Runasimi – Qhichwa
The Quechua Language is spoken by roughly 8 million people in several Andean countries, making it the most widely spoken native American language today. The language is highly dialectalized, some dialects maybe be mutually unintelligible. The present work is based on Cuzco Quechua, considered the closest thing to a standard language.
Quechua is an agglutinative, SOV, AN language with pospositions. Nominalized phrases correspond to relative clauses. No definite article.
Quechua has only three basic vowels, like Classical Arabic: a, i and u. They may be realized differently in certain conditions and depending on the dialect, i often turns to /e/ and u to /o/. Certain nonstandard spellings reflect this.
The phoneme represented by ‘q’ sounds like it does in Arabic, an alveolar stop, but in certain areas may be pronounced as /kh/ ou /g/. After ‘q’, the vowel ‘u’ is pronounced /o/.
‘Ch’ stands for /tsh/. Stress normally falls on the penultimate syllable, when it falls on the last syllable, it is marked by an acute accent.
The possessive suffixes change their initial ‘i’ to ‘y’ when the noun ends in a vowel: wasi (house) > wasiy (my house). Personal possessive constructions are often a double possessive, with the possessive pronoun (formed by -pa) followed by the genitive of the noun: qanpa llaqtayki (of you your city).
The independent personal pronouns are made by subject pronoun plus suffix -q.
The noun plural marker -kuna follows possessive suffixes: wasiy (my house) > wasiykuna (my houses).
ima – what
pi – who
piq – whose
may – where
mayqin – mayqin
hayk’a – how much, how many
imayna – how
hayk’aq – when
imarayku – why
imanaqtin – why
imanasqa – why
The demonstratives are below. They precede their noun.
kay/ ankay – this, these
chay/anchay – that, those (close to speaker)
chaqay/haqay – this, those (far from speaker)
kay wampu.qa Punu.man.mi ri.sha.n
this boat-TOP Punu-to-ASSERTIVE go-ing-3p
Chaqay wampu.kuna huch’uy.mi
that boat.PLURAL small-ASSERT
Postpositions and general nominal suffixes
ta – suffix denoting the direct object of a verb or the aim of a movement
qa – suffix of topic, usually used in nouns already mentioned that are being repeated and that are the topic of the conversation
hpa, hpata – of, possessive form (h drops in words ending in consonant)
pi – in
wan – with
paq – for
manta – from
man – to, toward
pura – among
rayku – because of
kama – until
mana...-yuq – without
llahta - city
llahtapi - in the city
llahtamanta - from the city
With the personal possessive suffixes, the order is noun + personal possessive + posposition:
llahtaypi - in my city (llahta + y + pi)
llahtaykumanta - from your city (llahta + yku + manta)
The possessive -pa is usually accompanied by a noun with a a reduntant 3rd person possessive suffix, rendering sentences like ‘the door of the house’ as ‘of the house its door’ (wasipa punkun).
The notion of "to have" is expressed by a "be with":
ñuqa wasiyuq kani
I am with house (wasi = house; -yuq = with, kani = I am)
Or by "of you your house exists"
qanpata wasiyki kan (qan = you + pata = genitive; wasi = house + yki 2p poss; kan = 3p of 'be')
you have a house
but – ichaqa
or – icha, utaq
because – -rayku
also – -pis, -pas
even then – chaypasapas
however – chaypuwanpas
instead – aswan, aswanpas
therefore – chayrayku, nispaqa, chaymi
finally – tukunapaqtaq
firstly – ñawpaq, ñawpaqta
yes – arí
no – mana
please – allichu
thank you – sulpayki
good bye – ratukama
Nouns and adjectives
There are no genders or noun classes. Nouns may optionally pluralized by -kuna if quantity is not indicated by other means. Adjectives precede their nouns, and remain uninflected for case and number.
There are no articles though huq (one) may be used as an indefinite article.
Noun qualification is achieved by juxtaposition in the English order (possessor + possessed or qualified + main noun): unu qucha (water well).
The infintive ends invariably with -y. Below the verb rimay (to speak).
