Programming‎ > ‎Golang‎ > ‎

Overview









Go is an open source programming language designed for building simple, fast, and reliable software.



Hello World


Our first program will print the classic “hello world” message. Here’s the full source code.

package main
import "fmt"
func main() {
    fmt.Println("hello world")
}

To run the program, put the code in hello-world.go and use go run.
$ go run hello-world.go
hello world

Sometimes we’ll want to build our programs into binaries. We can do this using go build.
$ go build hello-world.go
$ ls
hello-world hello-world.go

We can then execute the built binary directly.
$ ./hello-world
hello world



Values


Go has various value types including strings, integers, floats, booleans, etc. Here are a few basic examples.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//Strings, which can be added together with +.
    fmt.Println("go" + "lang")

//Integers and floats.
    fmt.Println("1+1 =", 1+1)
    fmt.Println("7.0/3.0 =", 7.0/3.0)

//Booleans, with boolean operators as you’d expect.
    fmt.Println(true && false)
    fmt.Println(true || false)
    fmt.Println(!true)
}

$ go run values.go
golang
1+1 = 2
7.0/3.0 = 2.3333333333333335
false
true
false


Variables


In Go, variables are explicitly declared and used by the compiler to e.g. check type-correctness of function calls.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//var declares 1 or more variables.
    var a string = "initial"
    fmt.Println(a)

//You can declare multiple variables at once.
    var b, c int = 1, 2
    fmt.Println(b, c)

//Go will infer the type of initialized variables.
    var d = true
    fmt.Println(d)

//Variables declared without a corresponding initialization are zero-valued. For example, the zero value for an int is 0.
    var e int
    fmt.Println(e)

//The := syntax is shorthand for declaring and initializing a variable, e.g. for var f string = "short" in this case.
    f := "short"
    fmt.Println(f)
}

$ go run variables.go
initial
1 2
true
0
short


Constants




Go supports constants of character, string, boolean, and numeric values.

package main

import "fmt"
import "math"

//const declares a constant value.
const s string = "constant"

func main() {
    fmt.Println(s)

//A const statement can appear anywhere a var statement can.
    const n = 500000000

//Constant expressions perform arithmetic with arbitrary precision.
    const d = 3e20 / n
    fmt.Println(d)

//A numeric constant has no type until it’s given one, such as by an explicit cast.
    fmt.Println(int64(d))

//A number can be given a type by using it in a context that requires one, such as a variable assignment or function call. For example, here math.Sin expects a float64.
    fmt.Println(math.Sin(n))
}

$ go run constant.go 
constant
6e+11
600000000000
-0.28470407323754404


For loop



for is Go’s only looping construct. Here are three basic types of for loops.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//The most basic type, with a single condition.
    i := 1
    for i <= 3 {
        fmt.Println(i)
        i = i + 1
    }

//A classic initial/condition/after for loop.
    for j := 7; j <= 9; j++ {
        fmt.Println(j)
    }

//for without a condition will loop repeatedly until you break out of the loop or return from the enclosing function.
    for {
        fmt.Println("loop")
        break
    }
}

$ go run for.go
1
2
3
7
8
9
loop

We’ll see some other for forms later when we look at range statements, channels, and other data structures.


If/Else


Branching with if and else in Go is straight-forward.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//Here’s a basic example.
    if 7%2 == 0 {
        fmt.Println("7 is even")
    } else {
        fmt.Println("7 is odd")
    }

//You can have an if statement without an else.
    if 8%4 == 0 {
        fmt.Println("8 is divisible by 4")
    }

//A statement can precede conditionals; any variables declared in this statement are available in all branches.
    if num := 9; num < 0 {
        fmt.Println(num, "is negative")
    } else if num < 10 {
        fmt.Println(num, "has 1 digit")
    } else {
        fmt.Println(num, "has multiple digits")
    }
}

//Note that you don’t need parentheses around conditions in Go, but that the braces are required.

$ go run if-else.go 
7 is odd
8 is divisible by 4
9 has 1 digit

There is no ternary if in Go, so you’ll need to use a full if statement even for basic conditions.


