Estrogen and Insulin Resistance
High estrogen levels are associated with insulin resistance
After adjustment for age, race, cycle, and other sex hormones, insulin resistance was positively associated with estradiol and progesterone, and inversely associated with FSH and SHBG. LH was not associated with insulin resistance. Further adjustment for BMI weakened the association with SHBG but did not affect other associations.
Estrogen decreases insulin sensitivity
These data indicate that estrogen acts within the brain to increase leptin sensitivity, decrease insulin sensitivity, and favor subcutaneous over visceral fat.
Estrogen causes insulin resistance during pregnancy
There is an increased insulin-resistant state during pregnancy mediated by the placental anti-insulin hormones estrogen, progesterone, human somatomammotropin; the pituitary hormone prolactin; and the adrenal hormone, cortisol.