Compound forms exist, a past habitual is formed by the active participle + present or past of "kay" (rimaq kani / rimaq karqani = I used to speak), the past participle + personal possessive suffixes renders a relative form (rima.sqa.y = what I speak), which can also be achieved by the nominalizer suffix -na (rima.na.y = what I speak). The plusquamperfect can be formed by the past participe with the personal subject suffixes (rim.asqa.ni = I had spoken). The conditional is formed by adding -man to the present tense, except that in the 2nd person the suffix waq can be added instead of both the -man and the 2p suffix. The future form followed by the unchanging past stem of "kay" (be) indicates the future perfect (I will have done): rimasaq karqa (I will have spoken).
A 1p object can be expressed in verbs by the suffix -wa, then the verbs appear in a reduced set of temporal differentiations
uyariy (to hear)
uyariway (to hear me)
uyariwanki (you hear me, you heard me < uyari = hear + wa = 1p obj + nki = 2p subject)
uyariwarqa (he heard me < uyari = hear + wa = 1p obj + rqa = past + zero = 3p subj)
The 1p plural object can be expressed by adding the suffix -yku (for exclusive) and -nchis (for inclusive) to the singular construction, in final position, ort eliminating the 2 person subject suffix:
uyariwayku (you hear us < uyari = hear + wa = 1p object + zero = 2/3 person subject + -yku = 1p plural object)
The 2 person can be expressed by the suffix -su and -yku (for the plural, add -chis/cheh), once again triggering the deletion of competing subject suffixes. confusing tenses and creating subject ambiguity.
uyariyki = I hear(d) you / we hear(d) you
uyarisunki = he hear(d) you
uyarisuq kani = I used to hear you
The reflexive is formed by -ku after the root:
uyariy = to hear
uyarikuy = to hear oneself
mayllay = to wash
mayllakuy = to wash oneself
Continuous tense is made by the suffix -sha- (certain dialects have -chka)between stem and personal ending: rimashani (I am speaking). Narrative past is made by suffix -sqa- (rimasqan = he had spoken or it is said that he spoke). The suffixes -pa- and -q- indicated reiterated action, -raya- indicates continued action, and -ru- indicates sudden action.
pay runasimi.ta runa.sha.n
he quechua-ACC speak-ing-3p
The 1st person plural inclusive of the future also covers the “let’s” form: rimasunchis = let’s speak.
Verb chains are made with the infinitive preceding the helping verb and taking the accusative suffix -ta:
nuqayku p’acha.ta ranti.y.ta muna.yku
1plex clothes.ACC buy.INF.ACC like.1plexPRES
“we clothes to buy like”
We like buying clothes
Questions are made by the suffix -chu attached to any prominent, usually the first, word in a sentence:
Are you going to Cochabamba?
Are you married?
To Be and To Have
The verb kay corresponds to “be”, whose present is: kani, kanki, kan, kanchis, etc. Other tenses are also formed regularly.
The third person kan is also used to indicate existence, as ‘there is’.
The construction kan plus possessed noun corresponds to the verb ‘to have’.
there is child-your
You have a child
Another way to express ‘have’ is noun + yuq (‘with’) + verb kay agreeing with subject.
‘with house I am’
I have a house
llama.with you are
You have a llama
stem+na+personal suffix = obligation
mikhuy = to eat > mikhunay = I have to eat
The present continuous of kay (to be) also expresses obligation:
The 'na' suffix is a nominalizer (mikhuna = food, thing to eat, restaurant)
‘Can’ or ‘be able’ is expressed by verb atiy:
I can dance
To negate a verb, add mana before it and chu at the end of the sentence.
Mana.n runasimi.ta rimani.chu
not.ASSERT Quechua.ACC I speak NEG
I don’t speak Quechua
Negative commands are made by ama + chu at end of sentence.
