v.6 n.9 December

Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.6, n.9, December (2020).



Stefan Bernhard Rüster.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (1-11), December 1, 2020.


The author derives the fundamental and necessarily existing conservation law in the theory of General Relativity (GR). Thereby, the energy-momentum density tensor of the gravitational field is found. Additionally, the cosmological constant takes on a completely new meaning, which solves the cosmological constant problem. This new interpretation of the cosmological constant also explains the dark energy and the dark matter phenomenon.

Soly Mathew Biju and Ammini Mathai.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (12-21), December 1, 2020.


The main aim of the paper is to explore the student perception on the benefits of usage of technology in the classrooms in higher education. Quantitative empirical study comprised of 250 students from 5 higher education institutions in the region of North India. Primary data was gathered using close ended survey

questionnaire, wherein, the data gathered were encoded and analyzed. Ethical grounds of the study were also considered for the study. The study found that factors like engagement, knowledge retention, individual learning, cognitive skills, research and critical skills are the most important advantages of using technologies in classrooms. These advantages have significant impact on academic performance of the higher education students. Further, technologies increased the understanding the concepts of subjects better as well as in less time and the efforts of learning from physical books reduce and the concentrations and participations in the classrooms. The findings implicated that use of technology is important for improving the academic performance of students. In addition, the higher education (HE) institutions must not on focus on adoption of technologies but also evaluate teachers and students capabilities. Feedback received from students on engagement and ease of learning and retention is very valuable.

Vasily Konstantinovich Novikov, Victoria Alexandrovna Kuzmichova and Sergey Vasilyevich Novikov.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (22-28), December 1, 2020.


The environment pollution problem persistence at the vessels integratedmaintenance (VIM) operations in ports is discussed. It is shown that the portsof water transport (WT) are subjected to a higher degree of the environmental danger (ED). In the ports,many production processes including the VIM operations are accompanied by thecontamination of almost all parts of the environment with chemical, biologicaland physical pollutants. During the VIM operations, a port performs thefollowing main operations related to the possible contamination of the environment: the port-based (operational) shipmaintenance, the ships technical maintenance and the navigation repairs. Themain sources of ED caused by VIM are listed for various parts of theenvironment. It is shown that during the VIM operations implementation, thefollowing objects exert a significant impact on the environmental situation: onone hand, those are the servicing and production facilities (such asadministrative buildings, food outlets, sanitary facilities, and washingstations), and on the other hand, boiler rooms that support the VIM works. As aresult of those objects operation, various dirt waters are released into theenvironment: the domestic waste water (sewage), theoily water (OW), the oxides of nitrogen, sulfur and carbon, the soot fromfuel oil combustion, the fuel oil tar, the benz(a)pyrene, etc. The necessity isshown of a constant monitoring of the ED sources that occur during VIM. Inaddition, it is necessary to take measures timely in order to prevent theiroccurrence and eliminate them if they exist. In order to implement theseenvironmental measures in practice and to ensure the environmental safety (ES),while conducting VIM operations, an appropriate methodological and technicalsystem should be developed and maintained. A number of measures have beenproposed in order to improve the ships maintenance quality and to meet therequirements set out in the “Strategy for the development of the Russian seaport infrastructure until 2030”.It is necessary to develop and implement a set of measures of methodological,technical, technological, organizational and regulatory nature.

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck and Cláudia Regina Bosa.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (29-38), December 1, 2020.


Althoughteachers believe that the skill of observing objects and living animals is morerelated to the investigation carried out by researchers, the pre-school andprimary school curricula state that teachers should encourage children toobserve and experience what is in their everyday environment and express theirunderstanding by means of a drawing. This exploratory study investigates themeaning of drawings made by eight-five preschool children and thirty-nine fromprimary school to observe living animals and plastic models from a zoologicalpremises and a classroom respectively. A hundred and eighty seven drawings werecollected. Our research showed that three year olds drawings were classified asscribbles and those from five, six and eight years old as insects and birds.Children visiting the zoological garden represented a panther in their drawingsincluding in the scenery plants, lawn. They used their imagination and memoryin the depiction.

