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7 – 10.1 Frequencies below 9 kilohertz, Experimental radio below 9 kHz and Somalia photos 26.


                                                                       Frequencies below 9 kilohertz. 

                                                                                        31 October 2009.


COMMUNICATIONS AND EMISSIONS - Below 9 Kilohertz. 

Experimental  Radio below 9 kHz. 

 Frequencies below 9 kHz.  

The world below 9 kHz. 

Radio below 9 kHz.


The All Frequency Database Index is here: http://sites.google.com/site/somaliaamateurradio/somaliaphotos10

 

You are here:

7. Telluric current (Earth electricity).

8. Infrasound.

8c. Audio.

9. Ultrasound.

10. Radio waves.

10.1 Experimental Radio (ER, er).


Index:

7. Telluric current (Earth electricity) at 0 Hz (Direct Current) and near 0 Hz AC (Alternating Current).

8. Infrasound pressure wave frequencies from 0.001 Hz – 20 Hz.

8c. Audio sound pressure wave frequencies from 20 Hz – 20 kHz.

9. Ultrasound pressure wave frequencies above 20 KHz.

10. Radio electromagnetic wave frequencies from 0 – 9 kHz.

10.1 Experimental Radio below 9 kHz.



7.

Telluric currents (Earth electricity). 

Telluric current (Earth electricity) at 0 Hz (Direct Current) and near 0 Hz AC (Alternating Current).

0 Hz DC (Direct Current).

Earth currents at 0 Hz DC (Direct Current) and near 0 Hz AC (Alternating Current).

Earth induced voltage.

Currents on the earth’s surface and in the sea are caused by electromagnetic INDUCTION from variations in the Earths changing geomagnetic field that is produced by the Earth’s ionosphere and or produced by the Earth’s Magnetosphere or by water movement across Earth’s permanent geomagnetic field. 

The hobby of exploring Telluric currents.

The hobby of exploring Earth electricity.

The hobby of exploring Telluric Earth electricity

Page 88 – 94: The hobby of listening to electricity in the Earth.

Page 93: Listen to VK2ZTO audio of Earth electricity measured using ground electrodes (ground rods).

Page 196: The origin of the Earth electricity recorded by amateur radio operator VK2ZTO.

http://www.djirra.com/vk2zto_legacy/docs/vk2zto_legacy.pdf

The Earth's Electrical Environment (1986).

Telluric currents (Earth electricity).

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309036801&page=232

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=233

World map of the planetary distribution of Telluric currents.

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=234

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=235

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=236

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=237

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=238

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=239

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=240

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=241

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=242

Interactions of Telluric currents with man made systems.

http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=898&page=243

 

 

 

8.

Infrasound.

Infrasound Frequencies ISF.

Infrasound Frequencies are 20 Hz and below.

Infrasound are like sound waves not radio waves.

Infrasound is the frequencies below human hearing.

Infrasonic Frequencies (ISF) is sound pressure waves below the frequencies normally heard by the human ear.

 

Infrasound are the frequencies of 20 Hertz and below.

Infrasound pressure wave frequencies are from 0.001 Hz 20 Hz.

 

Infrasound waves are like sound waves not radio waves.

Infrasonic waves are not radio waves.

Infrasound waves are not radio waves.

Infrasound Frequencies from 0.001 Hz - 20 Hz are different to the radio frequencies from 0.001 Hz - 20 Hz.

Infrasound Frequencies 0.001 Hz - 20 Hz are sound pressure waves in air or water.

The radio frequencies 0.001 Hz - 20 Hz are electromagnetic radio waves made up of both an electric force and a magnetic force.

The radio frequencies 0.001 Hz - 20 Hz are electromagnetic radio waves made up of both an electric field and a magnetic field.

 

Introduction to Infra sound.

Introduction to Infrasound.

Introduction to Infrasonics.

Introduction to Infrasonic exploration.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrasound

The hobby of exploring Infrasound.

The hobby of exploring Infrasonic frequencies.

The hobby of exploring Infra sonic frequencies.

Page 95 – 100: Australian Infrasonic experiments below 20 Hz by amateur radio operator VK2ZTO.

Page 197 – 210 Infra sound experiments below 0.5 Hertz and 15 Hertz in Australia by VK2ZTO.

Page 232 – 233: Microbaroms are atmospheric infrasonic sound waves near 0.2 Hz (0.2 Hertz).

HOME BUILT INFRASOUND TRANSMITTER AND INFRASOUND RECEIVER by VK2ZTO.

http://www.djirra.com/vk2zto_legacy/docs/vk2zto_legacy.pdf

Infrasound caused by fire.

Infrasound caused by flood.

Infrasound caused by earthquake.

Infrasound caused by wind.

Infrasound caused by engines.

http://www.borderlands.com/newstuff/research/infra.htm

The effects of Infrasound on human physiological.

http://www.borderlands.com/archives/arch/gavreaus.htm 

 

 

 

8c.

Audio.

Audio sound pressure wave frequencies from 20 Hz – 20 kHz.

Sound pressure waves with frequencies between 20 Hz – 20 kHz are called audio frequency.

