

Alexander, Christopher. Notes on the Synthesis of Form. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964.

Allen, Stan and Diana Agrest. Practice Architecture, Technique and Representation. London: Routledge, 2003.

Allen, Stanley.”Projections: Between Drawing and Building,” Architecture and Urbanism, no. 4 (1992): 40-47.

Anderson, John R. The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983.

Anderson, Stanford. “Quasi-Autonomy in Architecture: The Search for an ‘In-Between’,” Perspecta 33 (2002):30-37.

Anning, A. “A Conversation Around Young Children’s Drawing: The Impact of the Beliefs of Significant Others at Home and at School,” International Journal of Art and Design Education 21 (2002): 197-208.

Archer, L.B. “Design, Innovation and Agility,” Design Studies 20, no. 6 (1999): 565-571.

Ayer, Fred C. The Psychology of Drawing, with Special Reference to Laboratory Teaching. Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1916.

Ballesteros, Soledad. Cognitive Approaches To Human Perception. Hillsdale: Lawrence Earlbaum, 1994.

Bandura, Albert. Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. 1977.

Barzun, Jacues. The House of the Intellect. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1959.

Basa, I. “The (In)Secure Position of the Design Jury Towards Computer Generated Presentations,” Design Studies 26 (2005): 257-70.

Beittel, Kenneth R. Mind and Context in the Art of Drawing; An Empirical and Speculative Account of the Drawing Process and the Drawing Series and of the Contexts in Which They Occur. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972.

Benedikt, Michael. “Coming to Our Senses Architecture and the Non-Visual,” Harvard Design Magazine 26 (2007): 83.

Berger, John, Selected Essays. New York: Pantheon Books, 2001.

Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1972.

Bijl, Aart. Computer Discipline and Design Practice: Shaping Our Future. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1989.

Blackwell, A. F. “Diagrams about Thoughts about Thoughts about Diagrams,” in Reasoning with Diagrammatic Representations II: AAAI 1997 Fall Symposium, Anderson, M. (ed.), 77-84. Menlo Park, California: AAAI Press 1997.

Bloomer, Kent C. and Charles Willard Moore. Body, Memory and Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.

Boisvert, Raymond D. John Dewey: Rethinking Our Time. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Boulding, Kenneth E. The Image; Knowledge in Life and Society. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1956.

Boyer, Ernest L. and Lee D. Mitgang, Building Community: A New Future for Architecture Education and Practice. Princeton, NJ: The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1996.

Bruce, Vicki and Patrick R. Green, Visual Perception, Physiology, Psychology and Ecology. London: L. Erlbaum, 1985.

Bruner, Jerome S., On Knowing; Essays for the Left Hand. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1962.

Bryson, Norman and Michael Ann. Holly, Visual Theory: Painting and Interpretation. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.

Buchanan, Richard, “Wicked Problems in Design Thinking” Design Issues 8, no. 2 (Spring, 1992): 5-21.

Buttimer, Anne and David Seamon, The Human Experience of Space and Place. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980.

Buxton, William, Sketching User Experiences: Getting the Design Right and the Right Design. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann, 2007.

Campbell, James, Understanding John Dewey: Nature and Cooperative Intelligence. Chicago: Open Court, 1995.

Carini, Patricia F., The Art of Seeing and the Visibility of the Person. Grand Forks: University of North Dakota, 1979.

Casakin, H & Goldschmidt, G., “Expertise and the Use of Visual Analogy: Implications for Design Education,” Design Studies 20, no. 2 (1999): 153-175.

Chase, William G. and Herbert A. Simon, “The Mind’s Eye In Chess,” in Visual Information Processing, edited by. William G. Chase, 215-281. New York: Academic Press. 1972.

Ching, Frank, Architecture: Form, Space and Order. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, c1979.

Ching, Frank, Design Drawing, New York: J. Wiley: 1998.

Christiane Lange-Küttner, Glyn V. Thomas, ed., Drawing and Looking: Theoretical Approaches To Pictorial Representation In Children. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1995.

Coleman, J., “Differences between Experiential and Classroom Learning,” Experiential Learning (1976): 49-61.

