(Early Marwānids)
683 - 685 Abū `Abd il-Malik Marwān I ibn al-Ḥakim al-Umawī, Commander of the Faithful and Fourth Umayyad Caliph. Born 623 he was a Secretary to his cousin, the Third Rashidun Caliph, and then disappears from the record until Mu`awiyah established the Umayyad Caliphate. Following that he served as Governor of Medina (662-669, 674-677) and led the Hajj (pilgrimage) in 663, 665, 668, 674 and 675. He was the major Umayyad General throughout the Second Fitna and assumed the Caliphate himself after the death of Mu`awiyah II, but died before the war could be concluded. He presumably married several women, the last of whom was Umm Khālid / Umm Hāshim Fākhitah bint Abī Hāshim `Abd Shamsī, with whom he had no issue. She had been wife of Yazīd I ibn Mu`āwiyah al-Umawī, the Second Umayyad Caliph and mother of Mu`āwiyah II ibn Yazīd al-Umawī, the Third Umayyad Caliph. Marwan I's offhand remarks led her to believe that her remaining son was in danger, so she smothered Marwan with a pillow in the palace at Damascus in 685.
  • 1) Abūl-Walīd `Abd al-Malik ibn Marwān al-Umawī, Fifth Umayyad Caliph - see below.
  • 2) `Abd ul-`Azīz ibn Marwān al-Umawī, Governor of Egypt (685-705). He was heir to the Caliphate from 685 until his death in 705. He married Umm Asim bint Asim 'Adī, granddaughter of `Umar al-Faruq, the Second Rashidun Caliph (See RASHIDUN 2). He had issue, including:
    • a) Abū Ḥafṣ 'Umar II ibn `Abd il-`Azīz al-Umawī, Eighth Umayyad Caliph - see below.
    • a) Umm Banīn bint `Abd il-`Azīz al-Umawī. She married her first cousin Al-Walīd I ibn `Abd al-Malik al-Umawī, Sixth Umayyad Caliph. She had issue - see below.
  • 3) Bishr ibn Marwān al-Umawī. Governor of Kufa (691-693) and Basra (692-693). He died in 693.
  • 4) Muḥammad ibn Marwān al-Umawī. An Umayyad General, he led the Summer Campaign into the Byzantine Empire in 692 and was Governor of Mosul. He had issue, including:
    •  Marwān II ibn Muḥammad al-Umawī, Fourteenth and Final Umayyad Caliph - see below.
  • 5) Mu`āwiyah ibn Marwān al-Umawī. He had issue, including:
    • Walīd ibn Mu`āwiyah al-Umawī. He was Governor of Palestine in 745 and of Damascus in 749. He married Umm ul-Walīd bint Marwān al-Umawī, daughter of the Thirteenth Umayyad Caliph. He died defending Damascus from the `Abbasids in 749.
  • 1) A daughter, who married Qabīsah ibn Dhu`ayb, Secretary to the Fifth Umayyad Caliph.
 685 - 705 Abūl-Walīd `Abd ul-Malik ibn Marwān al-Umawī, Commander of the Faithful and Fifth Umayyad Caliph. Born 646, he succeeded to the Caliphate following the death of his father. Shortly after his accession, his armies conquered the Hejaz, ending the Second Fitna and reuniting the Islamic world into a single polity. During his reign North Africa was conquered all the way to the Atlantic Ocean, truly Islamic coinage was invented and introduced and the famous Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem was built. His reign was the apogee of Umayyad power. He had promised that his younger brother `Abd al-`Azīz would succeed himself as Caliph but wished to be succeeded instead by his own son. He thought to break his promise, but in the end his brother predeceased him, making this unneccessary. Despite this near-miss he saw fit to force such a promise on his own children, for whom things did not go so smoothly. He married (first) Wallādah bint al-`Abbās. He married (second) `Ātikah bint Yazīd al-Umawī, daughter of Yazīd I ibn Mu`āwiyah al-Umawī, the Second Umayyad Caliph. He married (third) Umm Hishām `Ā'ishah bint Hishām al-Makhzūmī, daughter of Hishām ibn Ismā`īl al-Makhzūmī, Governor of Medina (701-706), who led the Hajj (pilgrimage) in 703, 704 and 705. Supposedly she was mentally retarded, riding the cushions of her bedchamber like horses and other such things, but this was, somehow, hidden from her husband until after she had borne him a child. When he found out, he divorced her. Her two brothers benefited from the marriage at any rate, governing in the Hejaz and leading the Hajj repeatedly, but both were killed in 743. He married (fourth) `Ā'ishah ibn Mūsā at-Taymī, grandaughter of the famous companion of the Prophet, Ṭalḥah ibn 'Ubaydallāh at-Taymī. He married (fifth) Umm Ayyūb ibn `Amr al-Umawī, grandaughter of the Third Rashidun Caliph (see RASHIDUN 3). He married  (sixth) Umm ul-Mughīrah ibn ul-Mughīrah al-Makhzūmī. He married (seventh) Shaqrā` bint Salamah at-Tā'ī. He married (ninth) a lady of the `Alawid Clan. He married (eighth) Umm Abīhā bint `Abdillāh. He took concubines, including Umm Walīd. He had issue, including:
  • 1) Al-Walīd I ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī, Sixth Umayyad Caliph (son of Wallādah) - see below.
