The world's first flexible silicon based non-planar sub-20 nm FinFET CMOS

An industry standard 8′′ silicon-on-insulator wafer based ultra-thin (1 μm), ultra-light-weight, fully flexible and remarkably transparent state-of-the-art non-planar three dimensional (3D) FinFET is shown. Introduced by Intel Corporation in 2011 as the most advanced transistor architecture, it reveals sub-20 nm features and the highest performance ever reported for a flexible transistor.

Sevilla, G. A. T., Rojas, J. P., Fahad, H. M., Hussain, A. M., Ghanem, R., Smith, C. E. and Hussain, M. M. (2014), Flexible and Transparent Silicon-on-Polymer Based Sub-20 nm Non-planar 3D FinFET for Brain-Architecture Inspired Computation. Adv. Mater., 26: 2794–2799. doi:10.1002/adma.201305309

G. A. Torres Sevilla, M. T. Ghoneim, H. Fahad, J. P. Rojas, A. M. Hussain, M. M. Hussain, “Flexible Nano-Scale High-Performance FinFETs”, ACS Nano 8(10), pp 9850–9856 (2014).

Can we build a truly high performance computer which is flexible and transparent?

State-of-the art computers need high performance transistors, which consume ultra-low power resulting in longer battery lifetime. Billions of transistors are integrated neatly using matured silicon fabrication process to maintain the performance per cost advantage. In that context, low-cost mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100) based high performance transistors are considered as the heart of today's computers. One limitation is silicon's rigidity and brittleness. Here we show a generic batch process to convert high performance silicon electronics into flexible and semi-transparent one while retaining its performance, process compatibility, integration density and cost. We demonstrate high-k/metal gate stack based p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors on 4 inch silicon fabric released from bulk silicon (100) wafers with sub-threshold swing of 80 mV dec−1and on/off ratio of near 104 within 10% device uniformity with a minimum bending radius of 5 mm and an average transmittance of ~7% in the visible spectrum.

J. P. Rojas, G. A. Torres Sevilla, M. M. Hussain

Nature Sci. Rep. 3, 2609 (2013). DOI: 10.1038/srep02609

In a series of publications we have chronicled our findings:

  • J. P. Rojas, M. T. Ghoneim, C. Young, M. M. Hussain*, “Flexible and Semi-transparent High-k/Metal Gate Metal/Insulator/Metal Capacitors (MIMCAPs) on Silicon (100)”. IEEE Trans. Elect. Dev. 60(10), 3305–3309 (2013).
  • J. P. Rojas, G. Torres Sevilla, M. M. Hussain*, “Structural and Electrical Characteristics of High-k/Metal Gate MOSCAPs Fabricated on Flexible, Semi-transparent Silicon (100) Fabric”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 064102 (2013).
  • Rojas, J. P. and Hussain, M. M. (2013), Flexible semi-transparent silicon (100) fabric with high-k/metal gate devices. Phys. Status Solidi RRL, 7: 187–191. doi:10.1002/pssr.201206490

Flexible silicon CMOS electronics for memory operation with a record 1B endurance in flexible memory family

A flexible version of thin traditional lead zirconium titanate (PZT)-based FeRAM on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. Utilizing an inverse proportionality between substrate thickness and its flexibility, commercial grade PZT-based FeRAM on silicon is transformed through a transfer-less complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible process into a flexible form that matches organic electronics' flexibility while preserving the superior performance of silicon electronics.

This flexible memory device holds the world record of 1B cycles of endurance in the relevant family of flexible memory devices.

Ghoneim M. T., Zidan M. A., Alnassar M. Y., Hanna A. N., Kosel J., Salama K. N., Hussain M. M. (2015). Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications. Adv. Electron. Mater., 1: 1500045. doi: 10.1002/aelm.201500045

M. T. Ghoneim, M. A. Zidan, K. N. Salama, M. M. Hussain*, “Towards Neuromorphic Electronics: Memristors on Foldable Silicon Fabric”, Microelectronics Engr. 45(11), 1392–1395 (2014).

INVITED REVIEW PAPER: M. T. Ghoneim, M. M. Hussain*, “Review on Physically Flexible Nonvolatile Memory for Internet of Everything Electronics”, Electronics, 4(3), 424-479 (2015).

CMOS technology enabled antenna for wearable applications at operational frequency of 2.45 GHz up to a distance of record 390 meters in flexible and stretchable antenna family

A flexible and stretchable antenna, enabled by out-of-plane stretching and fabricated using a low-cost metal (copper), demonstrates constant frequency operation for far-field communication—up to 80 m on a human arm at 1.25 mW transmission power.

Hussain, A. M., Ghaffar, F. A., Park, S. I., Rogers, J. A., Shamim, A. and Hussain, M. M. (2015), Metal/Polymer Based Stretchable Antenna for Constant Frequency Far-Field Communication in Wearable Electronics.

Adv. Funct. Mater., 25: 6565–6575. doi:10.1002/adfm.201503277