Collier, Graham, Form, Space and Vision; Discovering Design Through Drawing. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963.

Connell, Paul H., Report on Architectural Education and Environmental Studies in the United States and Canada. Durban: University of Natal, 1958.

Coutts, G. & Dougall, P., “Drawing in Perspective: Scottish Art and Design Teachers Discuss Drawing”. International Journal of Art and Design Education 24, no. 2 (2005):138–48.

Cox, M. V., The Pictorial World of the Child. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Cox, S., “Intention and Meaning in Young Children’s Drawing,” International Journal of Art and Design Education, 24 (2005): 115-25.

Crossman, Mary M., “Improvisation in Action,” Organization Science 9, no. 5 (September-October 1998): 593–599.

Crowe, Norman and Paul Laseau, Visual Notes for Architecs and Designers, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984.

Czaja, Michael, Freehand Drawing: Language of Design. Walnut Creek: Gambol Press, 1975.

Dana Cuff, “Teaching and Learning Design Drawing,” Journal of Architectural Education 33, no. 3 (Spring 1980): 5-9, 32.

Dantzic, Cynthia Maris, Drawing Dimensions: A Comprehensive Introduction. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1999.

Davis, James W., “Visual Dialogue through ‘Conversational’ Drawings” Leonardo 3, no. 2 (Apr. 1970): 139-147.

Delgado, Yanes Magali and Ernest Redondo Domínguez, Freehand Drawing for Architects and Interior Designers. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2005.

Dewey, John and John J. McDermott, The Philosophy of John Dewey. New York: Putnam Sons, 1973.

Dewey, John, Larry A., Hickman and Thomas M. Alexander. The Essential Dewey. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Dewey, John, How We Think. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1933.

DiLeo, Joseph, Young Children and Their Drawings. New York: Brunner/Masel, 1970.

Do, Ellen Yi-luen and Mark D. Gross, “Thinking with Diagrams in Architectural Design,” Artificial Intelligence Review 15: 135–149, 2001

Do, Ellen Yi-Luen, Mark Gross and Craig Zimring, “Drawing and Design Intentions,” in 4th International Design Thinking Research Symposium. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1999.

Downing, Frances, Remembrance and the Design of Place. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2000.

Driscoll, Marcy Perkins, Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1994.

Dulley, J.S. and J.S. Permaul, “Participation in and Benefits from Experiential Education,” Educational Record 65 (1984): 18-31.

Eastman, Charles M., On the Analysis of Intuitive Design Processes. Pittsburgh: Carnegie-Mellon University, 1968.

Eastman, Charles M., W. Michael McCracken and Wendy C. Newstetter, Design Knowing and Learning Cognition in Design Education. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B.V., 2001.

Edwards, Betty, Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain: A Course in Enhancing Creativity and Artistic Confidence. Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher, 1979.

Eggleston, John, Teaching and Learning Design and Technology: A Guide to Recent Research and Its Applications. London: Continuum, 2000.

Eisenman, Peter, “Autonomy and the Will to the Critical,” Assemblage 41 (2000): 90-91.

Eisenman, Peter, The Formal Basis of Modern Architecture. Baden, Switzerland: L. Mueller, 2006.

Eliade, Mircea, The Sacred and the Profane: the Nature of Religion. trans. Willard R. Trask, New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1959.

Emmer, Michele, The Visual Mind Art and Mathematics. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1993.

Ferguson Gussow, Sue, Architects Draw. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2008.

Fish J. & Scrivener S. A. R., “Amplifying the Mind’s Eye: Sketching and Visual Cognition,” Leonardo 23, no. 1, (1990): 117-126.

Flannery, K. A. & Watson, M. W., “Perceived Competence in Drawing During Middle Childhood Years”. Visual Arts Research 17(1991): 66–71.

Flannery, K.A. and M.W. Watson. “Perceived Competence in Drawing During Middle Childhood Years,” Visual Arts Research 17 (1991): 66-71.

Ford, Edward, “The Inconvenient Friend: On Inaccuracy, Exactitude, Drawing and Photography,” Harvard Design Magazine (Fall 1998):12-21.

