Biology

Bio 100: General Biology I 

An introduction to the fundamental concepts of biology on the cellular level. Topics include the basic chemistry of cells; experimental design and scientific method; a proper Christian philosophy of science; eukaryotic cell structure; cellular transport mechanisms; cell division; basic transmission genetics and the encoding and expression of information in cells. Lecture and lab.

Bio 101: General Biology II 

A continuation of General Biology I dealing in greater detail with meiosis, sexual life cycles and transmission genetics; pathways of respiration and photosynthesis; and a biblical response to the theory of evolution. Topics introduced in this course include taxonomy, developmental biology and ecology. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 100.

Bio 102: Principles of Biology 

The central principles of biology on the cellular level. Topics include elementary biochemistry, basic transport processes, eukaryotic cell structure, mitosis and meiosis, transmission genetics, the essentials of the central dogma of molecular biology and a biblical response to the theory of evolution. Lecture and lab. Not applicable toward Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biology, Premed/Predent or Science Education majors.

Bio 103: Fundamentals of Biology 

An introduction to the fundamental concepts of biology on the cellular level. Topics include the basic chemistry of cells; experimental design and scientific method; a proper Christian philosophy of science; eukaryotic cell structure; cellular transport mechanisms; cell division; basic transmission genetics, and the encoding and expression of information in cells. Lecture only.

Bio 190: General Biology I Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 100.

Bio 191: General Biology II Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 101.

Bio 192: Principles of Biology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 102.

Bio 203: Biological Diversity 

Animals, plants, protozoans, fungi, prokaryotes and viruses will be overviewed. An emphasis will be placed on the fundamental concepts of life processes common to all organisms. An introduction to classification and taxonomy will be included.

Prerequisite: Bio 101.

Bio 208: Organismal Biology I 

Introduction to prokaryotes, algae, fungi and plants, including aspects of their classification, physiology, ecology, life history and behavior.

Prerequisite: Bio 101.

Bio 209: Organismal Biology II 

An introduction to animals and protozoans including aspects of their classification, physiology, ecology, life history and behavior.

Prerequisite: Bio 208.

Bio 220: Medical Terminology 

An introduction to medical terms through an analysis of their construction including prefix, suffix, root, connecting and combining forms. Medical terminology applicable to structure, function, pathology and procedures related to the human body. Topics include cells and tissues and the major body systems.

Prerequisites: Bio 100 or Bio 102 Prerequisite.

Bio 300: Evolution & Origins 

Discussion and critical evaluation of the biology and philosophy behind neo- Darwinism (materialism), the intelligent design movement and special creation. Extensive use will be made of a current evolutionary textbook, important recent monographs, scientific journal articles and position statements. The course will engage students in critical thinking and problem solving, and prepare them to answer challenges to a biblical worldview regarding evolution and origins.

Prerequisites: Bio 203, 208, 320 or 322 Prereq.

Bio 301: Invertebrate Zoology 

Biology of invertebrates with a focus on homeostasis, environment, structure and function. Emphasis is placed on thinking like an invertebrate zoologist. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 209.

Bio 302: Developmental Biology 

Gametogenesis, fertilization and embryological development of major model organisms (insects, amphibians, fish, birds, mammals) as well as humans. Special emphasis will be placed on cell-to-cell communication, developmental genetics, patterning, morphogenesis, organogenesis, nervous system development and regeneration. Bioethical issues in developmental biology relevant to human medicine are also explored. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisites: Bio 305, Bio 203.

Bio 303: Human Anatomy & Physiology I 

Organization of the human body; tissues; integumentary, skeletal, muscular and nervous systems; and sense organs. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisites: Bio 100 or Bio 102 Prerequisite.

Bio 304: Human Anatomy & Physiology II 

Endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory and digestive systems; nutrition and metabolism; fluid and acid-base balance; urinary and reproductive systems. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 303.

Bio 305: Essentials of Cell Biology 

Fundamentals of the molecular basis of cellular structure and function with emphasis on the interdependence of major molecular processes. Topics include the cellular roles of DNA, RNA and protein; genetic regulation and repair; membrane structure and function; organellar systems; cytoskeleton and cell movement; energy generation in the organellar context, and cell cycle and controls. Laboratory investigation of cellular and molecular phenomena. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 101.