  • 2) Sulaymān ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī, Seventh Umayyad Caliph (son of Wallādah) - see below.
  • 3) Marwān al-Akbar ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (son of Wallādah)
  • 4) Maslamah ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (son of Umm Walīd). The greatest General of the Umayyads he led the Summer Campaign against the Byzantines in 705, 708-712, 715, 726, and 739, as well as the great Arab Siege of Constantinople (717-718), which, however, ended in failure. He led the Hajj  in 713. He was Governor of Iraq and the East (721-722), as well as the Jazirah, Azerbaijan & Armenia. In literature he is noted as a physiognomist and predicts the downfall of his dynasty and its continuance in al-Andalus. He had issue:
    • a) A daughter, who married Sa`īd Khudhaynah ibn `Abd il-`Azīz al-Umawī. Governor of Khorasan under Maslamah (721-722) and, briefly, in his own right (722).
  • 5) Yazīd II ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī, Ninth Umayyad Caliph (son of `Ātikah) - see below.
  • 6) Marwān ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (son of `Ātikah). He died in 717.
  • 7) Mu`āwiyah ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (son of `Ātikah).
  • 8) Abūl-Walīd Hishām al-Kusafah ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī, Tenth Umayyad Caliph (son of Umm Hishām)- see below.
  • 9) Abū Bakr Bakkār ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (son of `Ā'ishah ibn Mūsā).
  • 10) Al-Ḥakam ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (son of Umm Ayyūb).
  • 11) Sa`īd al-Khayr ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī. An Umayyad General, he led the Summer Campaign against the Byzantines in 723 and 724 and served as Governor of Palestine. He died in 750, during the `Abbasid Revolution.
  • 12) Muḥammad ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī. Governor of Egypt (724). He briefly ruled Jordan (744).
  • 13) `Anbasah ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī.
  • 14) Al-Ḥajjāj ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī, an Umayyad General. He had issue, including
    • a) `Abd ul-`Azīz ibn al-Ḥajjāj al-Umawī, an Umayyad General who was centrally involved in overthrowing the Eleventh Umayyad Caliph. He married Umm Salamah bint Hishām al-Umawī, daughter of the Tenth Umayyad Caliph and died in 744.
  • 15) `Ubaydallāh ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī. An Umayyad General, he led the Summer Campaign against the Byzantines in 700.
  • 16) `Abdallāh ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī. An Umayyad General, he led the Summer Campaign against the Byzantines in 702 and was Governor of Egypt from 705 until 709. He had issue, including
    • a) `Umar ibn `Abdillāh al-Umawī. He led the Hajj (pilgrimage) in 744.
    • b) Marwān ibn `Abdillāh al-Umawī. He was Governor of Homs, Syria.
    • c) Muḥammad ibn `Abdillāh al-Umawī. He married a daughter of Al-Ward ibn `Abdillāh as-Sa'dī, who fought in a revolt against the Umayyads.
  • 17) Al-Mundhir ibn `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī.
  • 1) `Ā'ishah bint `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (daughter of Wallādah).
  • 2) Umm Kulthūm bint `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (daughter of `Ātikah).
  • 3) Fātimah bint `Abd il-Malik al-Umawī (daughter of Umm ul-Mughīrah).