Testosterone: a high level of free testosterone is associated with increased risk of miscarriage. Testosterone is also associated with shortened luteal phase and lengthened follicular phase. Testosterone has been successfully lowered through exercise (lowered testosterone by 10% to 25%) and weight loss (lowered testosterone by 4.3%). Calcium has been shown to increase testosterone.
Testosterone and Miscarriage
Estrogen: higher levels of estrogen, even though still within normal range, have been associated with recurrent miscarriage. Higher levels of estrogen are also associated with increased risk of abnormal fetal karotype. High estrogen levels are also indicated as a cause of PCOS, insulin resistance, hypothyroidism, fibrocystic breasts, cellulite, and increased cortisol levels. Estrogen has successfully been lowered by exercise (lowered estrogen by 14%), dietary fiber, weight loss, reducing dietary sugar, flaxseed supplementation, and vitamin B6 supplementation. Dietary fat has been shown to increase estrogen.
Estrogen and Miscarriage
FSH: higher levels of FSH, even though still within normal range, have been associated with recurrent miscarriage. Higher levels of FSH are also associated with increased odds of aneuploidy and Down Syndrome. Some ways that FSH has been successfully lowered are by adding soy to the diet, increasing dietary fiber, and supplementing with vitex. Low vitamin D is associated with increased FSH levels.
FSH and Miscarriage
LH: higher levels of LH, even though still within normal range, are associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. High LH is also implicated as a cause of fibrocystic breasts and higher testosterone levels. Some methods of lowering LH that have been shown to be effective are: weight loss (lowered LH by 45%), adding soy to the diet, supplementing with vitex, supplementing with myo-inositol, and exercise. Insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels have been shown to increase LH levels.
LH and Miscarriage
Progesterone: low progesterone levels have been found in 17% to 35% of women who suffer from repeat miscarriages. Progesterone is vital to pregnancy because it regulates progesterone induced blocking factor, which prevents the mother's immune system from attacking the fetus. Fibrocystic breasts are a symptom of low progesterone. Some ways of boosting progesterone that have been shown to be effective are: supplementing with 750 mg of vitamin C (increased progesterone by 77%), supplementing with vitamin E, supplementing with L-arginine, supplementing with beta carotene, supplementing with B6, supplementing with vitex, supplementing with flaxseed, weight loss, improving insulin sensitivity, and supplementing with progesterone cream.
Progesterone and Miscarriage
Prolactin: higher than normal prolactin levels, though still within normal range, have been associated with an increased risk of miscarriage and recurrent miscarriage. Prolactin decreases the life and activity of the corpus luteum, which is required to sustain pregnancy during the first 7 weeks. High prolactin levels have also been indicated as a cause of autoimmune disorders such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, PMS, acne, insulin resistance, and low progesterone. Supplementing with vitex has been shown to be effective for lowering prolactin in numerous studies. High intake of saturated fats is associated with increased prolactin levels.
Prolactin and Miscarriage
SHBG: low SHBG levels are associated with an increased risk of miscarriage in numerous studies. Some methods of raising SHBG that have been shown to be effective are: increasing dietary fiber and supplementing with flaxseed. Low vitamin D is associated with low SHBG levels. Higher levels of dietary sugar and dietary protein have also been linked to lower levels of SHBG.
SHBG and Miscarriage