Switch


Switch statements express conditionals across many branches.

package main

import "fmt"
import "time"

func main() {

//Here’s a basic switch.
    i := 2
    fmt.Print("write ", i, " as ")
    switch i {
    case 1:
        fmt.Println("one")
    case 2:
        fmt.Println("two")
    case 3:
        fmt.Println("three")
    }

//You can use commas to separate multiple expressions in the same case statement. We use the optional default case in this example as well.
    switch time.Now().Weekday() {
    case time.Saturday, time.Sunday:
        fmt.Println("it's the weekend")
    default:
        fmt.Println("it's a weekday")
    }

//switch without an expression is an alternate way to express if/else logic. Here we also show how the case expressions can be non-constants.
    t := time.Now()
    switch {
    case t.Hour() < 12:
        fmt.Println("it's before noon")
    default:
        fmt.Println("it's after noon")
    }
}

$ go run switch.go 
write 2 as two
it's the weekend
it's before noon


Arrays


In Go, an array is a numbered sequence of elements of a specific length.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//Here we create an array a that will hold exactly 5 ints. The type of elements and length are both part of the array’s type. By default an array is zero-valued, which for ints means 0s.
    var a [5]int
    fmt.Println("emp:", a)

//We can set a value at an index using the array[index] = value syntax, and get a value with array[index].
    a[4] = 100
    fmt.Println("set:", a)
    fmt.Println("get:", a[4])

//The builtin len returns the length of an array.
    fmt.Println("len:", len(a))

//Use this syntax to declare and initialize an array in one line.
    b := [5]int{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
    fmt.Println("dcl:", b)

//Array types are one-dimensional, but you can compose types to build multi-dimensional data structures.
    var twoD [2][3]int
    for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
        for j := 0; j < 3; j++ {
            twoD[i][j] = i + j
        }
    }
    fmt.Println("2d: ", twoD)
}

//Note that arrays appear in the form [v1 v2 v3 ...] when printed with fmt.Println.

$ go run arrays.go
emp: [0 0 0 0 0]
set: [0 0 0 0 100]
get: 100
len: 5
dcl: [1 2 3 4 5]
2d:  [[0 1 2] [1 2 3]]

You’ll see slices much more often than arrays in typical Go. We’ll look at slices next.

Check out this great blog post by the Go team for more details on the design and implementation of slices in Go.
Now that we’ve seen arrays and slices we’ll look at Go’s other key builtin data structure: maps.


Maps


Maps are Go’s built-in associative data type (sometimes called hashes or dicts in other languages).

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//To create an empty map, use the builtin make: make(map[key-type]val-type).
    m := make(map[string]int)

//Set key/value pairs using typical name[key] = val syntax.
    m["k1"] = 7
    m["k2"] = 13

//Printing a map with e.g. Println will show all of its key/value pairs.
    fmt.Println("map:", m)

//Get a value for a key with name[key].
    v1 := m["k1"]
    fmt.Println("v1: ", v1)

//The builtin len returns the number of key/value pairs when called on a map.
    fmt.Println("len:", len(m))

//The builtin delete removes key/value pairs from a map.
    delete(m, "k2")
    fmt.Println("map:", m)

//The optional second return value when getting a value from a map indicates if the key was present in the map. This can be used to disambiguate between missing keys and keys with zero values like 0 or "". Here we didn’t need the value itself, so we ignored it with the blank identifier _.
    _, prs := m["k2"]
    fmt.Println("prs:", prs)

//You can also declare and initialize a new map in the same line with this syntax.
    n := map[string]int{"foo": 1, "bar": 2}
    fmt.Println("map:", n)
}

// Note that maps appear in the form map[k:v k:v] when printed with fmt.Println.

$ go run maps.go 
map: map[k1:7 k2:13]
v1:  7
len: 2
map: map[k1:7]
prs: false
map: map[foo:1 bar:2]


Range


range iterates over of elements in a variety of data structures. Let’s see how to use range with some of the data structures we’ve already learned.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//Here we use range to sum the numbers in a slice. Arrays work like this too.
    nums := []int{2, 3, 4}
    sum := 0
    for _, num := range nums {
        sum += num
    }
    fmt.Println("sum:", sum)

//range on arrays and slices provides both the index and value for each entry. Above we didn’t need the index, so we ignored it with the blank identifier _. Sometimes we actually want the indexes though.
    for i, num := range nums {
        if num == 3 {
            fmt.Println("index:", i)
        }
    }

//range on map iterates over key/value pairs.
    kvs := map[string]string{"a": "apple", "b": "banana"}
    for k, v := range kvs {
        fmt.Printf("%s -> %s\n", k, v)
    }

//range on strings iterates over Unicode code points. The first value is the starting byte index of the rune and the second the rune itself.
    for i, c := range "go" {
        fmt.Println(i, c)
    }
}

$ go run range.go 
sum: 9
index: 1
a -> apple
b -> banana
0 103
1 111


Functions


Functions are central in Go. We’ll learn about functions with a few different examples.