Audio Frequency waves are air pressure waves or water pressure waves that are above the frequency of Infrasound and below the frequency of ultrasound.

 

Audio Frequency waves are sound waves not radio waves.

Radio waves with frequencies between 20 Hz – 20 kHz are different to audio waves with frequencies between 20 Hz – 20 kHz.

Audio Frequencies 20 Hz – 20 kHz are sound pressure waves in air or water.

Radio Frequencies 20 Hz – 20 kHz are electromagnetic radio waves made up of both an electric field and a magnetic field.

 

Introduction to Audio Frequencies.

Introduction to Audio.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_frequency

http://www.dplay.com/tutorial/freqpaint.html

BUILD AN AUDIO BEACON FOR THE BLIND.

BUILD AN AUDIO BEACON FOR THE SIGHT IMPAIRED.

http://www.nutstreet.net/k0lr/audiobcn/audiobcn.htm

VOICE POWERED RADIO TRANSMITTER.

Talk over 160 km (100 miles) using your voice with no battery and no solar power.

Use the power from your voice to power a radio transmitter.

http://icqpodcast.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=570&Itemid=1

http://mjrainey.googlepages.com/newenglandcodetalker

Circuit diagram of the short wave radio transmitter powered by your voice.

http://mjrainey.googlepages.com/NECodeTalker.pdf

Listen to the Morse code voice powered radio transmitter.

http://mjrainey.googlepages.com/Lambda.mp3

AUDIO TRANSMITTER (NO LICENSE NEEDED, NO LICENCE NEEDED):

Your brain, throat, tong, mouth and lips are an audio transmitter.

AUDIO TRANSMITTING ANTENNA (NO ANTENNA RESTRICTIONS):

Your neck and mouth is a rotatable audio transmitting antenna.

AUDIO AMPLIFIER (NO LICENSE NEEDED, NO LICENCE NEEDED):

A megaphone or loudhailer will boost the power of your voice (don’t use this when people are sleeping unless you have an emergency message).

AUDIO RECEIVER:

Your brain and ears is an audio receiver.

AUDIO RECEIVING ANTENNA:

Your neck and ears is a rotatable audio receiving antenna.

AUDIO TRANSCEIVER:

Your head has a built-in audio transmitter and audio receiver (audio frequency transceiver).

ROTATABLE DIRECTIONAL AUDIO RECEIVING AND TRANSMITTING ANTENNA SYSTEM:

Your head has a built-in rotatable and directional audio transmitting and receiving antenna.

 

 

 

9.

Ultrasound.

Ultrasound Frequencies USF.

Ultrasound Frequencies are above 20 KHz (Sound waves not radio waves).

Ultrasound is the frequencies above human hearing.

Ultrasound Frequencies (USF) is sound pressure waves above the frequencies normally heard by the human ear.

 

Ultrasound pressure wave frequencies are above 20 KHz.

Ultrasound are the frequencies 20 kHz and above.

Ultrasound waves are the frequencies of 20000 Hz and above.

Ultrasound Frequencies are the frequencies above 20 KHz and have no upper limit.

 

Ultrasonic waves are like Sound waves not radio waves.

Ultrasound waves are not radio waves.

Ultrasound Frequencies above 20 KHz are different to the radio frequencies above 20 KHz.

Ultrasound Frequencies of 20 KHz and higher are sound pressure waves in air or water.

Radio frequencies of 20 KHz and higher are electromagnetic radio waves made up of both an electric force and a magnetic force,

Radio frequencies of 20 KHz and higher are electromagnetic radio waves made up of both an electric field and a magnetic field.

 

Introduction to Ultra sound.

Introduction to Ultrasound.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultrasound

The Ultrasound spectrum.

http://www.midnightscience.com/article-u1.html

Ultrasonic transmitter and ultrasonic receiver.

BUILD AN ULTRASONIC TRANSMITTER AND ULTRASONIC RECEIVER FROM A KIT.

The 40 kHz ultrasonic transmitter and the 40 kHz ultrasonic receiver kits will put your voice “on the air”. Kit K045 is $13 (includes both the transmitter and receiver).

http://secure.oatleyelectronics.com//product_info.php?cPath=81&products_id=211

BUILD AN ULTRASONIC TRANSMITTER (generator) with adjustable frequency and frequency sweep. Keep ultrasonic transmitters away from the human ear because although you cannot hear it, it is powerful enough to cause ear damage. Kit K232 is $32.

http://secure.oatleyelectronics.com//product_info.php?cPath=81&products_id=272

The hobby of exploring Ultrasound.

The hobby of exploring Ultrasound frequencies.

The hobby of exploring Ultra sound frequencies.

BUILD AN ULTRASOUND MORSE CODE TRANSCEIVER from a kit on 35 kHz – 45 kHz with a pressure wave power of 2 mW and range of 100 feet or more.

http://www.midnightscience.com/ultra-kits.html

http://www.midnightscience.com/ultra-articles.html

http://www.midnightscience.com

 

 

 

10.

Radio waves 0 – 9 kHz Communications and Emissions.

Radio below 9 kHz.

Radio waves with frequencies from 0 – 9 kHz.