Bio 306: Systematics 

Taxonomic techniques and philosophical assumptions of various natural and artificial approaches to classification including baraminology. Natural history of vertebrate taxa with emphasis on mammals, reptiles and amphibians. Classification of vascular plants. Use of identification keys, experience in recognizing plant and animal species in the field, techniques used in collecting and preparing herbarium/museum specimens, and consideration of relevant scientific literature.

Prerequisite: Bio 209.

Bio 307: Vertebrate Zoology 

Introduction to vertebrate zoology including aspects of their ecology, life history and behavior. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 209.

Bio 308: Microbiology 

The form, structure, reproduction, physiology, metabolism, identification and control of microorganisms, with emphasis on the bacteria. Consideration is also given to the basic principles of immunology and serology. Lecture and lab. Not applicable toward Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biology, or Premed/Predent majors.

Prerequisites: Bio 100 or Bio 102 Prerequisite.

Bio 309: Plant Physiology 

Wide-ranging investigations in plant physiology. Emphasis will be on photosynthesis, plant-water relations, organic and mineral nutrition, secondary metabolites, xylem and phloem transport, and growth and development. Lecture and Lab .

Prerequisite: Bio 208.

Bio 310: Research Methods & Analysis 

Introduction to the formulation of a scientifically testable hypothesis as well as the design and execution of appropriate experiments. Includes instruction in diverse techniques of data analytics and in writing reports on one's findings in journal article format.

Prerequisite: Bio 330.

Bio 320: Human Physiology & Anatomy I 

A consideration of the major principles of human physiology with an emphasis on homeostatic mechanisms. Emphasis is given to cellular transport, chemical signaling, neuronal signaling and sensory physiology, mechanisms of muscle contraction and the control of body movement. Laboratory investigation of physiological phenomena augmented by human cadaver dissection. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 305.

Bio 321: Human Physiology & Anatomy II 

A continuation of Bio 320. Emphasis is given to hormonal signaling and control; cardiovascular and respiratory physiology; digestion; absorption; excretion and water balance; metabolism; energy balance and temperature regulation; and reproductive physiology. Laboratory investigation of physiological phenomena augmented by human cadaver dissection. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 320.

Bio 322: Bacteriology & Virology 

The biology of bacteria and viruses with emphasis on their form and physiology. A study of their diversity, environmental importance and interaction with humans, as well as human attempts to control them. Consideration is given to basic immunology. Laboratory work focuses on the metabolism, identification and physiology of bacteria. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 305.

Bio 330: Biomeasurement 

An introduction to selected topics in biostatistical concepts and reasoning. Specific topics include the basics of the sampling process, descriptive statistics, frequency distributions, inferential statistics, hypothesis testing, tests on frequencies, tests on differences between two samples and between more than two samples, tests of relationship (correlation and regression), the Generalized Linear model, Bayesian methodology and the communication of results with graphics.

Prerequisite: Ma 103.

Bio 381: Invertebrate Zoology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 301.

Bio 389: Plant Physiology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 309.

Bio 390: Human Physiology & Anatomy I Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 320.

Bio 391: Human Physiology & Anatomy II Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 321.

Bio 392: Developmental Biology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 302.

Bio 393: Human Anatomy & Physiology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 303.

Bio 394: Human Anatomy & Physiology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 304.

Bio 395: Essentials of Cell Biology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 305.

Bio 397: Vertebrate Zoology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 307.

Bio 398: Microbiology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 308.

Bio 399: Bacteriology & Virology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 322.

Bio 400: Parasitology 

The biology and ecology of protozoan and helminthic parasites that infect humans and animals. Emphasis will be placed on parasites that affect human welfare, including human and veterinary medicine. Parasite life cycle, pathogenicity, epidemiology, ecology, and immunity will be the focus of both lecture and lab. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 209.

