High (but still within normal range) estrogen levels have been linked to a recurrent miscarriage. In addition, lowering estrogen levels has increased embryo survival in sheep. On the other hand, estrogen has been shown vital to maintaining pregnancy.

These topics are covered under estrogen:

Estrogen and Miscarriage

How to Lower Estrogen

Estrogen and Fibrocystic Breast

Estrogen and Insulin Resistance

Estrogen and the Thyroid

More Effects of Estrogen

General Estrogen Data:

FSH stimulates the production of estrogen

In the ovaries, LH acts on theca and interstitial cells to produce progestins and androgens, and FSH acts on granulosa cells to stimulate aromatization of these precursor steroids to estrogen.

FSH and Miscarriage

Estrogen raises prolactin levels

Estrogens provide a well-studied positive control over prolactin synthesis and secretion.

Prolactin and Miscarriage

Exogenous estrogens increase prolactin production

BPA induced prolactin production in spleen. The production of a strong Th-1 type cytokine (IFN-gamma) was induced while Th-2 type (IL-4) was suppressed by BPA treatment. These findings suggested that stimulation of prolactin production by estrogenic effects of BPA would affect cytokine profiles, and lead to imbalanced cellular immune response.

Immune system and Miscarriage
Prolactin and Miscarriage

Estrogen increases oxidative stress

F(2)-Isoprostane levels had an independent positive association with estradiol and inverse associations with sex hormone-binding globulin and follicle-stimulating hormone after adjustment for age, race, age at menarche, gamma-tocopherol, beta-carotene, total cholesterol, and homocysteine by inverse probability weighting. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, a less specific marker of oxidative stress, had similar associations. If F(2)-isoprostanes are specific markers of oxidative stress, these results call into question the commonly held hypothesis that endogenous estradiol reduces oxidative stress.

Estrogen is derived from progesterone in the body

Progesterone is the precursor of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone, and after conversion to 17-hydroxyprogesterone (another natural progestogen), of cortisol and androstenedione. Androstenedione can be converted to testosterone, estrone and estradiol.

Progesterone and Miscarriage

Estrogen increases IGF-I bioactivity

We assessed the relationships between IGF-I bioactivity and lifestyle factors purportedly associated with IGF-I immunoreactivity. Associations between bioactive IGF-I with age, body fat percentage, estradiol and progesterone concentrations, habitual alcohol and selenium intakes, free IGF-I with age, estradiol and progesterone concentrations, habitual alcohol and isoflavone intakes and total IGF-I with age and habitual alcohol intake were observed.

- Sex hormone binding globulin binds to both estrogen and testosterone and is an inverse measure of estrogen activity.

SHBG and Miscarriage

- Cholesterol is a precursor for estrogen and testosterone

- Women in Western Europe and the US have estrogen levels that are much higher than women in underdeveloped countries.

- As progesterone decreases, GnRH rises and causes stimulation of LH and FSH. FSH causes maturation of follicles past the antral stage. The dominant follicle establishes itself and is the main follicle that grows. The growing follicle produces estrogen in the granulosa cells. Estrogen actually peaks before ovulation and it is the estrogen that causes the final LH release.

GnRH and Miscarriage

- Estradiol and progesterone synthesis in human placenta is stimulated by calcitriol (Vitamin D).

Vitamin D and Miscarriage

Other topics covered under Hormones:

AdiponectinFSH, GnRH, LH, PCOS, Progesterone, Prolactin, SHBG, Testosterone