Forster, Brenda and Andrew K. Prinz, “Travel-Study as Learning in Sociology,” Teaching Sociology 16, no. 1 (1988): 67-73.

Fraser, Iain and Rod Henmi, Envisioning Architecture: An Analysis of Drawing. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994.

Freeman, Norman H. and M. V. Cox, Visual Order: The Nature and Development of Pictorial Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Garcia, Mark, The Diagrams of Architecture. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Gardner, Howard, Artful Scribbles: The Significance of Children’s Drawings. New York: Basic Books, 1980.

Gardner, Howard, Five Minds for the Future. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2006.

Gardner, Howard, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Gardner, Howard, The Disciplined Mind: What All Students Should Understand. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1999.

Garrett, Lillian, Visual Design: A Problem-Solving Approach. New York: Reinhold Pub. Corp., 1967.

Gibran, Kahlil, The Prophet. New York: Alfred A Knopf Publisher. (1966): 60

Glassick, Charles E., Mary Taylor Huber, Gene I. Maeroff and Ernest L. Boyer., Scholarship Assessed: Evaluation of the Professoriate. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1997.

Goel, Vinod, “Ill-Structured Representations for Ill-Structured Problems,” Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (1992): 844-849.

Goel, Vinod, Sketches of Thought. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995.

Goldschmidt, Gabriela, “On Visual Design Thinking: The Vis Kids of Architecture,” Design Studies 15 (1994): 158-174.

Goldschmidt, Gabriela, “Serial Sketching: Visual Problem Solving in Designing,” Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal 23, (1992): 191-219.

Goldschmidt, Gabriela, “The Dialectics of Sketching,” Creativity Research Journal 4, no. 2 (1991): 123-143.

Goldstein, Nathan, The art of Responsive Drawing. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1973.

Golledge, Reginald G, Nathan Gale, James W. Pellegrino and Sally Doherty. “Spatial Knowledge Acquisition by Children: Route Learning and Relational Distances,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82, no. 2 (1992): 223-244.

Golledge, Reginald G, Valerie Dougherty, Scott Bell. “Acquiring Spatial Knowledge: Survey Versus Route-Based Knowledge In Unfamiliar Environments,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85, no. 1 (1995): 134-158.

Goodman, Nelson, Languages of Thought: An Approach To A Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1976.

Goodman, Nelson, Languages of Thought: An Approach To A Theory of Symbols. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1968.

Gorton, William A., Karl Popper and the Social Sciences. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006.

Graf, Douglas “Diagrams,” Perspecta 22 (1986): 42-71.

Graves, Michael, “The Necessity of Drawing: Tangible Speculation,” Architectural Design 47 (1977):384-394.

Gray, Susan, ed., Architects on Architects. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Groat, Linda N. and David Wang, Architectural Research Methods. New York: J. Wiley, 2002.

Hamilton, Edith and Huntington Cairns, eds., The Collected Dialogues of Plato. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1961.

Hammer, Emanuel F., Advances in Projective Drawing Interpretation. Springfield: C.C. Thomas, 1997.

Hammock, Claude Stuart, The Manual Arts for Elementary Schools; Drawing, Design, Construction. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., 1909.

Hannah, Gail Greet, Elements of Design: Rowena Reed Kostellow and the Structure of Visual Relationships. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002.

Harris, Dale B., Children’s Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity: A Revision and Extension of the Good Enough Draw-a-man Test. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1963.

Hays, K. Michael, “Critical Architecture: Between Culture and Form,” Perspecta 21 (1984): 15-29.

Heidegger, Martin, Poetry, Language, Thought, trans. Albert Hofstadter, New York: Harper & Row, 1971.

Heller, Morton A., Touch, Representation and Blindness. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Hennessey, J. and I. Verstijnen, “Sketching and Creative Discovery,” Design Studies19 (1998): 519-46.

Hertzberger, Herman, Lessons for Students in Architecture. Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010 Publishers, 1991.

Hinds, George A., “Sketching, Memory and Architecture,” Threshold: Journal of The School Of Architecture, University of Illinois at Chicago 3 (Autumn,1985): 52-59.

