The NY University School of Medicine's abstract below states... "Skin tattooing [as a vaccine delivery method] is a novel technique that is safe, cost-effective, and convenient."
Researchers in the Netherlands report... "To conclude, ... DNA tattoo is a promising vaccination strategy against spirochetes."
More about tattoo vaccines at links below.
J Vis Exp. 2012 Oct 18;(68). pii: 50032. doi: 10.3791/50032.
Nucleic acid-based vaccination is a topic of growing interest, especially plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding immunologically important antigens. After the engineered pDNA is administered to the vaccines, it is transcribed and translated into immunogen proteins that can elicit responses from the immune system. Many ways of delivering DNA vaccines have been investigated; however each delivery route has its own advantages and pitfalls.
Skin tattooing is a novel technique that is safe, cost-effective, and convenient. In addition, the punctures inflicted by the needle could also serve as a potent adjuvant. Here, we a) demonstrate the intradermal delivery of plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pCX-EGFP) in a mouse model using a tattooing device and b) confirm the effective expression of EGFP in the skin cells using confocal microscopy.
Gene Ther. 2014 Oct 2. doi: 10.1038/gt.2014.87. [Epub ahead of print]
Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine againstLyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method that can be applied in a rapid vaccination schedule.
We vaccinated C3H/HeN mice with B. afzelii strain PKo OspC (outer-surface protein C) using a codon-optimized DNA vaccine tattoo and compared this with recombinant protein vaccination in a 0-2-4 week vaccination schedule.
We also assessed protection by DNA tattoo in a 0-3-6 day schedule. DNA tattoo and recombinant OspC vaccination induced comparable total IgG responses, with a lower IgG1/IgG2a ratio after DNA tattoo. Two weeks after syringe-challenge with 5 × 105 B. afzelii spirochetes most vaccinated mice had negative B. afzelii tissue DNA loads and all were culture negative.
Furthermore, DNA tattoo vaccination in a 0-3-6 day regimen also resulted in negative Borrelia loads and cultures after challenge.
To conclude, DNA vaccination by tattoo was fully protective against B. afzelii challenge in mice in a rapid vaccination protocol, and induces a favorable humoral immunity compared to recombinant protein vaccination. Rapid DNA tattoo is a promising vaccination strategy against spirochetes.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 2 October 2014; doi:10.1038/gt.2014.87.