Calcium and Miscarriage

Calcium levels not associated with recurrent miscarriage

Plasma levels of calcium showed no significant differences between habitual miscarriers and controls.

Reducing calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium intake increases miscarriage

Female rats received a control or a 50% mineral-restricted diet for 12 weeks, by which time mineral-restricted rats had lower plasma iron, zinc, magnesium and calcium concentrations. Following mating with control males, a third of the mineral-restricted dams were shifted to the control diet from parturition. RESULTS: Pregnant mineral-restricted dams had a higher miscarriage rate, and body weights of their pups at birth and weaning were lower.

High calcium levels associated with miscarriage

Miscarriage is more common as calcium levels exceed 11.4 mg/dl (normal values range from 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL), but can be seen at all elevated calcium levels. Hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy is under recognized and is associated with a 3.5-fold increase in miscarriage rates. Miscarriage often occurs in the second trimester and is associated with multiple miscarriages when not addressed.

Calcium Information

Calcium and dairy consumption reduce inflammatory stress

We have recently shown 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased oxidative stress and inflammatory stress in vitro, whereas suppression of 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol with dietary calcium decreased oxidative and inflammatory stress in vivo. However, dairy products contains additional factors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, which may further suppress oxidative and inflammatory stress. Accordingly, this study was designed to study the effects of the short-term (3 wk) basal suboptimal calcium, high-calcium, and high-dairy diets on oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. Adipose tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase mRNA and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) were reduced by the high-calcium diet compared with the basal diet and ROS and MDA were further decreased by the high-dairy diet. The high-calcium and -dairy diets also resulted in suppression of adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA compared with the basal diet, whereas an inverse pattern was noted for adiponectin and IL-15 mRNA. Consequently, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of adiponectin and C-reactive protein in archival samples from 2 previous clinical trials conducted in obese men and women. Twenty-four weeks of feeding a high-dairy eucaloric diet and hypocaloric diet resulted in an 11 and 29% decrease in CRP, respectively (post-test vs. pre-test), whereas there was no significant change in the low-dairy groups. Adiponectin decreased by 8% in subjects fed the eucaloric high-dairy diet and 18% in those fed the hypocaloric high-dairy diet. These data demonstrate that dietary calcium suppresses adipose tissue oxidative and inflammatory stress.

Calcium supplements linked to 30% increased risk of heart attack

Eligible studies were randomised, placebo controlled trials of calcium supplements (>or=500 mg/day), with 100 or more participants of mean age more than 40 years and study duration more than one year. In the five studies contributing patient level data, 143 people allocated to calcium had a myocardial infarction compared with 111 allocated to placebo (hazard ratio 1.31). Non-significant increases occurred in the incidence of stroke (1.20), the composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (1.18), and death (1.09). The meta-analysis of trial level data showed similar results: 296 people had a myocardial infarction (166 allocated to calcium, 130 to placebo), with an increased incidence of myocardial infarction in those allocated to calcium (pooled relative risk 1.27). CONCLUSIONS: Calcium supplements (without coadministered vitamin D) are associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction. As calcium supplements are widely used these modest increases in risk of cardiovascular disease might translate into a large burden of disease in the population. A reassessment of the role of calcium supplements in the management of osteoporosis is warranted. (Calcium is required for blood clotting; previous studies have found no increased cardiovascular risks with higher dietary calcium intake, suggesting that the risks are restricted to supplements).

Thrombophilia and Miscarriage

Calcium deficiency predicts PCOS; related to insulin resistance

The risk of PCOS for subjects with magnesium deficiency was 19 times greater than those who had normal serum magnesium concentrations. After adjustment for calcium concentration the role of magnesium to predict PCOS attenuated and became non-significant. CONCLUSION: The present study provides the first evidence showing that magnesium deficiency is not associated with insulin resistance in PCOS. According the evidences of this study, serum calcium concentration is more potent predictor of PCOS than serum magnesium and only calcium, not magnesium, is related to insulin resistance in PCOS.

Adding calcium to metformin treatment improves outcome in PCOS

In this pilot study, infertile PCOS patients were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial and divided into three equal groups. Group 1 received 1,000 mg of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D per day, orally. Group 2 received the same as Group 1, plus 1,500 mg/day of metformin. Group 3 received 1,500 mg/day of metformin. RESULTS: Generalized estimating equation tests showed that the number of dominant follicles (> or = 14 mm) during the 2-3 months of follow-up was higher in the calcium-vitamin D plus metformin group than in either of the other two groups.CONCLUSION: The effects of metformin and calcium-vitamin D in regulating the menstrual cycle suggest that they could also be effective for the treatment of anovulation and oligomenorrhea, with possible consequences for pregnancy rates in PCOS patients

Other topics covered under Vitamins:

Biotin, Calcium, Choline, Chromium, Folic Acid, Magnesium, Multivitamins, Phosphorus, Selenium, Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Zinc