Testosterone and Miscarriage

No subject with free testosterone lower than .70% miscarried, all subjects with 1.30% and higher did

Total testosterone in patients with missed miscarriage was significantly lower than those in normal group, whereas % free testosterone (the total testosterone level divided by the SHBG level) was significantly higher. There was a significant negative correlation between % free testosterone and SHBG concentration in the normal group, but not in the missed miscarriage group. All the subjects in whom % free testosterone was 1.30% and higher subsequently miscarried, but no subject with % free testosterone less than 0.70% had a miscarriage.

High testosterone/SHBG ratio linked to 15% of recurrent miscarriages

A blood sample was obtained in early follicular phase (day 3–5). Free testosterone (the total testosterone level divided by the SHBG level) was elevated in 14.6% of subjects with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

Both testosterone, and the testosterone/SHBG ratio, are higher in recurrent miscarriage

Testosterone concentrations were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages both with and without PCOS on days LH-7 and LH-4 of the cycle. Concentrations of androstenedione (precursor to testosterone and estrogen) also were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages, but without PCOS on day LH-7. Testosterone/SHBG ratios were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages, without PCOS compared with the controls on days LH-7, LH+0, and LH+7.

Free testosterone more useful than age or number of previous miscarriages in predicting miscarriage

We investigated the free testosterone index in a large number of women with recurrent miscarriage in order to ascertain whether hyperandrogenaemia is a predictor of subsequent pregnancy outcome. We studied 571 women who attended the Recurrent Miscarriage Clinic in Sheffield and presented with ≥3 consecutive miscarriages. METHODS: Serum levels of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the early follicular phase and free testosterone (testosterone/SHBG) was then deduced. RESULTS: The prevalence of hyperandrogenaemia in recurrent miscarriage was 11% and in a subsequent pregnancy, the miscarriage rate was significantly higher in the raised free testosterone group (miscarriage rates of 68% and 40% for free testosterone > 5 and free testosterone ≤ 5 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: An elevated free testosterone index appears to be a prognostic factor for a subsequent miscarriage in women with recurrent miscarriage and is a more significant predictor of subsequent miscarriage than an advanced maternal age (≥40 years) or a high number (≥6) of previous miscarriages in this study.

Testosterone negatively affects endometrial function

The results suggest that androstenedione can inhibit human endometrial cell growth and secretory activity. Infertility and miscarriage associated with high androgen levels (e.g., that caused by the polycystic ovary syndrome) may be due to an adverse effect of high androgen levels on the endometrium.

High testosterone leads to fetal growth restriction

Exposure of pregnant mothers to elevated concentrations of circulating testosterone levels is associated with fetal growth restriction and delivery of small-for-gestational-age babies.

Testosterone and Menstrual Cycle

Testosterone shorten the luteal phase and increase the follicular phase

Exogenous testosterone decreases the length of the luteal phase and increase the length of the follicular phase. This study investigated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the menstrual cycle of eight transsexual females. It was found that the luteal phase decreased from 13.7 to 11.6 days, whereas the follicular phase increased in length from 13.5 to 15.3 days.

Significant prolongation of the follicular phase and shortening of the luteal phase were demonstrated to be associated with clinical signs of hyperandrogenism and elevated plasma testosterone levels. Statistically significant correlations between plasma testosterone levels and duration of phases of the menstrual cycle were observed. Testosterone levels were directly related to the length of the follicular phase and inversely related to the length of the luteal phase. A significant inverse correlation between the lengths of the two phases of the menstrual cycle was also demonstrated.

How to Lower Testosterone Levels

6 weeks of exercise lowered free testosterone by 25%

Free testosterone showed a decreasing trend of 19-25% with 6 weeks of training on 6 days a week in recreational atheletes. Cortisol release was reduced, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-synthesis-secretion capacity was increased after training, and the luteinizing hormone (LH)-synthesis-secretion capacity reduced.

Losing body fat lowers free testosterone by 4.3%; exercise induced weight loss lowers it 10.4%

Concentrations of testosterone and free testosterone among exercisers who lost between 0.5% and 2% body fat declined by 4.7% and 10.4%. In controls who lost this amount of body fat, concentrations of testosterone and free testosterone declined by only 2.8% and 4.3%.

Calcium increases testosterone

Low calcium intake is linked to lower levels of adrenal androgens and higher levels of parathyroid hormones.

D-chiro-inositol lowers free testosterone by 55% and resumes ovulation in 86% of PCOS women

In the 22 obese women with PCOS given 1200 mg/day of d-chiro-inositol for 6 to 8 weeks, the mean area under the plasma insulin curve after the oral administration of glucose decreased from 13,417 to 5158 µU/ml/min; glucose tolerance did not change significantly. The serum free testosterone concentration in these 22 women decreased from 1.1 to 0.5 ng/dL. The women's diastolic and systolic blood pressure decreased by 4 mm Hg, and their plasma triglyceride concentrations decreased from 184 to 110 mg per deciliter (2.1 to 1.2 mmol per liter). None of these variables changed appreciably in the placebo group. Nineteen of the 22 women who received d-chiro-inositol ovulated, as compared with 6 of the 22 women in the placebo group. Conclusions: d-Chiro-inositol increases the action of insulin in patients with PCOS, thereby improving ovulatory function and decreasing serum testosterone concentrations, blood pressure, and plasma triglyceride concentrations.

D-chiro-inositol lowers free testosterone by 73% and improves insulin sensitivity by 36%

In the 10 women given D-chiro-inositol (600 mg/day for 6 to 8 weeks), the mean area under the plasma insulin curve after oral administration of glucose decreased significantly from 8,343 mU/mL/min to 5,335 mU/mL/min. Concomitantly, the serum free testosterone concentration decreased significantly from 0.83 ng/dL to 0.22 ng/dL. Six of the 10 women (60%) in the D-chiro- inositol group ovulated in comparison with 2 of the 10 women (20%) in the placebo group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, as well as plasma triglyceride concentrations, decreased significantly in the D-chiro- inositol group . We conclude that, in lean women with PCOS, D-chiro-inositol reduces circulating insulin, decreases serum testosterone, and ameliorates some of the metabolic abnormalities (increased blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia) of syndrome X.

1.8g N-Acetyl cysteine improves insulin resistance and lowers testosterone in PCOS subjects

Patients were treated for 5-6 weeks with N-acetyl cysteine at a dose of 1.8 g/day orally. A dose of 3 g/day was arbitrarily chosen for massively obese subjects. Six of 31 obese patients with PCOS were treated with placebo and served as controls. Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and glucose area under curve were unchanged after treatment. Insulin area under curve after oral glucose tolerance test was significantly reduced, and the peripheral insulin sensitivity increased after N-acetyl cysteine administration, whereas the hepatic insulin extraction was unaffected. The N-acetyl cysteine treatment induced a significant fall in testosterone levels and in free androgen index values. In analyzing patients according to their insulinemic response to oral glucose tolerance test, normoinsulinemic subjects and placebo-treated patients did not show any modification of the above parameters, whereas a significant improvement was observed in hyperinsulinemic subjects. CONCLUSION(S): N-acetyl cysteine may be a new treatment for the improvement of insulin circulating levels and insulin sensitivity in hyperinsulinemic patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Other topics covered under Hormones:

Adiponectin, Estrogen, FSH, GnRH, LH, PCOS, Progesterone, Prolactin, SHBG, Testosterone