The levels of reduced glutathione, vitamin A, E and beta carotene were significantly lower in women with habitual miscarriage than in controls. However, the plasma levels of lipid peroxidation, alkaline phosphatase, glucose and blood haemoglobin were significantly higher in habitual miscarriage than in controls. In addition, plasma levels of glutathione peroxidase, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, sodium, potassium, calcium and number of white blood cells, red blood cells, platelet and values of packet cell volume showed no significant differences between habitual miscarriage and controls. According to the results of this study, we observed that the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased and plasma levels of vitamin A, E and beta carotene were decreased in habitual miscarriage.
Women with recurrent miscarriage were divided into four subgroups according to the etiology: autoimmune, luteal phase defect, anatomical defect and unexplained. Plasma levels of vitamin C and vitamin E were significantly decreased in autoimmune, unexplained and luteal phase defect subgroups than those in two control groups and the anatomical defect group. Copper levels showed a decline in autoimmune and unexplained subgroups when compared to controls, anatomical defect and luteal phase defect aborters. We suggest that decreased concentrations of plasma vitamin C and vitamin E in unexplained, autoimmune and luteal phase defect reflect the increased oxidative stress, expressing a progress of the condition. Also, the imbalance between antioxidant defence and free radical activity is more evident in the autoimmune subgroup. As a conclusion, although impaired antioxidant defence may be responsible for recurrent miscarriage, the recurrent miscarriages may also result in oxidative stress and depletion and weakness of antioxidant defence.
A longitudinal birth cohort study was recruited (n=1924). Antenatal ultrasound scan results were identified and the following recorded: crown-rump length (a measure of fetal growth) in the first trimester; femur length and biparietal diameter in the second trimester. Maternal plasma vitamin E was measured at the time of the first trimester scan. RESULTS: Crown-rump length was positively associated with maternal plasma vitamin E. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vitamin E status may be one determinant for growth of the fetus and fetal lungs during early pregnancy.
Considering the potential adverse effects of anticoagulation in miscarriage treatment, we investigate whether antioxidants might exert the same immunoprotection. Although the fertility properties of Vitamin E have been associated with its antioxidant capacity, its effect on cytokine balance during pregnancy is still unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: Pregnant females from CBA/J × DBA/2 miscarriage model (creates an immune type miscarriage) were orally supplemented with Vitamin E. RESULTS: Vitamin E (15 mg/day) has been able to decrease miscarriage rate and to increase IL-6 placental levels, while increasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) placental levels. CONCLUSION: Vitamin E is able not only to prevent fetal wastage but also to balance IL-6 and VEGF placental levels, presenting a new potential therapeutic alternative for patients with recurrent miscarriage not associated with thrombophilias.
Many sterility outcomes may be associated to the presence of an inflammatory response that would lead to an inability of the endometrium to support implantation and maintain viable embryos. We have established an animal model of inflammation in which the systemic administration of lipopolysaccharyde results in a low embryo implantation rate. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of the inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharyde on embryo viability and to verify the ability of vitamin E to modulate the inflammatory effect of lipopolysaccharyde on embryo viability. RESULTS: The lipopolysaccharyde produces a decrease in the number of pre-implantational embryos in a concentration dependent manner. The lipopolysaccharyde effect can be partially reversed or prevented by vitamin E. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the ability of vitamin E to avoid an inflammatory environment and to allow viability of embryos.
Vitamin E deficiency during pregnancy may cause miscarriage, preterm birth, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction.
To examine whether thin endometria can be improved by increasing uterine radial artery blood flow. PATIENT(S):Sixty-one patients with a thin endometrium (endometrial thickness <8 mm) and high radial artery-resistance index of uRA (>or=0.81). INTERVENTION(S): Vitamin E (600 mg/day) or l-arginine (6 g/day) was given. RESULT(S):Vitamin E improved radial artery-resistance index in 72% of patients and endometrial thickness in 52% of patients. L-arginine improved radial artery-resistance index in 89% of patients and endometrial thickness in 67% of patients. In the control group, who received no medication to increase uRA-blood flow, only one (10%) patient improved in uterine radial artery blood flow and endometrial thickness. CONCLUSION(S): Vitamin E or l-arginine treatment improves uterine radial artery blood flow and endometrial thickness and may be useful for the patients with a thin endometrium.
Biotin, Calcium, Choline, Chromium, Folic Acid, Magnesium, Multivitamins, Phosphorus, Selenium, Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Zinc