Hubbard, William, “A System of Formal Analysis for Architectural Composition,” Thresholds 3 (1976): 4-193.

Isaac, Alan Reginald George, Approach to Architectural Design. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1971.

Jeannerod, Marc, The Cognitive Neuroscience of Action. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997.

Joedicke, Jurgen, Raum und Form in der Architektur. Stuttgart: K. Kramer, 1985.

Johnson, Paul-Alan, The Theory of Architecture: Concepts, Themes & Practices. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1994.

John-Steiner, Vera, Notebooks of the Mind: Explorations of Thinking, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Jolley, Richard P., Children and Pictures Drawing and Understanding. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Kavakli, M. and S. Scrivener, “Structure in Idea Sketching Behavior,” Design Studies19 (1998): 485-517.

Kellogg, Rhoda, Analyzing Children’s Art. Palo Alto: National Press Books, 1969.

Kendra Smith, “Architectural Sketches and The Power Of Caricature,” Journal of Architectural Education 44, no.1 (1990): 49-58.

Kipnis, Jeffrey, “Drawing A Conclusion,” Perspecta 22 (1986): 94-99.

Paul Klee, The Thinking Eye: The Notebooks of Paul Klee, Jörg Spiler, ed., trans. Ralph Manheim, New York: Wittenborn, 1961.

Kolb, David A., Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1984.

Kuehne, Hugo Franz, Academic Training in Architecture. Austin: The University of Texas, 1911.

Laneyrie-Dagen, Nadeije, How to Read Paintings. Edinburgh: Chambers, 2004.

Lange-Küttner, Christiane and Annie Vinter, Drawing and the Non-Verbal Mind: A Life-Span Perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Laning, Edward, The Act of Drawing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971.

Lao Tzu, Tao te Ching, trans. by D.C. Lau, Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1963.

Larkin, Jill H. and Herbert A. Simon, “Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words,” Cognitive Science11, no. 1 (1987): 65-99.

Laseau, Paul. Architectural Drawing: Options for Design. New York: Design Press, 1991.

Laseau, Paul. Graphic Thinking for Architects and Designers. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1980.

Lawson, Bryan, How Designers Think. Second ed. London: Butterworth Architecture, 1990.

Lawson, Bryan, What Designers Know. Boston: Elsevier/Architectural Press, 2004.

Le Corbusier, Creation is a Patient Search, trans. James Palmes, New York, Praeger, 1960.

Le Corbusier, Towards an Architecture. trans. John Goodman, Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 2007.

Lesgold, Alan M., Cognitive Psychology and Instruction. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.

Leupen, Bernard, Christoph Grafe, Nicola Körnig and Marc Lampe. Design and Analysis. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997.

Lévi-Strauss, Claude, The Savage Mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Lloyd, P., Lawson, B., & Scott, P., “Can Concurrent Verbalization Reveal Design Cognition?,” Design Studies 16, no. 2 (April 1995): 237-259.

Logan, R., “Bridging the Traditional and Non-Traditional: A Model for Higher Education,” Liberal Education 69 (1983): 233-43.

Logie, Robert H., Visuo-Spatial Working Memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates,1995.

Loomis, Andrew, Successful Drawing. New York: Viking Press, 1951.

Lynch, Kevin, The Image of the City. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1964.

Mackinder, Margaret and Heather Marvin, Design Decision Making in Architectural Practice. York: Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, 1982.

Malpas, Jeff, Place and Experience: A Philosophical Topography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Marble, S. and D. Smiley, Architecture and Body. Rizzoli: New York,1988.

Marble, Scott, Architecture and Body. New York: Rizzoli, 1988.

Maslow, Abraham, The Psychology of Science: A Reconnaissance. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.

Matthews, Eric, Merleau-Ponty: A Guide for the Perplexed. London: Continuum International Pub. Group, 2006.

Mauduit, Caroline, An Architect in Italy. New York: C.N. Potter, 1988.

McClure, Harlan Ewart, The Study of Architectural Design. Minneapolis: Burgess, 1949.

McGown, A. and G. Green, “Visible Ideas: Information Patterns of Conceptual Sketch Activity,” Design Studies 19 (1998): 431-53.

