v.6 n.4 June

Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.6, n.4, June (2020).



Vasily Konstantinovich Novikov and Victoria Alexandrovna Kuzmichova.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.4, (1-7), June 5, 2020.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3880454


The results are presented of the theoretical research on possible ways of the environmental burden reduction in operation of the water-born transportation vessels (WT). It is shown that the operation of the sea and river vessels is accompanied by the increased environmental load due to the following factors: the oil-containing water discharges (OW); the discharges of garbage, effluents (or waste water, WW); ballast water containing undesired organisms; the emission of the exhaust gases (EG) containing oxides of sulfur and nitrogen; the emission of the volatile organic compounds (JIOC) at loading/unloading/transporting the raw oil and the petroleum products; the oil spills as a result of emergency situations; the port jams of passenger/cargo, servicing and auxiliary vessels, boats and motor yachts, which inflicts the oil pollution of the entire ports waters and large aquatic areas around; etc. For the permissible regulatory pollutants discharges and releases from ships, the international and domestic values are given, abiding of which will reduce the environmental load of the WT vessels operation significantly. The main possible measures to reduce the environmental burden of the WT vessels operation are as follows: reducing of the WW discharge; liquidation and disposal of OW and garbage; EG danger reduction; use of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel for the internal combustion engines (ICE).

Alireza Heidari, Katrina Schmitt, Maria Henderson and Elizabeth Besana.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.4, (8-50), June 5, 2020.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3880506


In the current paper, thermoplasmonic characteristics of spherical, core–shell and rod Seaborgium nanoparticles are investigated. In the current study, thermoplasmonic characteristics of Seaborgium nanoparticles with spherical, core–shell and rod shapes are investigated. Seaborgium nanoparticles absorb energy of descendent light and generate some heat in the particle. The generated heat transferred to the surrounding environment and leads to increase in temperature of adjacent points to nanoparticles. Heat variations can be obtained by heat transfer equation. The calculations showed that in Seaborgium nanoparticles, light absorption in Plasmon frequency causes to increase in temperature of the surrounding environment of nanoparticles. Calculations of nanorods showed that due to ability for shifting surface Plasmon frequency toward longer wavelength as well as more increase in temperature, this nanostructure is more appropriate for medical applications such as optothermal human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatments.

Richard Lawrence Norman and Jeremy Dunning-Davies.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.4, (51-64), June 5, 2020.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3880526


Gravitational theory has remained at an impasse for a great many years. Theoretical questions of substantial importance remain unanswered, such as: “Is there coupling of electromagnetic fields and gravitational fields?” This paper will reveal the reasons for the evident difficulty in theoretical advancement and begin to point the way toward needed corrections of gravitational theory with an emphasis placed upon actual experimental results and practical solutions. These recommendations and analyses may in turn allow quick realization of the many benefits now concealed beneath current accepted theory, which include but are not limited to: 1. clean, inexpensive, near limitless energy for industry and the populous, and 2. practical means of utilizing mass as a variable potentially including, industrial applications, space and terrestrial travel. The possible validity of Einstein’s Twin Paradox and a conditional solution implying a mechanism of absolute time are discussed. New gravitational theory is proposed. Specific gravity based designs demonstrating over one efficiency are proposed for experimental and practical testing, confirmation and subsequent duplication. Once the private sector and those associated scientific resources are applied toward correction and directed application of gravitational theory in the context of electrical and magnetic effects, one can speak of a new age. Gravity.

Christopher Uche Ezeh, Dakéga Saberma Ragatoa, Charles Lamoussa Sanou and Chukwudi Nnaemeka Emeribe.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.4, (65-70), June 5, 2020.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3880565


The COVID-19 pandemic currently ravaging the world and its economy has claimed the lives of over 360,000 with over 5 million reported cases globally. It reportedly originated from man’s encroachment into biodiversity habitat like other similar pandemics such as Ebola, SARS. The pandemic has led to the imposition of total lockdown over many cities across the world. The imposition has led to improved air quality such as the decline in N2O, CO2 and noise pollution across the world. The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has vindicated the air pollution scientists and conservation advocates that anthropogenic activities drive changes in the global environment with the attendant health risks. It has also revealed the vulnerabilities of the world population to health care, economy and food supply. Again, the virus has affected Africa so much and has revealed that intervention is required in many socio-economic spheres. It exposed the need for social security, food security, potable water and improved hygiene and the need for higher investment in agriculture and education. The paper calls for more commitment from African and of course world leaders to bridge the gap between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’ and approve funds for environmental change and conservation researchers and scholars in pursuit of proactive measures for such emergencies in the future.