package main

import "fmt"

//Here’s a function that takes two ints and returns their sum as an int.
func plus(a int, b int) int {

//Go requires explicit returns, i.e. it won’t automatically return the value of the last expression.
    return a + b
}

//When you have multiple consecutive parameters of the same type, you may omit the type name for the like-typed parameters up to the final parameter that declares the type.
func plusPlus(a, b, c int) int {
    return a + b + c
}

func main() {

//Call a function just as you’d expect, with name(args).
    res := plus(1, 2)
    fmt.Println("1+2 =", res)
    res = plusPlus(1, 2, 3)
    fmt.Println("1+2+3 =", res)
}

$ go run functions.go 
1+2 = 3
1+2+3 = 6

There are several other features to Go functions. One is multiple return values, which we’ll look at next.


Multiple Return Values


Go has built-in support for multiple return values. This feature is used often in idiomatic Go, for example to return both result and error values from a function.

package main

import "fmt"

//The (int, int) in this function signature shows that the function returns 2 ints.
func vals() (int, int) {
    return 3, 7
}

func main() {

//Here we use the 2 different return values from the call with multiple assignment.
    a, b := vals()
    fmt.Println(a)
    fmt.Println(b)

//If you only want a subset of the returned values, use the blank identifier _.
    _, c := vals()
    fmt.Println(c)
}

$ go run multiple-return-values.go
3
7
7

Accepting a variable number of arguments is another nice feature of Go functions; we’ll look at this next.


Variadic Functions



Variadic functions can be called with any number of trailing arguments. For example, fmt.Println is a common variadic function.

package main

import "fmt"

//Here’s a function that will take an arbitrary number of ints as arguments.

func sum(nums ...int) {
    fmt.Print(nums, " ")
    total := 0
    for _, num := range nums {
        total += num
    }
    fmt.Println(total)
}

func main() {

//Variadic functions can be called in the usual way with individual arguments.
    sum(1, 2)
    sum(1, 2, 3)

//If you already have multiple args in a slice, apply them to a variadic function using func(slice...) like this.
    nums := []int{1, 2, 3, 4}
    sum(nums...)
}

$ go run variadic-functions.go 
[1 2] 3
[1 2 3] 6
[1 2 3 4] 10

Another key aspect of functions in Go is their ability to form closures, which we’ll look at next.


Closures


Go supports anonymous functions, which can form closures. Anonymous functions are useful when you want to define a function inline without having to name it.

package main

import "fmt"

//This function intSeq returns another function, which we define anonymously in the body of intSeq. The returned function closes over the variable i to form a closure.
func intSeq() func() int {
    i := 0
    return func() int {
        i += 1
        return i
    }
}

func main() {

//We call intSeq, assigning the result (a function) to nextInt. This function value captures its own i value, which will be updated each time we call nextInt.
    nextInt := intSeq()

//See the effect of the closure by calling nextInt a few times.
    fmt.Println(nextInt())
    fmt.Println(nextInt())
    fmt.Println(nextInt())

//To confirm that the state is unique to that particular function, create and test a new one.
    newInts := intSeq()
    fmt.Println(newInts())
}

$ go run closures.go
1
2
3
1

The last feature of functions we’ll look at for now is recursion.


Recursion


Go supports recursive functions. Here’s a classic factorial example.

package main

import "fmt"

//This fact function calls itself until it reaches the base case of fact(0).
func fact(n int) int {
    if n == 0 {
        return 1
    }
    return n * fact(n-1)
}

func main() {
    fmt.Println(fact(7))
}

$ go run recursion.go 
5040


Pointers


Go supports pointers, allowing you to pass references to values and records within your program.

package main

import "fmt"

//We’ll show how pointers work in contrast to values with 2 functions: zeroval and zeroptr. zeroval has an int parameter, so arguments will be passed to it by value. zeroval will get a copy of ival distinct from the one in the calling function.
func zeroval(ival int) {
    ival = 0
}

//zeroptr in contrast has an *int parameter, meaning that it takes an int pointer. The *iptr code in the function body then dereferences the pointer from its memory address to the current value at that address. Assigning a value to a dereferenced pointer changes the value at the referenced address.
func zeroptr(iptr *int) {
    *iptr = 0
}

func main() {
    i := 1
    fmt.Println("initial:", i)
    zeroval(i)
    fmt.Println("zeroval:", i)

//The &i syntax gives the memory address of i, i.e. a pointer to i.
    zeroptr(&i)
    fmt.Println("zeroptr:", i)

//Pointers can be printed too.
    fmt.Println("pointer:", &i)
}

//zeroval doesn’t change the i in main, but zeroptr does because it has a reference to the memory address for that variable.

