v.5 n.7 October

Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.5, n.7, October (2019).



A Robust VBA Code for the Pie Chart Display of Turkish Music Usuls

Ozan Yarman, Mehmet Ugur Keçecioglu

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.5, n.7, (1-7), October 17, 2019.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3871922


The authors introduce a robust VBA code that can automatically run in the form of a macro under Microsoft

Excel (™) to display Turkish Music usuls (rhythmic patterns) as pie charts. Musical notes are clockwise drawn

using rotated ASCII characters from a music font (e.g., of the user’s choosing) for each given beat. Relevant

unbeamed note glyphs thus replace numerical values (e.g., fractions such as “1/2” representing a “half note”)

which ordinarily divide, and appear in the slices of, the pie charts, while the widths of the slices are preserved

in accordance with given note durations. The code also enables users to specify font styles such as bold ,

italic, underlined as a novel means to indicate accentuation and which hand/mallet strikes the beat detail in the

expression and elucidation of traditional beat syllables called “dum-tek” – that can just as well be substituted with

the older, yet mostly outdated, “ten-nen-ni” syllables or similar traditional guidelines pertaining to diverse ethnic

rhythms around the world. The downloadable Excel file which contains the VBA code is prepared in such a way

as to include subsidiary embedded macros geared to help automate new worksheet creation for additional usuls

aside from the currently provided presets, or similar beat patterns as the user may designate.

Download: Article (in English)

A Note on the Equivalence Principle Applicability to the General Theory of Relativity

Valery Borisovich Morozov.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.5, n.7, (8-13), October 17, 2019.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3871935


Here we are talking about the equivalence of Einsteinian gravitation equations solutions to relativist accelerated frames. It was established that there is a uniformly accelerated frame. Such a frame is deformed as an acceleration result, but it is a stiff frame according to Born, i.e. its metric tensor does not depend on time. The frame is pseudo-Riemannian. It was proved that a uniformly accelerated frame is locally equivalent to the relevant solution of Einstein's gravitational equation.

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A vida no formigueiro (Life in the anthill)

Amauri Betini Bartoszeck, Yong-Chiang Chang, Bianca Louise Malucelli Corrêa Alves.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.5, n.7, (14-28), October 17, 2019.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3871943


Children enrolled in preschool and elementary school have a basic knowledge of day-to-day ants (insects) whether they see them in the garden of the house, orchard, or school backyard or neighborhoods where they live or through media. The urbanization of the environment where children live has kept the children from the natural world. These investigation complements further a similar study and evaluate how children ages 3 to 13 years old represented the ant by a drawing. They were asked to draw a representation of the word “ant” meant to them. Results show the importance of everyday observations beyond formal education for the developing of natural history knowledge of children. Children from the earliest years notice insects in their everyday lives and built a bank of knowledge, gradually acquiring an understanding of adaptation of habitats. Children notice insects in their lives to differing extents and sources according to the culture in which they are immersed. Experiences of seeing or finding out about insects and particularly ants, are encapsulated for many children in the form of narratives and contribute to their mental models of ants (insects) an their habitats upon which they will draw in formal science later (Biology and Environmental Education).

Download: Article (in Portuguese)