Alireza Heidari.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (39-74), December 1, 2020.


In the current paper, optimization of TPrAconcentrations and Os–Pd/HfC nanocomposite as two main and effective materialsin the intensity of synchrotron for tracking, monitoring, imaging, measuring,diagnosing and detecting cancer cells are considered so that the highestsensitivity obtains. In this regard, various concentrations of two materialswere prepared and photon emission was investigated in the absence of cancercells. The earlier cancer can be detected, the better the chance of a cure.Currently, many cancers are diagnosed only after they have metastasizedthroughout the body. Effective, accurate methods of cancer detection andclinical diagnosis are urgently needed. Biosensors are devices that aredesigned to detect a specific biological analyte by essentially converting abiological entity (ie, protein, DNA, RNA) into an electrical signal that can bedetected and analyzed. The use of biosensors in cancer detection and monitoringholds vast potential. Biosensors can be designed to detect emerging cancerbiomarkers and to determine drug effectiveness at various target sites.Biosensor technology has the potential to provide fast and accurate detection,reliable imaging of cancer cells, and monitoring of angiogenesis and cancermetastasis, and the ability to determine the effectiveness of anticancerchemotherapy agents. This review will briefly summarize the current obstaclesto early detection of cancer and the expanding use of biosensors as adiagnostic tool, as well as some future applications of biosensor technology.

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck, Yong-Chiang Chang and Ricardo Gobato.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (75-85), December 1, 2020.


Storytelling canconvey scientific knowledge like that which generates an electrical impulse inthe neuron illustrated with pictures and dialogue between students andresearchers. The brain-mind complex is an aggregation of neurons in an opensystem where imprecision and disorder reign, evidencing its complexity, whichcan be understood via comic books. The work has aslightly different format from the usual scientific articles. The intention wasto disseminate in a picturesque way, through drawings and brief explanations,the basic principles of neurophysiology that have application in teaching. Thenarrative reported is based on the interest of students on summer vacations, ingetting to know better how the nervous system works. Brain functions are theconsequence of the action of channel proteins embedded in the neuronalmembrane, dendrites and axons. Neurons undergo neuroplasticity throughout theindividual's life. It was chosen to illustrate some neurophysiologicalphenomena, drawings that resemble comic books to demystify what is perceived bystudents as a difficult discipline. Then, the storytelling shown here presentedscientific knowledge as a generator of the electrical impulse in the neuronillustrated in the pictures and in the dialogues between students andresearchers. The brain-mind complex is an open system with imprecision anddisorder showing what can be understood via comics.

Rinat Magdievich Nugayev and Rustem Renarovich Musaev.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (86-101), December 1, 2020.


An origin of the so-called ‘old quantum theory’ represented by Planck’sstartling 1897-1906 papers is unfolded. It is exhibited in what subtle ways, atthe end of the XIX-th century, three mature research programs of Classical Physics were tointeract consequentially in Max Planck’s creative work: thermodynamics,electromagnetic theory and statistical mechanics. It is elicited that theprimary quantum theoretical schemes were punctiliously constructed as sheer‘crossbreed’ ones deftly composed from the ideal models and thelaws of the three pivotal research traditions. Ludwig Boltzmann’s seminal ideas and subtle technique turned out to be crucial. Tentatively deriving hiscelebrated black-body radiation law Max Planck certainly had to take the experimentalevidence into account. Yet it spurred him not ‘to deduce fromphenomena’ punctiliously but to apply more theory instead. Moreover, theblackbody solid experiments incitedPlanck to apply the statistical technique for proper arranging the radiationdata in increasing portions. Eventually Planck’s hybrid intricate theories epitomized the indispensable stages of an ambitious programof Maxwellian electrodynamics and statistical thermodynamics effectivereconciliation definitely leading toEinstein’s 1905 light quanta.