Valery Borisovich Morozov.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.4, (71-75), June 5, 2020.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3880589


The Christoffel’s criterion of his symbols independence on coordinates in a homogenous field offers a metric of a homogenous field of accelerations. However, this result is ambiguous. So the issue of a metric existence of a homogenous gravitational field remains open. Thus, the task of finding the only physically justified metric of a homogeneous gravitational field is posed and possible solutions to this problem are proposed.

Valery Borisovich Morozov.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.4, (76-78), June 5, 2020.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3880605


The author’s purpose in this article is to draw readers’ attention to the magnetic properties of the neutron component of the neutron stars. Under high pressure, the neutrons form the Bose-Einstein condensate of triplet Cooper pairs of neutrons. This superfluid condensate is a ferromagnetic having a domain structure. That is why it is reasonably to consider a neutron star as a magnetic multipole. This suggests existence of a dipole magnetic moment of a neutron star as a result of spontaneous magnetization of neutron superfluid liquid. The connection is noted of the magnetic dipole moment of a neutron star with its mechanical moment.

Sangita Agarwal, Srimoyee Saha, Tathagata Deb and Soumendra Darbar.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.4, (79-88), June 5, 2020.

DOI: doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3880638


The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected humanity at large all over the globe. The cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is very much similar to its homologous virus SARS-CoV which caused SARS in many people in 2003. This epidemic started in Wuhan, China and it quickly spread its wings all over the world. COVID-19 has lower severity and mortality than SARS but is much more transmissive and affects more elderly individuals than youths and more men than women. Co-occurrence of distinct ailments like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and respiratory issues place individuals at a greater risk of having COVID- 19 complications. There is age specific corona spread pattern as observed in cases reported from China and Italy, it is known fact that the general immunity reduces, as one gets older. The health and immunity is mainly determined by what kind of diet we follow, a well-balanced diet containing antioxidants, minerals and vitamins plays a key role in health-promoting, disease-fighting activities of our body. To boost immunity in vulnerable population it is essential to include food and nutritional supplements, which can help in prevention and management of viral infections. This article attempts to provide a timely and comprehensive review of the role of immunity enhanced with balanced diet and nutritional supplements to fight corona virus especially in vulnerable population. During these testing times when no conclusive medication is available strengthening the immune system can also safeguard us from mutating forms of other viruses in the near future too.

Ozan Yarman, Tolga Yarman, Metin Arik and Ricardo Gobato.

Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.6, n.4, (89-92), June 18, 2020.

DOI: doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12643418


Recently, Takamoto et al. [Nat. Photonics (2020), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41566-020-0619-8] measured with a very high precision the time dilation at different altitudes by using two sophisticated optical lattice clocks respectively at the bottom and at the top floors of the Tokyo Skytree building. They concluded that general theory of relativity (GTR) successfully passed their test. We have yet to report that YARK (Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii) theory of gravitation — whose total energy expression versus that of GTR was delineated in a previous submission [Yarman et al., PJSE (2018), https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/2018/november-v-4-n-8] — passes the test just as easily when considering only the effect of gravity. That is to say, a precision of about 15,000 times more than the present one is needed to discern the difference between the predictions of the two theories under the given circumstances. We moreover have to add that the two theories in consideration are built on totally different frameworks. In particular, the time dilation in question is due to curvature in GTR, whereas it is due to just energy conservation embodying the mass and energy equivalence of the special theory of relativity (STR) in YARK.

AMS Subject Classification: 83D05, 83C15

Parana J Sci Educ. ISSN: 2447-6153