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, Phenomenology of Perception. translated Colin Smith. London ; New York: Routledge, 1994.

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice and Alden L. Fisher. The Essential Writings of Merleau-Ponty. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969.

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice and Claude Lefort, The Visible and the Invisible; followed by Working Notes. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1968.

Midland, Michael B., “Tools for Knowledge Analysis, Synthesis, and Sharing,” Journal of Science Education and Technology 16, no. 2 (April 2007): 119-153.

Mitchell, C. Thomas, Redefining Designing: From Form to Experience. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993.

Moneo, Rafael, “On Typology,” Oppositions13, (Summer 1978): 22-45.

Moon, Jennifer, Reflection and Learning in Professional Development. London: Kogan Press, 1999.

Mugerauer, Robert, Interpreting Environments: Tradition, Deconstruction, Hermeneutics. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.

Nesbitt, Kate, ed., Theorizing A New Agenda for Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996.

Nevins, Deborah and Robert A. M. Stern, The Architect’s Eye: American Architectural Drawings From 1799-1978. New York: Pantheon Books, 1979.

Niem Tu Huynh, G Brent Hall, Sean Doherty, Wayne W. Smith, “Interpreting Urban Space Through Cognitive Map Sketching and Sequence Analysis,” Canadian Geographer 52 (Summer 2008): 222.

Norberg-Schulz, Christian, Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1980.

Norberg-Schulz, Christian, The Concept of Dwelling: On the Way to Figurative Architecture. Milan: Electa, 1985.

Oechslin, Werner, “From Piranesi to Libeskind: Explaining by Drawing,” Daidalosno.1 (Sep. 1981): 15-35.

Oechslin, Werner, “Geometry and Line: The Vitruvian “Science” of Architectural Drawing,” Daidalos no.1 (Sep. 1981): 20-35.

Oliver, Robert S., The Complete Sketch. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989.

Osman, Michael, Adam Ruedig, Matthew Seidel and Lisa Tilney, “Editors’ Statement,” Perspecta 33 (2002): 7.

Pallasmaa, Juhani, “An Architecture of the Seven Senses,” Architecture and Urbanism (July 1994): 27-37.

Pallasmaa, Juhani, “Hapticity and Time,” Architectural Review, no. 1239 (May 2000) 78-84.

Pallasmaa, Juhani, “The Geometry of Feeling: A Look at the Phenomenology of Architecture,” Skala: Nordic Journal of Architecture and Art 4 (June 1986): 22-25.

Pallasmaa, Juhani, The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2005.

Panofsky, Erwin, Meaning in the Visual Arts: Papers In and On Art History. Garden City: Doubleday, 1955.

Parkin, Alan J., Memory: Phenomena, Experiment and Theory. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

Paterson, Robert, Abstract Concepts of Drawing. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.,1983.

Patton, Michael Quinn, Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1990.

Pearce, Martin and Maggie Toy, Educating Architects. London: Academy Editions, 1995.

Pérez-Gómez, Alberto, “Architecture as Drawing,” Journal of Architectural Education36, no.2 (Winter1982): 2-7.

Pérez-Gómez, Alberto, Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1983.

Peterson, Steve, “Urban Design Tactics,” Architectural Design 49:3-4 (1979): 76-81.

Peterson, John M. and Leonard M. Lansky, “Success in Architecture: Handedness and/or Visual Thinking?,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 50 (1980):1139-1143.

Piaget, Jean and Bärbel Inhelder, The Child’s Conception of Space. London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1956.

Piaget, Jean and Bärbel Inhelder, The Psychology of the Child. New York: Basic Books, 1969.

Piotrowski, Andrzej and Julia W. Robinson, The Discipline of Architecture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.

Podro, Michael, The Critical Historians of Art. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.

Polanyi, Michael, The Tacit Dimension. Garden City: Doubleday, 1966.

Preziosi, Donald, The Semiotics of the Built Environment: An Introduction to Architectonic Analysis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1979.

Quayle, Moura, Ideabook for Teaching Design. Berkeley: Department of Landscape Architecture, University of California, Berkeley, 1983.