$ go run pointers.go
initial: 1
zeroval: 1
zeroptr: 0
pointer: 0x42131100


Structs


Go’s structs are typed collections of fields. They’re useful for grouping data together to form records.

package main

import "fmt"

//This person struct type has name and age fields.
type person struct {
    name string
    age  int
}

func main() {

//This syntax creates a new struct.
    fmt.Println(person{"Bob", 20})

//You can name the fields when initializing a struct.
    fmt.Println(person{name: "Alice", age: 30})

//Omitted fields will be zero-valued.
    fmt.Println(person{name: "Fred"})

//An & prefix yields a pointer to the struct.
    fmt.Println(&person{name: "Ann", age: 40})

//Access struct fields with a dot.
    s := person{name: "Sean", age: 50}
    fmt.Println(s.name)

//You can also use dots with struct pointers - the pointers are automatically dereferenced.
    sp := &s
    fmt.Println(sp.age)

//Structs are mutable.
    sp.age = 51
    fmt.Println(sp.age)
}

$ go run structs.go
{Bob 20}
{Alice 30}
{Fred 0}
&{Ann 40}
Sean
50
51


Methods


Go supports methods defined on struct types.

package main

import "fmt"

type rect struct {
    width, height int
}

//This area method has a receiver type of *rect.
func (r *rect) area() int {
    return r.width * r.height
}

//Methods can be defined for either pointer or value receiver types. Here’s an example of a value receiver.
func (r rect) perim() int {
    return 2*r.width + 2*r.height
}

func main() {
    r := rect{width: 10, height: 5}

//Here we call the 2 methods defined for our struct.
    fmt.Println("area: ", r.area())
    fmt.Println("perim:", r.perim())

//Go automatically handles conversion between values and pointers for method calls. You may want to use a pointer receiver type to avoid copying on method calls or to allow the method to mutate the receiving struct.
    rp := &r
    fmt.Println("area: ", rp.area())
    fmt.Println("perim:", rp.perim())
}

$ go run methods.go 
area:  50
perim: 30
area:  50
perim: 30

Next we’ll look at Go’s mechanism for grouping and naming related sets of methods: interfaces.


Interfaces


Interfaces are named collections of method signatures.

package main

import "fmt"
import "math"

//Here’s a basic interface for geometric shapes.
type geometry interface {
    area() float64
    perim() float64
}

//For our example we’ll implement this interface on rect and circle types.
type rect struct {
    width, height float64
}

type circle struct {
    radius float64
}

//To implement an interface in Go, we just need to implement all the methods in the interface. Here we implement geometry on rects.
func (r rect) area() float64 {
    return r.width * r.height
}

func (r rect) perim() float64 {
    return 2*r.width + 2*r.height
}

//The implementation for circles.
func (c circle) area() float64 {
    return math.Pi * c.radius * c.radius
}

func (c circle) perim() float64 {
    return 2 * math.Pi * c.radius
}

//If a variable has an interface type, then we can call methods that are in the named interface. Here’s a generic measure function taking advantage of this to work on any geometry.
func measure(g geometry) {
    fmt.Println(g)
    fmt.Println(g.area())
    fmt.Println(g.perim())
}

func main() {
    r := rect{width: 3, height: 4}
    c := circle{radius: 5}

//The circle and rect struct types both implement the geometry interface so we can use instances of these structs as arguments to measure.
    measure(r)
    measure(c)
}

$ go run interfaces.go
{3 4}
12
14
{5}
78.53981633974483
31.41592653589793

To learn more about Go’s interfaces, check out this great blog post.


Errors


In Go it’s idiomatic to communicate errors via an explicit, separate return value. This contrasts with the exceptions used in languages like Java and Ruby and the overloaded single result / error value sometimes used in C. Go’s approach makes it easy to see which functions return errors and to handle them using the same language constructs employed for any other, non-error tasks.

package main

import "errors"
import "fmt"

//By convention, errors are the last return value and have type error, a built-in interface.
func f1(arg int) (int, error) {
    if arg == 42 {

//errors.New constructs a basic error value with the given error message.
        return -1, errors.New("can't work with 42")
    }

//A nil value in the error position indicates that there was no error.
    return arg + 3, nil
}

