Selenium and Miscarriage

100% of previously infertile women gave birth after selenium and magnesium supplementation

After a further two months of 200 micrograms daily oral selenium as selenomethionine and oral magnesium supplements, all six women normalized their red blood cell magnesium and glutathione peroxidase levels. All 12 previously infertile women have produced normal healthy babies all conceiving within eight months of normalizing their magnesium levels.

Magnesium and Miscarriage

Low selenium associated with repeat miscarriage

In recent years selenium deficiency in humans has been implicated as a risk factor for recurrent miscarriage. The present pilot study from India has evaluated selenium status in red cells (as they are the better indicators of selenium levels) in 20 women with three or more unexplained recurrent miscarriages compared to similar number of controls. The mean+/-SD red cell selenium levels in the study group was found to be 119.55 ng/ml, which was significantly lower compared to the control group with a mean of 150.85 ng/ml. Since selenium supplementation resulted in successful pregnancy outcome in veterinary practice, we conclude that large randomised studies are needed to assess the contribution of selenium in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriage and the potential benefits of its supplementation.

Two studies found low selenium in women with recurrent miscarriage

Recurrent early miscarriage has been associated with reduced serum selenium concentrations compared to healthy controls in two observational studies from UK (54 versus 76 μg/L, resp.) and Turkey (55 versus 81 μg/L, resp.). It has therefore been suggested that reduced selenium concentration results in reduced glutathione peroxidase activity culminating in reduced antioxidant protection of biological membranes and DNA during the early stages of embryonic development. Although speculative, and requiring larger placebo-controlled randomised trials, women with recurrent early miscarriage may benefit from optimisation of selenium status.

Selenium levels in women with recurrent miscarriage were similar to controls

The mean selenium concentration for women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriage was 67.7 microg/L (SD 16.4). The selenium level for the women with no history of recurrent miscarriage was 70.3 microg/L (SD 12.7). There was no difference in selenium concentrations between the two groups.

Selenium levels in women who miscarried did not differ from women with continuing pregnancy

The selenium concentrations in whole blood and plasma of women following miscarriage were the same as in viable pregnancy, but were significantly lower compared with controls.

Selenium and Hormones

Selenium supplementation increases progesterone

Selenium supplementation did not affect the length of the estrous cycle, but it did increase the concentration of plasma progesterone in the estrous cycle . These results suggest the possibility that selenium contributes to the progesterone production of corpus luteum.

Selenium and Thyroid

Selenium added to thyroxidine therapy led to reduced antibody levels

Selenium supplementation (50-100 microg/day) and thyroxidine therapy resulted in an increase in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX3) by 21%. Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels decreased by 76%.

Thyroid and Miscarriage

200 mcg selenium reduced thyroid antibodies by 21%

Selenium supplementation (200 microg/day) resulted in significant reduction of serum anti-TPO levels during the first 6 months (by 5.6% and 9.9% at 3 and 6 months, respectively). An overall reduction of 21% was seen after 1 year.

200 mcg selenium during pregnancy prevented hypothyroidism

Postpartum thyroid dysfunction and permanent hypothyroidism were significantly lower in the group that received 200 microg/d throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with placebo (28.6 vs. 48.6%; and 11.7 vs. 20.3%).

Selenium reduces inflammatory cytokines in autoimmune thyroid patients

Our objective was to compare the effect of selenomethionine (organic form of selenium available over the counter) on monocyte and lymphocyte cytokine release and systemic inflammation in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Selenomethionine inhibited lymphocyte release of IL-2, interferon-γ, and TNF-α, which was accompanied by a reduction in plasma C Reactive Protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: Selenomethionine exhibits a systemic antiinflammatory effect in euthyroid females with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This action, which correlates with a reduction in thyroid peroxidase antibody titers, may be associated with clinical benefits in the prevention and management of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, particularly in subjects receiving both agents.

Selenium Daily Upper Limit

300 mcg/day selenium is toxic

It has been shown that dietary intake of about 300 micro g of selenium daily may have a toxic effect on growth hormone and insulin like growth factor-1 metabolism, as well as in the synthesis of thyroid hormones.