Rasmussen, Steen Eiler, Experiencing Architecture. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1962.

Rawson, Philip S., Seeing Through Drawing. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1979.

Reed, Edward, The Necessity of Experience. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Reichlin, Bruno, “Reflections:Interrelations Beween Concept, Representation and Built Architecture,” Daidalos no.1 (Sep. 1981): 60-73.

Righini, Paul, Thinking Architecturally: An Introduction to the Creation of Form and Place. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press, 2000.

Roth, Susan King, “An Investigation in the Cognitive Factors Involved in the Drawing Process,” Journal of Visual Literacy 11, no. 2 (1992):57-76

Rose, Sarah E., Richard Jolley and Esther Burkitt., “A Review of Children’s, Teachers’ and Parents’ Influences on Children’s Drawing Experience, ”International Journal of Art & Design Education 25, no. 3 (2006): 341-349.

Rosensteil, A. K. & Gardner, Howard, “The Effect of Critical Comparison upon Children’s Drawings,” Studies in Art Education 19, no. 1 (1977): 36–44.

Sachse, Pierre, Winfried Hacker and Sven Leinert., “External Thought—Does Sketching Assist Problem Analysis?,” Applied Cognitive Psychology 18 (2004): 415-425.

Sanoff, Henry, Visual Research Methods in Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991.

Schön, Donald A., Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Toward a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1987.

Schön, Donald A., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Schumacher, Thomas L, About Face: On the Architecture of Façades, Classic and Modern (2009, unpublished manuscript University of Maryland, College Park).

Scott Brown, Denise, “On Formal Analysis as Design Research,” Journal of Architectural Education 32 (1979): 8-11.

Seamon, David and Robert Mugerauer, Dwelling, Place and Environment: Towards a Phenomenology of Person and World. Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff, 1985.

Seamon, David, Dwelling, Seeing and Designing: Toward a Phenomenological Ecology. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Simpson, Ian, Drawing: Seeing and Observation. New York:Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1973.

Smith, Kendra Schank, Architects’ Sketches: Dialogue and Design. Amsterdam: Architectural P/Elsevier, 2008.

Smithies, K. W. and Steve Tompkins, Principles of Design in Architecture. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.

Snodgrass, Adrian and Richard D. Coyne, Interpretation in Architecture: Design as a Way of Thinking. London: Routledge, 2006.

Spiegelberg, Herbert and Karl Schuhmann, The Phenomenological Movement: A Historical Introduction. Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1982.

Stamps, Arthur Earl, Psychology and the Aesthetics of the Built Environment. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 2000.

Steenbergen, Clemens, et al, editors, Architectural Design and Composition. Bussum: THOTH Publishers, 2002.

Steinhart, Peter, The Undressed Art: Why We Draw. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004.

Suwa, M, “What Do Architects and Students Perceive in their Design Sketches? A Protocol Analysis,” Design Studies 18 (1997): 385-403.

Suwa, M. and Tversky, B, “What Do Architects and Students Perceive in Their Design Sketches?,” Design Studies 18, no. 4 (1997): 385-403.

Suwa, M. and Tversky, B., “What Architects See In Their Sketches: A Protocol Analysis.” Paper presented at Artificial Intelligence in Design 1996, Stanford University, June 24-27,1996.

Thiel, P., “A Sequence Experience Notation for Architectural and Urban Space,” Town Planning Review 32 (April 1961): 33-52.

Thiis-Evensen, Thomas, Archetypes in Architecture. Oslo: Norwegian University Press, 1987.

Thomas, Glyn V. and Christine Lange-Küttner, eds., Drawing and Looking. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1995.

Thompson, C., “Drawing Together: Peer Influence in Preschool- Kindergarten Art Classes,” Visual Arts Research 25 (1999): 61-68.

Treib, Marc, ed., Drawing/Thinking: Confronting an Electronic Age. Oxford: Routledge, 2008.

Turner, Judith, Judith Turner Photographs Five Architects. London: Academy Editions, 1980.