//It’s possible to use custom types as errors by implementing the Error() method on them. Here’s a variant on the example above that uses a custom type to explicitly represent an argument error.
type argError struct {
    arg  int
    prob string
}

func (e *argError) Error() string {
    return fmt.Sprintf("%d - %s", e.arg, e.prob)
}

func f2(arg int) (int, error) {
    if arg == 42 {

//In this case we use &argError syntax to build a new struct, supplying values for the two fields arg and prob.
        return -1, &argError{arg, "can't work with it"}
    }
    return arg + 3, nil
}

func main() {

//The two loops below test out each of our error-returning functions. Note that the use of an inline error check on the if line is a common idiom in Go code.
    for _, i := range []int{7, 42} {
        if r, e := f1(i); e != nil {
            fmt.Println("f1 failed:", e)
        } else {
            fmt.Println("f1 worked:", r)
        }
    }
    for _, i := range []int{7, 42} {
        if r, e := f2(i); e != nil {
            fmt.Println("f2 failed:", e)
        } else {
            fmt.Println("f2 worked:", r)
        }
    }

//If you want to programmatically use the data in a custom error, you’ll need to get the error as an instance of the custom error type via type assertion.
    _, e := f2(42)
    if ae, ok := e.(*argError); ok {
        fmt.Println(ae.arg)
        fmt.Println(ae.prob)
    }
}

$ go run errors.go
f1 worked: 10
f1 failed: can't work with 42
f2 worked: 10
f2 failed: 42 - can't work with it
42
can't work with it

See this great post on the Go blog for more on error handling.


GoRoutines


A goroutine is a lightweight thread of execution.

package main

import "fmt"

func f(from string) {
    for i := 0; i < 3; i++ {
        fmt.Println(from, ":", i)
    }
}

func main() {

//Suppose we have a function call f(s). Here’s how we’d call that in the usual way, running it synchronously.
    f("direct")

//To invoke this function in a goroutine, use go f(s). This new goroutine will execute concurrently with the calling one.
    go f("goroutine")

//You can also start a goroutine for an anonymous function call.
    go func(msg string) {
        fmt.Println(msg)
    }("going")

//Our two function calls are running asynchronously in separate goroutines now, so execution falls through to here. This Scanln code requires we press a key before the program exits.
    var input string
    fmt.Scanln(&input)
    fmt.Println("done")
}

//When we run this program, we see the output of the blocking call first, then the interleaved output of the two gouroutines. This interleaving reflects the goroutines being run concurrently by the Go runtime.

$ go run goroutines.go
direct : 0
direct : 1
direct : 2
goroutine : 0
going
goroutine : 1
goroutine : 2
<enter>
done

Next we’ll look at a complement to goroutines in concurrent Go programs: channels.

Channels


Channels are the pipes that connect concurrent goroutines. You can send values into channels from one goroutine and receive those values into another goroutine.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//Create a new channel with make(chan val-type). Channels are typed by the values they convey.
    messages := make(chan string)

//Send a value into a channel using the channel <- syntax. Here we send "ping" to the messages channel we made above, from a new goroutine.
    go func() { messages <- "ping" }()

//The <-channel syntax receives a value from the channel. Here we’ll receive the "ping" message we sent above and print it out.
    msg := <-messages
    fmt.Println(msg)
}

//When we run the program the "ping" message is successfully passed from one goroutine to another via our channel.

$ go run channels.go 
ping

By default sends and receives block until both the sender and receiver are ready. This property allowed us to wait at the end of our program for the "ping" message without having to use any other synchronization.


Channel Buffering



By default channels are unbuffered, meaning that they will only accept sends (chan <-) if there is a corresponding receive (<- chan) ready to receive the sent value. Buffered channels accept a limited number of values without a corresponding receiver for those values.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//Here we make a channel of strings buffering up to 2 values.
    messages := make(chan string, 2)

//Because this channel is buffered, we can send these values into the channel without a corresponding concurrent receive.
    messages <- "buffered"
    messages <- "channel"

//Later we can receive these two values as usual.
    fmt.Println(<-messages)
    fmt.Println(<-messages)
}

$ go run channel-buffering.go 
buffered
channel


Channel Synchronization



We can use channels to synchronize execution across goroutines. Here’s an example of using a blocking receive to wait for a goroutine to finish.

package main

import "fmt"
import "time"

//This is the function we’ll run in a goroutine. The done channel will be used to notify another goroutine that this function’s work is done.
func worker(done chan bool) {
    fmt.Print("working...")
    time.Sleep(time.Second)
    fmt.Println("done")

//Send a value to notify that we’re done.
    done <- true
}

func main() {

//Start a worker goroutine, giving it the channel to notify on.
    done := make(chan bool, 1)
    go worker(done)

//Block until we receive a notification from the worker on the channel.
    <-done
}

$ go run channel-synchronization.go      
working...done
                 

If you removed the <- done line from this program, the program would exit before the worker even started.