Electromagnetic waves with frequencies from 0 – 9 kHz.

 

Very Very Low (VVLow) frequency radio waves.

VVLow Radio 0 kHz – 9 kHz.

VVLow Wireless 0 – 9000 Hz.

VVLow Radio waves 0 Hz – 9000 Hz.

VVLow Wireless waves 0 – 0.009 MHz.

VVLow Radio wave emissions 0 MHz – 0.009 MHz.

 

The hobby of listening to radio waves from 0 – 9 kHz.

The hobby of listening to radio waves below 9 kHz.

Introduction to radio waves.

http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/radio.html

 

10.1

Experimental Radio.

Very very low frequency experimental radio.

Very (V) very (V) low (low) frequency (f) experimental radio (er).

Very very low frequency (VVLowF) experimental radio (ER, er).

VVLowFER.

Vvlowfer.

Vvlowfer (Vee-vee-lowfer).

 

0 kHz – 9 kHz.

 

Below 9 kHz very very low frequency experimental radio.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio.

Radio below 9 kHz.

 

The hobby of listening to radio signals below 9 kHz.

Exploration by the general public and amateur radio operators of the 0 – 9 kHz band.

Below 9 kHz in some countries no license is needed to transmit in the 0 – 9 kHz band.

Vvlowfer radio listeners can use free to download computer software to see on their computer very low power radio signals over large distances as well as radio signals under the noise.

 

0 – 9 kHz VVLowfer (Below 9 kHz very low frequency experimental radio).

0 – 30 kHz TVLowfer (Tremendously low to Very low frequency experimental radio).

3 kHz – 30 kHz VLowfer (Very low frequency experimental radio).

 

TLW Tremendously Long radio Waves that have Tremendously Low Frequencies (TLF) from 0 Hz – 3 Hz.

ELW Extremely Long radio Waves that have Extremely Low Frequencies (ELF) from 3 Hz – 30 Hz.

SLW Super Long radio Waves that have Super Low Frequencies (SLF) from 30 Hz – 300 Hz.

ULW Ultra Long radio Waves that have Ultra Low Frequencies (ULF) from 300 Hz – 3 kHz.

VLW Very Long radio Waves that have Very Low Frequencies (VLF) from 3 kHz – 9 kHz.

 

Exploring TLW wavelengths, ELW wavelengths, SLW wavelengths, ULW wavelengths, VLW wavelengths.

 

Exploring TLF frequencies, ELF frequencies, SLF frequencies, ULF frequencies, VLF frequencies.

TLowfer (“Tee-low-fer”) Tremendously Low Frequency Experimental Radio.

ELowfer (“Eee-low-fer”) Extremely Low Frequency Experimental Radio.

SLowfer (“Ssslow-fer”) Super Low Frequency Experimental Radio.

ULowfer (“You-low-fer”) Ultra Low Frequency Experimental Radio.

VVLowfer (“Vee-Vee-low-fer”) below 9 kHz Experimental Radio.

VLowfer (“Vee-low-fer”) Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio.

 

Amateur radio stations are individual citizens in every country of the world who communicate and experiment with radio transmitters and radio receivers.

In some countries amateur radio operators have obtained experimental licenses to use frequencies that are outside the amateur radio bands.

In other countries no license is needed to use a radio transmitter below 9 kHz. This allows any interested person to explore the fascinating world under 9 kHz.

ITU Radio Regulations, Article 5, 5.53: administrations authorizing the use of frequencies below 9 kHz shall ensure that no harmful interference is caused thereby to the services to which the bands above 9 kHz are allocated.

ITU Radio Regulations, Article 5, 5.54: Administrations conducting scientific research using frequencies below 9 kHz are urged to advise other administrations that may be concerned in order that such research may be afforded all practicable protection from harmful interference.

http://www.bakom.admin.ch/themen/frequenzen/00652/00755/index.html?lang=en


Here are some of the results of experiments on 0 – 9 kHz by amateur radio operators.

       500 Hz – 5.000 kHz, 0.5 kHz – 5 kHz KC6QPO in the USA used 100 Watt Electric field to cover 3.3 km.

  1.000 kHz, 1 kHz G3XBM in the UK used 4 Watts with ground electrodes (10 m base) to cover 0.3 km.

  6.000 kHz, 6 kHz G0AKN in the UK used 1 kW (1000 Watts) with ground electrodes to cover 10 km.

  6.000 kHz, 6 kHz KD4RLD in the USA used 100 watts with ground electrodes and loop to cover 10 km.

  7.000 kHz, 7 kHz KD4RLD in the USA used 100 watts with ground electrodes and loop to cover 10 km.

  8.800 kHz, 8.8 kHz KD4RLD in the USA used 100 watts with ground electrodes and loop to cover 10 km.

  8.900 kHz, 8.9 kHz IW3SGT in Italy used 8 Watts to cover 0.1 km.

  8.930 kHz, 8.93 kHz DK8KW in Germany used 10 Watts with Electric field to cover 1 km.

  8.950 kHz, 8.95 kHz DJ2LF in Germany used 6 Watts with ground electrodes to cover 1.3 km.