Turner, Mark, The Artful Mind: Cognitive Science and the Riddle of Human Creativity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Tversky, B., “What do sketches say about thinking?” in T. Stahovic, J. Landay and R. Davis, editors, Proceedings of AAAI Spring Symposium on Sketch Understanding. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. (2002).

Tversky, B. and M. Suwa, “What do Architects and Students Perceive in Their Design Sketches,” Design Studies 18 (1997): 385-403.

Tversky, Barbara, Masaki Suwa, Maneesh Agrawala, Julie Heiser, Chris Stolte, Pat Hanrahan, Doantam Phan, Jeff and Klingner, Marie. “Sketches for Design and Design of Sketches” in Udo Lindemann (Ed.), Human Behavior in Design: Individuals, Teams, Tools. Berlin: Springer, 2003.

Unwin, Simon, Analysing Architecture. London/New York: Routledge, 2003.

Usher, R., “Beyond the Anecdotal: Adult Learning and the Use of Experience,” Studies in the Education of Adults 17 (1985): 59-74.

Uttal, William R., On Seeing Forms. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1988.

Van, Sommers Peter, Drawing and Cognition: Descriptive and Experimental Studies of Graphic Production Processes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Venturi, Robert, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1966.

Verstijnen, I. and B. Tversky, “Sketching and Creative Discovery,” Design Studies 19 (1998): 519-46.

Vesely, Dalibor, Architecture in the Age of Divided Representation: The Question of Creativity in the Shadow of Production. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004.

Vidler, Anthony, “The Ledoux Effect: Emil Kaufmann and theClaims of Kantian Autonomy,” Perspecta 33 (2002): 16-29.

Vidler, Anthony. Histories of the Immediate Present: Inventing Architectural Modernism. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

Vidler, Anthony, The Architectural Uncanny: Essays in the Modern Unhomely, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992.

Warren, Karen, Mitchell S. Sakofs and Jasper S. Hunt, The Theory of Experiential Education. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt, 1995.

Wathen-Dunn, Weiant, Models for the Perception of Speech and Visual Form; Proceedings of a Symposium. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1967.

Westbrook, Robert B., John Dewey and American Democracy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991.

White, Morton Gabriel, The Origin of Dewey’s Instrumentalism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1943.

Whiteman, John, “Criticism, Representation and Experience In Contemporary Architecture: Architecture and Drawing in an Age Of Criticism,” Harvard Architecture Review 6 (1987): 136-147.

Willats, John, Making Sense of Children’s Drawings. Mahwah: L. Erlbaum Associates, 2005.

Williams, Heather C., Drawing as a Sacred Activity: Simple Steps to Explore Your Feelings and Heal Your Consciousness. Novato: New World Library, 2002.

Wilson, Frank R., The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language and Human Culture. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998.

Wright, Frank Lloyd, “In the Cause of Architecture: The Logic of the Plan,” Architectural Record 63 (January 1928): 49-57.

Zucker, Paul, Town and Square: From the Agora to the Village Green. New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.

Zumthor, Petr, Thinking Architecture. Maureen Oberli-Turner, trans. (essays 1988-1996), Catherine Schelbert, trans. (essays 1998-2004), 2nd expanded ed. Basel: Birkhauser, 2006.

Zusne, Leonard, Visual Perception of Form. New York: Academic Press, 1970.


Below is a helpful list of sources students should be aware of before graduation. (This list does not include all important books.: for example it doesn’t include much in terms of advanced post-modern theory or philosophy. The intention of this list is to establish a principled background from which more advanced discussions and debate might arise.)