Bio 401: Ecology 

Biotic and abiotic interactions between organisms and their environments, and the consequences of these interactions for population dynamics, community structure, and the flow of energy and matter through ecosystems. Environmental issues and conservation are also discussed. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 209.

Bio 402: General Entomology 

Morphology, physiology, life histories and economic importance of insects; emphasis on classification. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 209.

Bio 403: Histology 

Microscopic structures of the tissues of the human body, utilizing prepared slides and emphasizing the relationship of structure to function. Basic tissues are stressed along with topics in immunology and organology. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 305.

Bio 404: Immunology 

Introduction to basic immunobiology and immunochemistry. The role of innate and acquired immunity, specifically the cellular and molecular features in the humoral and cell-mediated functions in the human body.

Prerequisite: Bio 305.

Bio 405: Genetics 

Mendelian and classical genetics including gene interaction and linkage. Molecular genetics with emphasis on prokaryotes and viruses. Topics include gene structure and expression, replication, recombination, mutation, transcription, translation, gene regulation and eukaryotic chromosome structure. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 305.

Bio 406: Cell & Molecular Biology 

A detailed treatment of certain aspects of the molecular biology of eukaryotic cells. Topics include: nuclear organization, regulation of gene expression, chromosome structure, DNA repair, vesicular transport, protein sorting, compartmentation, cell signaling and developmental biology. Laboratory investigation of cellular and molecular phenomena. Lecture and lab .

Prerequisites: Bio 405, Chm 405.

Bio 407: Animal Behavior 

An introduction to animal behavior. Basic principles derived from ecology, ethology and cell biology will be employed to explain how (proximate questions) and why (ultimate questions) animals behave as they do in particular situations. The course will focus on important biological activities such as foraging, communication, migration, predator-prey interactions, mating and parental care. Lecture and lab.

Prerequisite: Bio 209.

Bio 409: Independent Study 

The selection of a problem chosen in consultation with the research director, followed by the execution of a detailed literature survey and composition of a research proposal regarding the selected problem. Lab work includes an introduction to the basic techniques of cell culture and laboratory maintenance in preparation for Bio 410. Required of all students majoring in the Cell Biology track of the Biology major.

Prerequisite: Bio 479.

Bio 410: Independent Study 

A continuation of Bio 409. Laboratory study of a problem chosen in consultation with the research director culminating in a paper or poster of results. Required of all students majoring in the Cell Biology track of the Biology major.

Prerequisite: Bio 409.

Bio 411: Research in Biology I 

A full time summer research project in which a biological research problem is chosen in consultation with the research director. A study of the current scientific literature, as well as laboratory work culminating in a comprehensive paper in journal article format and an oral presentation thereof. Successful completion of Bio 411 can substitute for Bio 409/410.

Prerequisite: Bio 479.

Bio 412: Research in Biology II 

A continuation of Bio 411. Findings of full-time laboratory research will be communicated in a comprehensive paper in journal article format.

Prerequisite: Bio 411.

Bio 479: Critical Evaluation of Biology Literature 

Critical evaluation of research studies published in biological literature in terms of experimental design and conclusions. Students present their own critiques of a research article both orally and in writing. Required of all students majoring in Biology. Not applicable toward a minor.

Prerequisite: Bio 310.

Bio 480: Physical Therapy Internship 

Students observe physical therapists as they practice in hospital or office settings. Forty hours of direct observation are required. Weekly written reports detailing observations are required. A final paper of 2000 words or more reflecting on the knowledge and perspective gained through the observations is required.

Bio 490: Student Medical Internship 

Students observe physicians as they practice medicine in hospital or medical office settings. Forty hours of direct observation are required. Weekly written reports detailing observations are required. A final paper of 2000 words or more reflecting on the knowledge and perspective gained through the observations is required.

Prerequisites: Bio 320, Bio 321.

Bio 491: Ecology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 401.

Bio 492: General Entomology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 402.

Bio 493: Histology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 403.

Bio 494: Parasitology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 400.

Bio 495: Genetics Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 405.

Bio 496: Cell & Molecular Biology Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 406.

Bio 497: Animal Behavior Lab 

Corequisite: Bio 407.

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