Channel Directions



When using channels as function parameters, you can specify if a channel is meant to only send or receive values. This specificity increases the type-safety of the program.

package main

import "fmt"

//This ping function only accepts a channel for sending values. It would be a compile-time error to try to receive on this channel.
func ping(pings chan<- string, msg string) {
    pings <- msg
}

//The pong function accepts one channel for receives (pings) and a second for sends (pongs).
func pong(pings <-chan string, pongs chan<- string) {
    msg := <-pings
    pongs <- msg
}

func main() {
    pings := make(chan string, 1)
    pongs := make(chan string, 1)
    ping(pings, "passed message")
    pong(pings, pongs)
    fmt.Println(<-pongs)
}

$ go run channel-directions.go
passed message


Select


Go’s select lets you wait on multiple channel operations. Combining goroutines and channels with select is a powerful feature of Go.

package main

import "time"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//For our example we’ll select across two channels.
    c1 := make(chan string)
    c2 := make(chan string)

//Each channel will receive a value after some amount of time, to simulate e.g. blocking RPC operations executing in concurrent goroutines.
    go func() {
        time.Sleep(time.Second * 1)
        c1 <- "one"
    }()

    go func() {
        time.Sleep(time.Second * 2)
        c2 <- "two"
    }()

//We’ll use select to await both of these values simultaneously, printing each one as it arrives.
    for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
        select {
        case msg1 := <-c1:
            fmt.Println("received", msg1)
        case msg2 := <-c2:
            fmt.Println("received", msg2)
        }
    }
}

//We receive the values "one" and then "two" as expected.
$ time go run select.go 
received one
received two

Note that the total execution time is only ~2 seconds since both the 1 and 2 second Sleeps execute concurrently.
real 0m2.245s


Timeouts


Timeouts are important for programs that connect to external resources or that otherwise need to bound execution time. Implementing timeouts in Go is easy and elegant thanks to channels and select.

package main

import "time"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//For our example, suppose we’re executing an external call that returns its result on a channel c1 after 2s.
    c1 := make(chan string, 1)
    go func() {
        time.Sleep(time.Second * 2)
        c1 <- "result 1"
    }()

//Here’s the select implementing a timeout. res := <-c1 awaits the result and <-Time.After awaits a value to be sent after the timeout of 1s. Since select proceeds with the first receive that’s ready, we’ll take the timeout case if the operation takes more than the allowed 1s.
    select {
    case res := <-c1:
        fmt.Println(res)
    case <-time.After(time.Second * 1):
        fmt.Println("timeout 1")
    }

//If we allow a longer timeout of 3s, then the receive from c2 will succeed and we’ll print the result.
    c2 := make(chan string, 1)
    go func() {
        time.Sleep(time.Second * 2)
        c2 <- "result 2"
    }()

    select {
    case res := <-c2:
        fmt.Println(res)
    case <-time.After(time.Second * 3):
        fmt.Println("timeout 2")
    }
}

//Running this program shows the first operation timing out and the second succeeding.
$ go run timeouts.go 
timeout 1
result 2

Using this select timeout pattern requires communicating results over channels. This is a good idea in general because other important Go features are based on channels and select. 


Non-Blocking Channel Operations


Basic sends and receives on channels are blocking. However, we can use select with a default clause to implement non-blocking sends, receives, and even non-blocking multi-way selects.

package main

import "fmt"
func main() {
    messages := make(chan string)
    signals := make(chan bool)

//Here’s a non-blocking receive. If a value is available on messages then select will take the <-messages case with that value. If not it will immediately take the default case.
    select {
    case msg := <-messages:
        fmt.Println("received message", msg)
    default:
        fmt.Println("no message received")
    }

//A non-blocking send works similarly.
    msg := "hi"
    select {
    case messages <- msg:
        fmt.Println("sent message", msg)
    default:
        fmt.Println("no message sent")
    }

//We can use multiple cases above the default clause to implement a multi-way non-blocking select. Here we attempt non-blocking receives on both messages and signals.
    select {
    case msg := <-messages:
        fmt.Println("received message", msg)
    case sig := <-signals:
        fmt.Println("received signal", sig)
    default:
        fmt.Println("no activity")
    }
}