  8.950 kHz, 8.95 kHz DJ2LF in Germany used 14 Watts with Electric field to cover 2.5 km.

  8.969 kHz, 8.969 kHz DF6NM in Germany used 20 Watts with a kite antenna to cover 4.5 km.

  8.975 kHz, 8.975 kHz VK2ZTO in Australia used 380 Watts with ground electrodes to cover 1.6 km.

10.000 kHz, 10 kHz DL5KZ in Germany used 4 Watts from commercial equipment for finding underground cables with ground electrodes to cover 3 km.

Special license issued to radio amateurs in Germany to communicate on 8.9 kHz to 9 kHz.

Special license issued to radio amateurs in Sweden to communicate on 7 kHz to 8.5 kHz.

In some countries no license is needed to transmit below 9 kHz because internationally the frequencies from 0 – 9 kHz is not allocated to anyone.

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/lapthorn/earthmode.htm

http://www.qru.de/vlf.html

http://www.qru.de/w4dex-vlf.html

IW3SGT 56 kHz loop antenna.

http://www.webalice.it/iw3sgt/IW3SGT_PRJ/il_loopi.html

Here is a Loop antenna circuit that connects into the computer microphone socket when using a computer as a VLF receiver. (In Sydney Sam VK2BVS uses a 1.8 MHz (160 metre band) half wave dipole antenna into the computer microphone socket with no circuitry but if you need to use a small antenna this one is by IW3SGT

http://www.webalice.it/iw3sgt/IW3SGT_PRJ/vlfrx.html .

Using 9 kHz antennas above and below ground.

http://www.qru.de/radiation.html

 

Australia.

Very Very low frequency experimental radio in Australia.

VVLF in Australia.

Vvlowfer in Australia.

VVLowFER in Australia. 

No radio transmitter licence (license) is needed in Australia on the following bands (see conditions below).

In 2009: 0 kHz – 14 kHz no license is required for an antenna radiated power of 0.2 mW e.i.r.p.

In 2001: 0 kHz – 9 kHz no license was required for any power output below 9 kHz.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio in Australia.

Below 9 kHz Very Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio in Australia (VVLowFER).

In Australia no license is required to operate a radio transmitter on frequencies below 14 kHz at a maximum antenna radiated power of 0.2 mW equivalent isotropically radiated power (0.2 mW effective isotopic radiated power, 0.2 mW e.i.r.p.).

In one case using a 10 Watt transmitter on 8930 Hz (8.930 kHz near 8.9 kHz) the antenna radiated power is estimated at 1 microwatt effective radiated power (1 µW ERP) which is equivalent to 1.64 µW e.i.r.p. (0.00164 mW) which is within the maximum limit for transmitting with no license below 14 kHz. A higher power transmitter can be used in Australia and still be within the allowable e.i.r.p. antenna power limit due to the extreme low efficiency of antennas on frequencies below 14 kHz.

The  commercial 10 Watt transmitter (RFT 81027) on 1.03 kHz and 10 kHz is at the bottom of the page in this link and had an estimated antenna radiated power of 1 microwatt ERP (1 microwatt effective radiated power, 1 µW ERP which is 1.64 µW e.i.r.p. or 0.00164 mW e.i.r.p.)

http://www.qru.de/vlf.html

The Australian Communications and Media Authority ACMA (Low Interference Potential Devices LIPD class license 2000) with all amendments came into effect on 1 July 2009.

LIPD allow transmitters that meet certain power levels on certain frequencies to be used without the need to apply for a license.

LIPD, (section 3, Note) states that LIPD devises must not cause radio frequency interference to other Radio communication devises.

The responsibility is on LIPD owners to resolve interference for example by retuning or stopping their operation.

0 – 14 kHz No-license required transmitters in Australia.

No-license required for LIPD (Low Interference Potential Devices) in Australia on 0 – 14 kHz.

LIPD, Schedule 1 All transmitters, page 7 allows an antenna radiated power of 200 microwatts equivalent isotropically radiated power (200 µW e.i.r.p., 0.2 mW e.i.r.p.) without a license required for transmitters operating between 0 – 14 kHz.

LIPD, Section 3A, page 4, Definitions says: “This maximum EIRP means the largest amount of equivalent isotropically radiated power that is radiated in any direction from either an antenna that is an integral part of the transmitter or an antenna that is connected to the transmitter.”

On VLF the power of the transmitter is can be quite high in order to produce a small radiation from the antenna (e.i.r.p.).

Click to download the Australian Communications and Media Authority ACMA (Low Interference Potential Devices LIPD) pdf - LIPD

Page 64: The radiated power of Part 15 LowFER (Experimental Radio) beacons is estimated to be around 1 milliwatt e.i.r.p (1 mW e.i.r.p) and some have been heard hundreds of kilometers away so what is possible below 9 kHz with 0.2 mW e.i.r.p?

Pages 45 – 94: ULF, ELF and VLF.

Australian amateur radio experiments on 8.975 kHz (8975 Hertz, 8975 Hz) by VK2ZTO in Sydney described the matching of the 4 ohm output of a 180 Watt per channel solid state stereo amplifier to ground rods resulting in a radiated power estimated at 300 microwatts EIPR (300 µW eirp, 0.3 mW eirp, page 49). This gives as idea of the transmitter power output necessary to achieve today’s slightly lower antenna radiated power limit of 0.2 mW e.i.r.p.