Ackerman, James: Palladio

Frampton, Kenneth: Modern Architecture

Holberton, Paul: Palladio’s Villas: Life Inthe Renaissance Countryside

Kostof, Spiro: A History of Architecture

Murray, Peter: The Architecture of the Italian Renaissance

Scully, Vincent: Architecture


Arnheim, Rudolf: Art and Perception

Arnhiem, Rudolf: The Dynamics of Architectural Form

Chow, Renee: Suburban Space: The Fabric of Dwelling

Hegerman, Werner: The American Vitruvius Handbook of Civic Art

Holl, Steven: Pamphlet Architecture 7: Urban House Types

Kroll, Lucien: The Architecture of Complexity

Le Corbusier: Towards a New Architecture

Meiss, Pierre Von: Elements of Architecture

Moore, Charles: The Place of Houses

Pelli, Cesar: Observations for Young Architects

Schon, Donald: The Reflective Practitioner

Sherwood, Roger: Modern Housing Prototypes

Van Pelt, John V.: A: Discussion of Composition

von Meiss, Pierre: Elements of Architecture


Alberti, Leon Batista: Ten Books of Architecture

Benedikt, Michael: For An Architecture of Reality

Eisenmann, Transformations, Decompostiions, Critiques (work of Terragni)

Etlin, Richard: Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier

Framptom, Kenneth: Studies In a Tectonic Culture: The Poetics of Construction

Frampton, Kenneth: Critical Regionalism

Hays, K. Michael: Architectural Theory since 1968

Nesbitt, Kate: Theorizing a New Agenda for Architecture

Norberg-Shulz, Christian: Genius Loci

Norberg-Shulz, Christian: Intentions In Architecture

Rowe, Colin: The Mathematics ofthe Ideal Villa and Other Essays

Rowe, Colin: Transparency (a book based on the article edited by Hoesli)

Ruskin, John: The Seven Lamps of Architecture

Schumacher, Thomas: “The Skull and the Mask” In Cornell Journal #3

Schumacher, Thomas: Surface and Symbol (work of Terragni)

Schumacher, Thomas: The Danteum

Venturi, Robert: Complexity and Contradiction

Vitruvius: The Ten Books of Architecture

Wittkower, Rudolf: Architectural Principles In the Age of Humanism

Zevi, Bruno: Architecture As Space

Jencks, Charles and G. Baird: Meaning In Architecture


Bacon, Edmund Design of Cities

Rowe, Colin: Collage City

Dennis, Michael: Court and Garden

Jacobs, Allan: Great Streets

Jacobs, Jane: Death and Life of American Cities

Krier, Robert: Urban Space

Lynch, Kevin: Image of the City

Morris, A.E. J.: History of Urban Form

Mumford, Lewis: The City in History

Reps, John: Making Urban America

Rossi, Aldo: The Architecture of the City

Sitte, Camillo: City Planning According To Artistic Principles

Trancik, Roger: Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design

Webb: The City Square


Mosser and Teyssot: The Architecture of Western Gardens

Thacker, Christopher: The History of Gardens


Applewhite, E.J.: Washington Itself: An Informal Guide To the Capitol of the United States

Cortissor, Royal: The Work of John Russell Pope

Craig, Lois: A.: The Federal Presence

Goode, James: Best Addresses

Moeller, Martin: AIA Guide To the Architecture of Washington DC

Reps, John: Monumental Washington

Scruggs, Jan: To Heal a Nation: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial


Ching, Francis D.K.: Architectural Graphics:

Ching, Francis D.K.: Drawing: A Creative Process

Ching, Francis D.K.: Design Drawing

Crowe, Norman and Paul Laseau: Visual Notes For Architects and Designers

Fergusson-Gussow: Architects Draw

Leupen, et al: Design and Analysis

Le Corbusier: Journey: To the East

Mauduit, Caroline: An Architect In Italy

Moore, Charles: Dimensions: Space, Shape, and Scale In Architecture

Rasmussen, Steen Eiler: Experiencing Architecture


Eliade, Mircea: Sacred and Profane

Heidegger, Martin: Building-Dwelling-Thinking


Here is an abbreviated list of 20th century architects that any architect should be familiar (without obvious names):

Sverre Fehn

Tadao Ando

Alvar Aalto

Guiseppe Terragni

Glenn Murcott

Rafael Moneo

Rudolf Schindler

Petr Zumthor

Alvaro Siza


Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Immanuel Kant

Friedrich Nietzshe


Thomas Kuhn (The Structure of Scientific Revolution)

Clement Greenburg (Modern Art)

Edmund Husserl (Phenomenology)

Merleau-Ponty (Phenomenology)

Roland Barthes (Semiotics/ Mythology)

Manfrado Tafuri (Marxism)