$ go run non-blocking-channel-operations.go 
no message received
no message sent
no activity


Closing Channels


Closing a channel indicates that no more values will be sent on it. This can be useful to communicate completion to the channel’s receivers.

package main

import "fmt"

//In this example we’ll use a jobs channel to communicate work to be done from the main() goroutine to a worker goroutine. When we have no more jobs for the worker we’ll close the jobs channel.
func main() {
    jobs := make(chan int, 5)
    done := make(chan bool)

//Here’s the worker goroutine. It repeatedly receives from jobs with j, more := <-jobs. In this special 2-value form of receive, the more value will be false if jobs has been closed and all values in the channel have already been received. We use this to notify on done when we’ve worked all our jobs.
    go func() {
        for {
            j, more := <-jobs
            if more {
                fmt.Println("received job", j)
            } else {
                fmt.Println("received all jobs")
                done <- true
                return
            }
        }
    }()

//This sends 3 jobs to the worker over the jobs channel, then closes it.
    for j := 1; j <= 3; j++ {
        jobs <- j
        fmt.Println("sent job", j)
    }
    close(jobs)
    fmt.Println("sent all jobs")

//We await the worker using the synchronization approach we saw earlier.
    <-done
}

$ go run closing-channels.go 
sent job 1
received job 1
sent job 2
received job 2
sent job 3
received job 3
sent all jobs
received all jobs

The idea of closed channels leads naturally to our next example: range over channels.

Range over Channels


In a previous example we saw how for and range provide iteration over basic data structures. We can also use this syntax to iterate over values received from a channel.

package main

import "fmt"

func main() {

//We’ll iterate over 2 values in the queue channel.
    queue := make(chan string, 2)
    queue <- "one"
    queue <- "two"
    close(queue)

//This range iterates over each element as it’s received from queue. Because we closed the channel above, the iteration terminates after receiving the 2 elements. If we didn’t close it we’d block on a 3rd receive in the loop.
    for elem := range queue {
        fmt.Println(elem)
    }
}

$ go run range-over-channels.go
one
two

This example also showed that it’s possible to close a non-empty channel but still have the remaining values be received.


Timers


We often want to execute Go code at some point in the future, or repeatedly at some interval. Go’s built-in timer and ticker features make both of these tasks easy. We’ll look first at timers and then at tickers.

package main

import "time"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//Timers represent a single event in the future. You tell the timer how long you want to wait, and it provides a channel that will be notified at that time. This timer will wait 2 seconds.
    timer1 := time.NewTimer(time.Second * 2)
The <-timer1.C blocks on the timer’s channel C until it sends a value indicating that the timer expired.
    <-timer1.C
    fmt.Println("Timer 1 expired")

//If you just wanted to wait, you could have used time.Sleep. One reason a timer may be useful is that you can cancel the timer before it expires. Here’s an example of that.
    timer2 := time.NewTimer(time.Second)
    go func() {
        <-timer2.C
        fmt.Println("Timer 2 expired")
    }()

    stop2 := timer2.Stop()
    if stop2 {
        fmt.Println("Timer 2 stopped")
    }
}

//The first timer will expire ~2s after we start the program, but the second should be stopped before it has a chance to expire.
$ go run timers.go
Timer 1 expired
Timer 2 stopped


Tickers



Timers are for when you want to do something once in the future - tickers are for when you want to do something repeatedly at regular intervals. Here’s an example of a ticker that ticks periodically until we stop it.

package main

import "time"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//Tickers use a similar mechanism to timers: a channel that is sent values. Here we’ll use the range builtin on the channel to iterate over the values as they arrive every 500ms.
    ticker := time.NewTicker(time.Millisecond * 500)
    go func() {
        for t := range ticker.C {
            fmt.Println("Tick at", t)
        }
    }()

//Tickers can be stopped like timers. Once a ticker is stopped it won’t receive any more values on its channel. We’ll stop ours after 1600ms.
    time.Sleep(time.Millisecond * 1600)
    ticker.Stop()
    fmt.Println("Ticker stopped")
}

//When we run this program the ticker should tick 3 times before we stop it.
$ go run tickers.go
Tick at 2012-09-23 11:29:56.487625 -0700 PDT
Tick at 2012-09-23 11:29:56.988063 -0700 PDT
Tick at 2012-09-23 11:29:57.488076 -0700 PDT
Ticker stopped


Worker-Pools


In this example we’ll look at how to implement a worker pool using goroutines and channels.

package main

import "fmt"
import "time"