The audio from a receiver was fed into the microphone input of the computer sound card and the spectrogram software (available as a free download on the internet) was used to display the audio.

Pages 56 – 64: Antennas for ULF, ELF and VLF.

Details of the transmitting antenna, receiving antenna and the results of the Australian VLF experiments.

Page 46: In 1999 - 2001 VK2ZLO was transmitting on ULF, ELF and VLF at a time when there were no restrictions in transmitting on the frequencies below 9 kHz in Australia.

Page 55 and 65: In 1999 - 2001 a license was required for transmitting on the low frequency radio band.

Australian radio amateurs who wanted to conducted experimental research outside amateur radio bands or use more power applied for a special license or permission.

VK2ZLO and other Australian amateur radio operators obtained scientific licenses assigning to them for low frequency research in 1999.

Page 68: Experimental licenses obtained by VK2ZTO and other Australian radio amateurs to use low frequencies in 1999.

Page 142 - 144. VLF Cliff Hanging Antenna. CHA is the VK2ZTO Cliff Hanging Antenna that hangs down a 70 metre cliff.

Page 140: VLF spectrograph. The spectrograph shows signals between 11 kHz to 22 kHz using the Cliff Hanging Antenna.

http://www.djirra.com/vk2zto_legacy/docs/vk2zto_legacy.pdf

 

Canada.

Very Very low frequency experimental radio in Canada.

VVLF in Canada.

Vvlowfer in Canada.

VVLowFER in Canada.

0 – 9 kHz no license is required to operate a radio transmitter below 9 kHz in Canada.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio in Canada.

Below 9 kHz Very Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio in Canada (VVLowFER).

In Canada no license is required to operate radio transmitters on frequencies below 9 kHz at any power level.

No license is required to operate radio transmitters on frequencies below 9 kHz in the Canada at any power level.

Industry Canada radio regulations RSS-310 for low-power licence-exempt radio communication devices on all frequency bands: Category II Equipment, 30 July 2009 sets out standard requirements for low-power licence-exempt radio communication devices that are certification exempt.

Canada radio regulations 30 July 2009 RSS-310 Section 3.6 Radio frequencies 0 kHz - 9 kHz and infra-red frequencies states that Radio frequency devices operating at 9 kHz or less and at infra-red frequencies are excluded from any Industry Canada equipment requirements.

That is equipment below 9 kHz is certification exempt no matter what the output power level.

Industry Canada radio regulations RSS-310 Section 3.4.1 Conducted Limits states that there is no Carrier Current Output Voltage limit below 9 kHz for carrier current devices.

RSS-310 Section 3.12 Tables shows in Table 3 that in the general field strength limits for transmitters at frequencies below 30 MHz there is no limit placed on radio frequencies from 0 kHz - 9 kHz. That is all equipment below 9 kHz is certification exempt.

Other regulations prohibiting interference to radio and TV would still apply.

http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf08448.html

Canadian Safety Code 6 is the limits of human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 3 kHz to 300 GHz (1999, last updated by Industry Canada website on 15 September 2008).

Safety Code 6 allows the greatest level of radio frequency exposure to humans at frequencies below 1 MHz compared to the higher frequency bands from 1 MHz – 300,000 MHz.

For 3 kHz to 1 MHz an electric field strength of 600 Volts per meter rms over 6 minutes or a Magnetic Field Strength of 4.9 A/m rms over 6 minutes is the exposure limit.

There is no stated exposure limit to radio frequencies from 0 to 3 kHz.

The frequency region from 0 to 9 kHz as the safest for hobby radio transmitter experimenters in terms of allowable field strength exposure.

Safety Code 6 (radio frequency transmitter antenna radio radiation safety exposure limits, Canada) – Download the section you want to read.
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/radiation/99ehd-dhm237/index-eng.php

Safety Code 6 (radio frequency transmitter antenna radio radiation safety exposure limits, Canada) – download the complete document.

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/alt_formats/hecs-sesc/pdf/pubs/radiation/99ehd-dhm237/99ehd-dhm237-eng.pdf

 

Germany.

Very Very low frequency experimental radio in Germany.

VVLF in Germany.

Vvlowfer in Germany.

VVLowFER in Germany.

0 – 9 kHz.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio in Germany.

Below 9 kHz Very Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio in Germany (VVLowFER).

Special licenses were issued to some radio amateurs in Germany to communicate on 8.9 kHz to 9 kHz.

http://db0fhn.efi.fh-nuernberg.de:8080/cmd?cmd=READ+VLF+461

http://www.qru.de/page1.jpg

 

Italy.

Very Very low frequency experimental radio in Italy.

VVLF in Italy.

Vvlowfer in Italy.

VVLowFER in Italy.

0 – 9 kHz.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio in Italy.

Below 9 kHz Very Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio in Italy (VVLowFER).

Special licenses were issued to some radio amateurs in Italy to communicate below 9 kHz.

 

New Zealand.

