Choline and Miscarriage
Choline necessary for embryonic growth and cardiac development
Low dietary choline and riboflavin affect embryonic growth and cardiac
development in mice. Adequate choline and riboflavin may also play a
role in the prevention of these pregnancy complications in women.
Choline and Birth Defects
Choline reduces risk of birth defects
A thorough review of the literature appears to identify that maternal
dietary intake of B vitamins, choline and methionine may reduce the
expression of potentially harmful genes. Birth Defects
Choline prevents birth defects caused by ethanol
Choline supplementation significantly attenuated ethanol's effects on
birth and brain weight, incisor emergence, and most behavioral measures.
In fact, behavioral performance of ethanol-exposed subjects treated
with choline did not differ from that of controls. Importantly, choline
supplementation did not influence peak blood alcohol level or
metabolism, indicating that choline's effects were not due to
differential alcohol exposure.
Choline does not boost intelligence of offspring
Gestational and newborn choline concentrations in the physiologic range showed no correlation with childhood intelligence.
Choline and Inflammation
Choline lowers inflammation
Compared to those whose diets contained <250 mg/day of choline,
subjects whose diets supplied >310 mg of choline daily had, on
Immune System and Miscarriage
- 22% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein
- 26% lower concentrations of interleukin-6
- 6% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha
Choline and Insulin
Choline increases insulin and glucoseIntraperitoneal
injection of choline (30-90 mg.kg-1) produced a dose-dependent increase
in serum insulin, glucose and choline levels in rats.
Choline lowers insulin sensitivity on a high fat dietCholine deficiency lowered fasting plasma insulin (from 983 to
433) and improved glucose tolerance on a
Insulin Resistance and Miscarriage
66% of lactating women are deficient in choline
On average, lactating women in our study ate two-thirds of the
recommended intake for choline (Adequate Intake = 550 mg choline/d).
Dietary choline intake (no supplement) correlated with breast-milk
phosphatidylcholine and plasma choline concentrations. A supplement
further increased breast-milk choline, betaine, and phosphocholine
concentrations and increased plasma choline and betaine concentrations.
Other topics covered under Vitamins:
, Folic Acid
, Vitamin A
, Vitamin B12
, Vitamin B6
, Vitamin C
, Vitamin D
, Vitamin E
, Vitamin K