Stative and inchoative
Stative verbs can be derived from nouns and adjectives by merely adding the infinitive suffix -y:
ñawsa = blind
ñawsay = be blind
Inchoative is achieved by the suffix -ya:
ñawsayay = become blind
Causative by suffix -chi
ñawsayachiy = to blind, to make blind
From a nominal stem: t'uru (mud) > t'uruyay (get muddy, become mud), and further: t'uruyapuy (become covered in mud)
From verbs: yachay (to know) > yachachiy (to teach); wañuy (to die) > wañuchiy (to kill) > wañuchichiy (to make someone kill)
Relative clauses are formed through nominalization, usually a verbal participle is used, created by suffixing the verb with ‘-q’ (for unspecified aspect), ‘-sqa’ (completed action) or ‘-na’ (future action).
hamu.q runa.ta riqsini
come.ACTPART man.ACC I know
‘the coming man I know/I know the coming man’
I know the man who is coming
rumi urmananta ancha atun kanqa
stone fall-FUTREL big very will be
The stone which will fall will be big
qarita presisachkani llaqtaqta
man.ACC I am needing work.REL.ACC
I need a man who works
The nominal character of such constructions is observable in that the relative phrase verb does not inflect for tense:
yaku haypa.q runakuna
water receive.AP people
‘the people receiving water’
The people who receive/have received water
Sometimes the double personal possessive is used:
nuqa.pa ri.sqa.y llaqta
I.GEN go.PASTPART.1p.possessive city
‘my going city/the city of my going’
The city I go to
Adriyan warmacha “Adrián the boy”
Huk siñuras huk warmta iywasqa wasimpi yanapanampaq, Adriyan sutiyuqta. Siñuraqa kamachiq llapa imata chay warmachata. Warmachañataq mana imatapas ruwaqchu allintaqa. Sapa triguta akllaspan, kutaspan, wakiwakillanta akllaykuq kutaykuq wakinntañataq maraypa ladun quchaman wischuykuq. Mikhuykunatapas wischuykariq wakillanta mikuspan warmaqa pukllaylla pukllakuq sapa punchaw mana kasukuspan. Qullqitawan pulkanakunata suwakamun bisinun wasikunamanta, hinaspan maray qipapi pakan sapa patruna lluqsiptin pukllanampaq
Huk siñuras huk warmta iywasqa wasimpi yanapanampaq
A lady.HEARSAY a boy take care.NARR house.3p.LOC help.NOMP.3p.BENEFACTIVE
huk siñuras (a lady, here with hearsay suffix ‘-s’, ‘it is said that a lady’); huk warm (a boy), accusative of huk warm. Iywasqa is the narrative past of iyway (to take care); wasimpi (in her house) < wasi (house) + m (3p possessive, variation of ‘-n’ before ‘p’) + pi (locative suffix). Yanapay (to help) + na (non-realized event) + m (3p marker) + paq (benefactive suffix, i.e. ‘for’). So literally we have ‘it is said a lady took care that a boy was to help her in her house’ thus ‘it is said that a lady had a body to help her in her house’.
Adrian suti(name) + yuq (associative/possesive suffix) + ta (accusative) = Adrian was his name.
Siñuraqa kamachiq llapa imata chay warmachata
siñura + qa (topic suffix); kamachiy (order) + q (iterative suffix); llapa (everything) imata (ima = which + ta = accusative); chay (this) warmachata (warm(a) = boy + cha = diminutive suffix + acc.). ‘the woman ordered the boy to everything’
Warmachañataq mana imatapas ruwaqchu allintaqa
warmacha + ñataq (illative enclitic connector) imatapas (which+acc+pas = also); ruway (to do) + q (iterative) + chu (negative); allintaqa (allin=well, good + ta = accusative or adverb marker) + qa (topic). ‘The boy never did anything well’
Sapa triguta akllaspan, kutaspan, wakiwakillanta akllaykuq
Sapa (always) triguta (wheat + acc) akllaspan (aklla = choose + spa = relative simultaneous marker + n = 3p); kutaspan (kutay = grind); wakiwaki (part part) + llan (only) + ta (acc); akllayuq (choose + intensifier + iterative). ‘Whenever the boy chose and ground the wheat, he only chose and ground a small part’