Very Very low frequency experimental radio in New Zealand.

VVLF in New Zealand.

Vvlowfer in New Zealand.

VVLowFER in New Zealand. 

No radio transmitter licence (license) is needed iNew Zealand below 3 kHz and 3 kHz – 9 kHz is shown as not allocated. 

0 – 9 kHz.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio in New Zealand.

Below 9 kHz Very Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio in New Zealand (VVLowFER).

3 kHz – 9 kHz is shown as not allocated in the 13 June 2008 Ministry of Economic Development (MED), Radio Spectrum Management, New Zealand radio spectrum chart.

New Zealand experimenters can request permission to use this unallocated spectrum.

0 – 3 kHz is not on the New Zealand radio spectrum chart and like the frequencies above 1000 GHz has no restrictions however radio and TV interference must be avoided.

http://www.rsm.govt.nz/cms/pdf-library/resource-library/publications/chart-of-radio-spectrum-allocations-in-new-zealand-270-kb-pdf

The Ministry of Economic Development (MED), Radio Spectrum Management, New Zealand.

5 April 2007 (page updated 18 March 2008) grants (to people in New Zealand) a general user radio licence (no one needs to apply for this license because it is granted to everyone in New Zealand) for the transmission of radio waves for the purpose of Short Range Devices (SRD), also known as Restricted Radiation Devices (RRD), Low Interference Potential Devices (LIPD) or Spread Spectrum Devices (SSD).

9 kHz - 30 kHz can be used without a license for Telemetry and or Telecommand and has a maximum permitted field strength of 2400/f(kHz) µV/m measured at 300 metres away from the antenna.

On 9 kHz this maximum permitted field strength is 266 µV/m measured 300 metres away from the antenna.

http://www.rsm.govt.nz/cms/licensing/types-of-licence/general-user-licences/short-range-devices/#note1

 

Sweden.

Very Very low frequency experimental radio in Sweden.

VVLF in Sweden.

Vvlowfer in Sweden.

VVLowFER in Sweden.

0 – 9 kHz.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio in Sweden.

Below 9 kHz Very Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio in Sweden (VVLowFER).

Special licenses were issued to some radio amateurs in Sweden to communicate on 7 kHz to 8.5 kHz.

 

United Kingdom (UK).

Very Very low frequency experimental radio in the United Kingdom.

Very very low frequency experimental radio in the UK.

Vvlowfer in the UK.

VVLowFER in the UK.

0 – 9 kHz.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio in the UK.

Below 9 kHz Very Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio in the United Kingdom (VVLowFER).

UK VLF explorers who also have amateur radio stations have operated below 9 kHz.

There is no frequency allocation below 9 kHz in the UK Ofcom spectrum chart.

http://www.ofcom.org.uk/radiocomms/isu/ukfat

 

USA.

Very Very low frequency experimental radio in the USA.

Very very low frequency experimental radio in the US.

VVLF in the USA.

VVLF in the US.

Vvlowfer in the USA.

Vvlowfer in the US.

VVLowFER in the USA.

VVLowFER in the US. 

No radio transmitter licence (license) is needed in the USA below 9 kHz.

0 – 9 kHz no license is required to operate a radio transmitter below 9 kHz in the USA.

Below 9 kHz Experimental Radio in the USA.

Below 9 kHz Very Very Low Frequency Experimental Radio in the USA (VVLowFER).

In the USA no license is required to operate radio transmitters on frequencies below 9 kHz at any power level.

No license is required to operate radio transmitters on frequencies below 9 kHz in the USA at any power level.

The FCC Federal Communications Commission (10 July 2008) USA radio regulations Part 15 for Radio Frequency devices outlines the USA radio regulations under which an intended radiator of radio waves (radio transmitter) may be operated without a license.

USA Radio regulations Part15, section 15.33, page 21 Frequency Range of Radiated Measurements states that where equipment acts as an intentional radiator (transmitter) the frequencies below 9 kHz are not measured (that is there is no limit to power levels for transmitters without a license below 9 kHz).

USA Radio regulations Part15, section 15.209, page 82 – 83 Radiated emission limits, general requirements shows there is no radio wave field strength limit for transmitters operating below 9 kHz.

The FCC Federal Communications Commission 10 July 2008 radio regulations, Part 15 rules for Radio Frequency devices outlines the USA radio regulations under which an intended radiator of radio waves may be operated without a license.

Unlicensed transmitters (intended radiators) must not cause interference to other radio or TV stations. Unlicensed radio stations (intended radiators) are not protected from interference.

Part 15 rules, page 13, section 15.23 allow home built transmitters (Intentional radiators).

Home-built 9 kHz transmitter radio regulations for Part 15 compliant devices.

Home built 9 kHz transmitters.

Home built 9 kHz radio transmitters.

Home constructed 9 kHz radio transmitters.

Home-made 9 kHz radio transmitters.

Home made 9 kHz radio transmitter.

Home-made 9 kHz radio transmitter.

Home-made 9 kHz transmitter.

Home built radio transmitters.

Home built radio transmitter.

Home constructed radio transmitters.

Home constructed radio transmitter.

Home made radio transmitters.

