New Testament

Week 27: Hebrews and James

Week 26 | NT home | Week 28

2 May 2019

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Notes and lesson materials will be posted after the class has been held.

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Lesson 27 notes

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Lesson 27 handout: Hebrews and James

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Lesson 27 slideshow (on‑screen version)

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Lesson 27 slideshow (printable version)

Additional Reading and Links

  • One of the earliest complete manuscripts of the New Testament, the famed Codex Vaticanus (c. ᴀ.ᴅ. 350), has a different word in Hebrews 1:3: Instead of the reading found in all other manuscripts that Jesus “upholds [φερων, pherōn] all things by the word of his power,” Vaticanus reads that Jesus “reveals [φανερων, phanerōn] all things by the word of his power.” In the Vaticanus manuscript, a later scribe changed phanerōn to pherōn, but yet another scribe changed it back and wrote in the margin, “Fool and knave! Leave the old reading and do not change it!” You can examine the entire manuscript at the website of the Vatican Library.
  • Alma E. Gygi looks at the evidence that Melchizedek and Shem, the son of Noah, were the same person in “I Have a Question,” Ensign (November 1973): 15–16.


Codex Vaticanus Hebrews 1:3 with marginal note

The marginal reading next to Hebrews 1:3 in Codex Vaticanus: ἀμαθέστατε καὶ κακέ ἂφες τὸν παλαιόν μὴ μεταποίει (“Fool and knave! Leave the old reading and do not change it!”).