SHBG


Sex Hormone Binding Globulin and Miscarriage

SBHG lower in missed miscarriage

Progesterone, estrogen, total testosterone, and SHBG in 22 patients with missed miscarriage were significantly lower than those in normal group, whereas % free testosterone was significantly higher. There was a significant negative correlation between % free testosterone and SHBG concentration in the normal group, but not in the missed miscarriage group. All the subjects in whom % free testosterone was 1.30% and higher subsequently miscarried, but no subject with % free testosterone less than 0.70% had a miscarriage.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9548158


SHBG lower in pregnancies resulting in miscarriage

The median maternal serum SHBG concentration was not significantly different from controls, in those that subsequently developed preeclampsia, non-proteinuric hypertension or preterm delivery. The levels were significantly lower in those with diabetes  and those pregnancies resulting in miscarriage.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16263602

SHBG lower in pregnancies that miscarry

In general, pregnancies ending in miscarriage displayed lower SHBG-levels than pregnancies with a successful outcome, but a great deal of overlap in SHBG values was found between the miscarriage and the non-miscarriage cases. In the 6th to 9th weeks of pregnancy 'non-pregnant' SHBG levels were frequently found despite normal levels of estrogen in patients continuing pregnancy until delivery. After the 9th gestational week a highly significant positive correlation was found between estrogen and SHBG. The lack of correlation between these parameters before this gestational age indicates that the increased SHBG synthesis seen in pregnancy develops later than the rise in estrogen.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9548158

High testosterone/SHBG ratio linked to 15% of recurrent miscarriages

The free androgen index (the total testosterone level divided by the SHBG level) was elevated in 14.6% of subjects with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2000.tb11670.x/full

No subject with a testosterone/SHBG ratio of less than .70% had a miscarriage

Total testosterone in 22 patients with missed miscarriage was significantly lower than those in normal group, whereas % free testosterone (the total testosterone level divided by the SHBG level) was significantly higher. There was a significant negative correlation between % free testosterone and SHBG concentration in the normal group, but not in the missed miscarriage group. All the subjects in whom % free testosterone was 1.30% and higher subsequently miscarried, but no subject with % free testosterone less than 0.70% had a miscarriage.
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/002072929390322N


Both testosterone, and the testosterone/SHBG ratio, are higher in recurrent miscarriage

Testosterone concentrations were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages both with and without PCOS on days LH-7 and LH-4 of the cycle. Concentrations of androstenedione (precursor to testosterone and estrogen) also were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages, but without PCOS on day LH-7. Testosterone/SHBG ratios were higher in the women with recurrent miscarriages, without PCOS compared with the controls on days LH-7, LH+0, and LH+7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9548158

Raising SHBG Levels

Resistance training boosts SHBG 26%

SHBG increased (from 27.5 to 34.7 nM) whereas testosterone/SHBG decreased significantly (from 1.10 to 0.85). Serum total testosterone and cortisol did not change significantly in a group of 19 elite weight lifters after 20 weeks of training.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20533100

Isoflavones increase SHBG by 10%

SHBG significantly increased about 10% with administration of 20 mg or 40 mg isoflavones by tablets, of which 1 g contained 43.5 mg daidzein, 6.0 mg genistein, 24.0 mg glycitein. 17beta-estradiol was decreased throughout the menstruation cycle.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11216491

Dietary fiber raises SHBG; Dietary protein lowers SHBG

Fiber intake was found to be significantly positively correlated to serum SHBG concentrations. Protein intake showed a clear negative association with SHBG.
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/950-a.pdf

Dietary sugar lowers SHBG

In the study, exposure to glucose and fructose (monomeric sugar building blocks of carbohydrates) reduced the production of SHGB in vitro by a human liver cell line and in vivo by the liver of mice engineered to express human SHGB.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/11/071108171604.htm

Flaxseed raises SHBG levels

Lignans are positively associated with plasma SHBG levels and negatively associated with testosterone levels.
http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/16/5/1009.full