Home made radio transmitter.

The FCC Part 15 radio regulations for home-made radio transmitter devices.

FCC 10 July 2008 Part 15 radio regulations, page 13, section 15.23 “Home-built devices” states:

(a) Equipment authorization is not required for devices that are not marketed, are not constructed from a kit and are built in quantities of 5 or less for personal use.

(b) It is recognized that the individual builder of Home-built equipment may not possess the means to perform the measurements for determining compliance with the regulations. In this case the builder is expected to employ good engineering practices to meet specified technical standards to the greatest extent practicable.

Section 15.5 also applies to home made devices (transmitters).

Page 9, Section 15.5 “General conditions of operation”.

(a). No person has a right to the continued use of current frequencies (this means that any frequency might be re-allocated for a different use in future).

(b). No harmful radio or TV interference is to be caused and interference from licensed or unlicensed stations must be accepted.

(c). Operation of the devise (transmitter) must cease if an FCC representative informs you of harmful interference caused by your devise. Operation can only restart once the cause of the interference has been corrected.

(d). Transmitters causing damped wave are prohibited (not allowed).

Part 15 rules, page 80 is the list of frequencies where intended radio emissions (transmissions) is not permitted. Only spurious emission (such as unavoidable low level harmonic radiation as a result of transmitting on another frequency) is allowed in those restricted bands.

The FCC part 15 radio regulations in the USA dated 10 July 2008.

http://www.fcc.gov/oet/info/rules/part15/PART15_07-10-08.pdf

 

See more in 15.1 (Amateur Radio and Experimental Radio).

 

 

Radio Free Somalia (known later as Radio Galkayo) unites the two former warring factions.

The leaders of South Galkayo and North Galkayo meet the ham radio students prior to their graduation ceremony.

The first Amateur Radio training course conducted in Galkayo, North East Somalia.



The leaders of South Galkayo and North Galkayo meet the successful students from the Somalia ham radio training course. 

Radio Free Somalia staff meet the leaders of South Galkayo and North Galkayo to help unite the two former warring factions in Galkayo, North East Somalia in 1993.

(North East Somalia became the Puntland State of Somalia on the 1st August 1998).

IN THE PHOTO FROM RIGHT TO LEFT ARE:

1. Right side holding prayer beads: ?

2. Leader of South Galkayo: ?

3. Col. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed SSDF (Somali Salvation Democratic Front) Emergency committee chairman (President of Somalia from 10 October 2004 – 29 December 2009).

4. Sam Voron VK2BVS, 6O0A radio instructor and radio technician from Sydney, Australia.

5. Mohamoud Abdi Omar Adooyo (graduated in 1993 and received his Somalia amateur radio callsign 6O0D).

6. ?

7. Abdullahi Hersi Mahamud (graduated in 1993 and received his Somalia amateur radio callsign 6O0HX).

8. ?

9. ?

10. Jamal Farah Adan (graduated in 1993 and received his Somalia amateur radio callsign 6O0JFA).

11. Girl in red: ?

12. Girl in black: ?

13.

14.

15.

16. Part of face visible.

17. Left side: ?

The people near the ground are:

18. Hands shown giving thanks: ?

19. Holding a stick with a red beard: ?

 (Photo Sam Voron 6O0A, VK2BVS).  

 

INDEX 1.

This new Somalia Amateur Radio website:  

1. Somalia.
Soomaaliya. 
http://sites.google.com/site/somaliaamateurradio  

2. Somalia photos 2 and Morse code between 0 – 1.6 MHz. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 2 iyo 0 – 1.6 MHz Morse codka caalmiga ah. 
http://sites.google.com/site/somaliaamateurradio/somaliaphotos2  

3. Somalia photos 3 and Morse code on 1.6 – 3 MHz. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 3 iyo 1.6 – 3 MHz Morse codka caalmiga ah. 
http://sites.google.com/site/somaliaamateurradio/somaliaphotos3  

4. Somalia photos 4 and Morse code on 3 – 60 MHz. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 4 iyo 3 – 60 MHz Morse codka caalmiga ah. 
http://sites.google.com/site/somaliaamateurradio/somaliaphotos4 

5. Somalia photos 5 and introduction to Non Directional Radio Beacons and NDB list from 0 to 299 kHz. 

6. Somalia photos 6 and Non Directional Radio Beacons list from 300 to 399 kHz. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 6 iyo NDB 300-399 kHz.

7. Somalia photos 7 and Non Directional Radio Beacons list from 400 to 599 kHz. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 7 iyo NDB 400-599 kHz. 

8. Somalia photos 8 and Non Directional Radio Beacons list from 600 to 8000 kHz. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 8 iyo NDB 600-8000 kHz. 

9. Somalia photo 9 and free VLF radio receiver.
Masawir Soomaaliya 9 iyo Radiyo VLF

DATABASE INDEX.

10. All Frequency Database Index and Somalia photos 10. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 10

BROADCASTING STATIONS, 
BROADCAST STATIONS, 
RADIO BROADCASTS, 
TV BROADCASTS.
– 6.8

1 – 1.4 Long Wave radio stations and Somalia photos 10AA. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 10AA 

2 – 2.5 Medium Wave radio stations and Somalia photos 11. 