Ринат Магдиевич Нугаев and Рустем Ренарович Мусаев.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (86-101), December 1, 2020.


Рассмотрено создание т.н. «старой квантовой теории», представленной работами Планка 1897-1906гг. Исследуется, каким именно образом основные исследовательские программы классической физики – максвелловская электродинамика, статистическая механика и классическая термодинамика – пришли во взаимодействие в творчестве Макса Планка. Показано, что первоначальные квантовые теоретические схемы были тщательно сконструированы как гибридные модели, образованные комбинациями идеальных моделей этих осевых исследовательских традиций классической физики. В этом сложном синтезе больцмановские плодотворные идеи и эффективная статистическая методика оказались решающими. В процессе скрупулезного вывода своего знаменитого закона Макс Планк постоянно использовал экспериментальные данные. Но их влияние состояло не столько в «дедукции из явлений», сколько в побуждении использовать больше теории. Более того, эксперименты с чернотельным излучением вынуждали Планка применять статистическую технику расчетов во все больших размерах. В итоге планковские гибридные теории представили собой необходимые этапы согласования основных исследовательских традиций классической физики, которые определенно вели к эйнштейновским световым квантам.

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck, Letícia Costa and Viviane Malinski.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (102-115), December 1, 2020.


The main objective ofthis paper is to point out possibilities of how to articulate neuroscience withmanifestations of high abilities through the collection of spontaneous drawingscreated by nine students of both sexes (aged between five and eleven years) inselected schools in the State of Parana Brazil. The drawings were analyzedagainst the rubric of graphic characteristics. The results showed a smallapproximation with works of visual art by representative painters from thesouth of Brazil. Educational implications are suggested to the teachersconducting resource rooms. A preliminary analysis showed limitations on thenumber of samples and the collection of geographic areas in Brazil, which werecollected in Curitiba and metropolitan area, Paraná, Brazil. However, there isno dividing line between a typically talented, very talented child and aprodigious child. It is like a continuum. The homes of very talented childrentend to have many books and works of art and constant encouragement of childrenby parents and family. It appears that children are already born with a lot oftalent and high skills; they seem to have “different brains” even though theyare not clearly identified by science.

Ozan Yarman and Mesut Gungor.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.9, (116-126), December 1, 2020.


Latest HTML5 with JavaScript developments have stimulated a profusion of musical web-applications to emerge on the scene in the past couple of years. Firefox and Chrome browser support for them too has currently reached a comparatively stable level. Yet, these are mainly fashioned to appeal to a Western(ized) audience accustomed to the "12 semitones to the octave" methodology of common-practice music. We, on the other hand, present herein a microtonal HTML5 Piano design for Turkish Art music drawing from the extensively revamped open source code named "JS Dynamic Audio Synth (© 2013)". Two tunings are directly implemented at the moment: The first is the conventional 24-tone Arel-Ezgi-Uzdilek system officially in force across Turkey; the second is a custom tone-system of identical resolution dubbed Yarman- 24c and devised by the corresponding author as a substitute. Our design features highlighted hover & play, dynamic perde labeling, incremental transposition, maximal keystroke constrained polyphonic playback, and custom frequency data paste/apply capabilities. Subsequent implementations by developers might enhance our design with a glissando & vibrato effect, organ sound sustain, external synth patch load, and melody recording. Additionally, a test process to gather online statistics from visitors on their perceived success of how well the tunings render an assortment of well-known makam pieces could perhaps be considered in the future. We envision that our 24-tone Makam Piano (v1.2) will be quite useful as a music theory web resource and possibly inspire similar upcoming microtonal HTML5 designs. AMS 2020 Subject Classification: 00A65, 97U80, 94A29, 90-10

Parana J Sci Educ. ISSN: 2447-6153