High BMI associated with low SHBG

Significant inverse correlations were found between estrogen and body mass index (BMI), SHBG and BMI, DHEA-S and dietary fiber, and androstenedione (the precursor of testosterone and estrogen) and protein:carbohydrate ratio.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15213709

SHBG is associated with Vitamin D levels

Serum SHBG is a positive predictor of serum vitamin D level. The correlations of SHBG persisted after adjusting for weight, free estrogen, and free testosterone.
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/89/8/3785

Type of Vitamin E found in food is associated with higher SHBG

Serum SHBG correlated positively with serum HDL-cholesterol, plasma progesterone, and dietary intake of beta-tocopherol, and negatively with that of fructose. Multivariate regression analyses showed that beta-tocopherol and linoleic acid (found in vegetable oils) was an independent positive predictor of serum SHBG. When individual nutrients were the predictor variables, beta-tocopherol, but not other tocopherols or fatty acids (including linoleic acid), was an independent positive predictor of serum SHBG. Circulating insulin and waist circumference, but not serum lipids, were negative independent predictors of SHBG in all regression models. Additional studies are needed in women of other age groups and men to determine whether consumption of foods rich in beta-tocopherol and/or linoleic acid may increase serum SHBG concentrations and may thereby decrease the risk for metabolic syndrome and reproductive organ cancer.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19339706

SHBG and Estrogen and Testosterone

SHBG binds to both estrogen and testosterone. High estrogen and thyroxine levels increase SHBG.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_hormone-binding_globulin

Serum SHBG is an an inverse measure of estrogen activity.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8585420

Low total testosterone levels were secondary to the low SHBG.
http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/512077_4


SHBG and Insulin

Low SHBG is associated with up to an 11 fold increased risk of diabetes

Low concentration of SHBG was significantly correlated to the incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The increased incidence of diabetes was confined to the lowest quintile of SHBG values, where it was 5-fold higher than in the remaining group. This incidence was further increased to 8- and 11-fold in the lowest 10 and 5% of the values, respectively. We conclude that SHBG is a uniquely strong independent risk factor for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in women.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2015967

SHBG prevents insulin resistance

Our findings suggest that SHBG may account for the inverse association between coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes risk among postmenopausal women. Caffeinated-coffee was positively associated with SHBG but not with sex hormones. Multivariable-adjusted geometric mean levels of SHBG were 26.6 nmol/L among women consuming ≥4 cups/day of caffeinated-coffee and 23.0 nmol/L among non-drinkers . In contrast, neither decaffeinated-coffee nor tea was associated with SHBG or sex hormones. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for women consuming ≥4 cups/day of caffeinated-coffee compared with non-drinkers was 0.47. The association was largely attenuated after further adjusting for SHBG (odds ratio=0.71).

High insulin lowers SHBG

There is an inverse relationship between the serum levels of insulin and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in women. As SHBG is not known to alter the production or metabolism of insulin, whereas insulin has been shown in vitro to decrease the synthesis of SHBG, it seems a reasonable conclusion that the predictable inverse relationship between serum insulin and SHBG indicates that insulin controls SHBG synthesis in vivo.
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/79/4/1173

Obesity raises insulin levels and lowers SHBG levels.
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/79/4/1173

SHBG level is decreased by high levels of insulin and IGF-1.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_hormone-binding_globulin


SHBG and Thyroid

Hypothyroidism lowers SHBG

Hypothyroidism influences ovarian function by decreasing levels of sex-hormone-binding globulin and increasing the secretion of prolactin.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18506157



SHBG Information

Testosterone levels were similar, but androstenedione (precursor to testosterone and estrogen) levels were higher and SHBG levels were lower in hirsute women.
http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/82/9/2821

Recent evidence suggests that it is the liver's production of fats that reduces SHBG levels, not any direct effect of insulin and specific genetic mechanisms have been found that do this.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_hormone-binding_globulin

Most hormones in the blood are bound by protein carriers—albumin and SHBG.
http://www.adoctorsguideto.com/topics/hormone-balance/



Other topics covered under Hormones:

Adiponectin, Estrogen, FSH, GnRH, LH, PCOS, Progesterone, Prolactin, SHBG, Testosterone




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