2.6 Hobby AM radio stations and Somalia photos 12.
Masawir Soomaaliya 12 

3 – 3.3 Short Wave radio stations and Somalia photos 13.
Masawir Soomaaliya 13

3.4 Clandestine radio stations and Somalia photos 14.
Masawir Soomaaliya 14 

3.5 – 3.7 Pirate radio stations, online Short Wave radio receivers, scanners and Somalia photos 15. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 15 

4 – 4.4 VHF FM radio stations and Somalia photos 16. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 16 

4.5 VHF Hobby FM radio stations and Somalia photos 17. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 17

4.6 – 4.6f VHF Digital radio stations and Somalia photos 18.
Masawir Soomaaliya 18 

5 – 5.3e UHF hobby FM radio stations, UHF satellite radio and Somalia photos 19. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 19 

6 – 6.1c TV stations and Somalia photos 20.
Masawir Soomaaliya 20 

6.2a – 6.2c Hobby TV stations and Somalia photos 21. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 21 

6.3 – 6.5 Community TV, Cable TV, Public access cable TV and Somalia photos 22. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 22 

6.6 Pirate TV stations and Somalia photos 23. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 23

6.7 Satellite TV and Somalia photos 24.
Masawir Soomaaliya 24 

6.8 Amateur TV, ATV and Somalia photos 25. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 25 

RADIO COMMUNICATIONS STATIONS, 
RADIO COMMUNICATION STATIONS, 
ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM,
RADIO EMISSIONS. 
– 33.7

7 – 10.1 Frequencies below 9 kilohertz, Experimental radio below 9 kHz and Somalia photos 26. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 26 

11 – 15.10 TLF, ELF, SLF, ULF, VLF Submarine radio below 30 kHz and Somalia photos 27. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 27 

16 – 16.7 LF, Low Frequency radio 30 kHz – 300 kHz, Amateur radio, Experimental Radio and Somalia photos 28. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 28 

17 – 17.9 MF Medium Frequency radio 300 kHz – 3 MHz, Amateur radio, Experimental radio and Somalia photos 29. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 29 

18 – 18.3 HF, High Frequency radio, Aircraft radio, Amateur Radio, Broadband Internet and Somalia photos 30. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 30 

18.4 HF CB radio, Citizen’s Band radio and Somalia photos 31. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 31 

18.5 – 18.6 HF Experimental radio and Somalia photos 32. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 32 

18.7 – 18.21 HF Ship Radio, Jamming stations, Radar, Radio Astronomy, online HF radios and Somalia photos 33. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 33 

19 – 19.3 VHF, Very High Frequency Radio, Aviation Radio, Ham Radio, Experimental Radio and Somalia photos 34. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 34 

19.4 – 19.17 VHF Marine radio, Police radio, Fire, Medical, Space, scanner radio and Somalia photos 35. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 35 

20 – 20.3 UHF, Ultra High Frequency radio, Amateur radio, Moon radio, Experimental Radio and Somalia photos 36. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 36 

20.4 – 20.6w UHF CB radio, Citizen’s Band Radio, GPS Global Positioning System and Somalia photos 37. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 37 

20.7 – 20.20 UHF Police radio, Fire, Medical, Boat radio, Radio Astronomy, radio scanners and Somalia photos 38. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 38 

21 – 21.3 SHF, Super High Frequency radio, Ham radio, Cosmic Radiation from outer space and Somalia photos 39. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 39 

21.4 – 21.10 SHF Internet Wireless Local Area Networks LAN, Radar, Radio Astronomy, Satellites and Somalia photos 40. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 40 

22 – 22.7 EHF, Extremely High Frequency radio, CMBR Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation from outer space and Somalia photos 41. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 41 

23 – 23.4 THF, Tremendously High Frequency radio, Radio Astronomy, Satellites, Laser, and Somalia photos 42. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 42 

24 – 24.1 Infrared, Infrared radiation, Infrared astronomy, Experimental Infrared radiation and Somalia photos 43. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 43 

25. Light, Visible light radiation, Light communications, Optical astronomy and Somalia photos 44. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 44 

26. UV, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet radiation, Ultraviolet astronomy and Somalia photos 45. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 45 

27. X-rays, X-ray radiation, X-ray astronomy and Somalia photos 46. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 46 

28 Gamma-rays, Gamma-ray radiation, Gamma-ray astronomy and Somalia photos 47 
Masawir Soomaaliya 47 

29 Cosmic rays, Cosmic ray particles from outer space, Cosmic ray astronomy and Somalia photos 48. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 48

30 – 31. Online radio measurement converters, electronics calculations, electrical calculators and Somalia photos 49. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 49 

32 – 33.7 Radio frequency allocation plans, radio codes, Amateur radio clubs and Somalia photos 50. 
Masawir Soomaaliya 50 




INDEX 2.

The 
Index for the old Somalia 
Ham Radio website is at the bottom of page 1: http://sites.google.com/site/somaliaamateurradio




Contact: Sam Voron VK2BVS, 6O0A. 

Email somaliahamradio@yahoo.com