//Here’s the worker, of which we’ll run several concurrent instances. These workers will receive work on the jobs channel and send the corresponding results on results. We’ll sleep a second per job to simulate an expensive task.
func worker(id int, jobs <-chan int, results chan<- int) {
    for j := range jobs {
        fmt.Println("worker", id, "processing job", j)
        time.Sleep(time.Second)
        results <- j * 2
    }
}

func main() {

//In order to use our pool of workers we need to send them work and collect their results. We make 2 channels for this.
    jobs := make(chan int, 100)
    results := make(chan int, 100)

//This starts up 3 workers, initially blocked because there are no jobs yet.
    for w := 1; w <= 3; w++ {
        go worker(w, jobs, results)
    }

//Here we send 9 jobs and then close that channel to indicate that’s all the work we have.
    for j := 1; j <= 9; j++ {
        jobs <- j
    }
    close(jobs)

//Finally we collect all the results of the work.
    for a := 1; a <= 9; a++ {
        <-results
    }
}

//Our running program shows the 9 jobs being executed by various workers. The program only takes about 3 seconds despite doing about 9 seconds of total work because there are 3 workers operating concurrently.
$ time go run worker-pools.go 
worker 1 processing job 1
worker 2 processing job 2
worker 3 processing job 3
worker 1 processing job 4
worker 2 processing job 5
worker 3 processing job 6
worker 1 processing job 7
worker 2 processing job 8
worker 3 processing job 9
real 0m3.149s


Rate-Limiting



Rate limiting is an important mechanism for controlling resource utilization and maintaining quality of service. Go elegantly supports rate limiting with goroutines, channels, and tickers.

package main

import "time"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//First we’ll look at basic rate limiting. Suppose we want to limit our handling of incoming requests. We’ll serve these requests off a channel of the same name.
    requests := make(chan int, 5)
    for i := 1; i <= 5; i++ {
        requests <- i
    }
    close(requests)

//This limiter channel will receive a value every 200 milliseconds. This is the regulator in our rate limiting scheme.
    limiter := time.Tick(time.Millisecond * 200)

//By blocking on a receive from the limiter channel before serving each request, we limit ourselves to 1 request every 200 milliseconds.
    for req := range requests {
        <-limiter
        fmt.Println("request", req, time.Now())
    }

//We may want to allow short bursts of requests in our rate limiting scheme while preserving the overall rate limit. We can accomplish this by buffering our limiter channel. This burstyLimiter channel will allow bursts of up to 3 events.
    burstyLimiter := make(chan time.Time, 3)

//Fill up the channel to represent allowed bursting.
    for i := 0; i < 3; i++ {
        burstyLimiter <- time.Now()
    }

//Every 200 milliseconds we’ll try to add a new value to burstyLimiter, up to its limit of 3.
    go func() {
        for t := range time.Tick(time.Millisecond * 200) {
            burstyLimiter <- t
        }
    }()

//Now simulate 5 more incoming requests. The first 3 of these will benefit from the burst capability of burstyLimiter.
    burstyRequests := make(chan int, 5)
    for i := 1; i <= 5; i++ {
        burstyRequests <- i
    }
    close(burstyRequests)

    for req := range burstyRequests {
        <-burstyLimiter
        fmt.Println("request", req, time.Now())
    }
}

//Running our program we see the first batch of requests handled once every ~200 milliseconds as desired.
$ go run rate-limiting.go
request 1 2012-10-19 00:38:18.687438 +0000 UTC
request 2 2012-10-19 00:38:18.887471 +0000 UTC
request 3 2012-10-19 00:38:19.087238 +0000 UTC
request 4 2012-10-19 00:38:19.287338 +0000 UTC
request 5 2012-10-19 00:38:19.487331 +0000 UTC

//For the second batch of requests we serve the first 3 immediately because of the burstable rate limiting, then serve the remaining 2 with ~200ms delays each.
request 1 2012-10-19 00:38:20.487578 +0000 UTC
request 2 2012-10-19 00:38:20.487645 +0000 UTC
request 3 2012-10-19 00:38:20.487676 +0000 UTC
request 4 2012-10-19 00:38:20.687483 +0000 UTC
request 5 2012-10-19 00:38:20.887542 +0000 UTC


Atomic Counters


The primary mechanism for managing state in Go is communication over channels. We saw this for example with worker pools. There are a few other options for managing state though. Here we’ll look at using the sync/atomic package for atomic counters accessed by multiple goroutines.

package main

import "fmt"
import "time"
import "sync/atomic"
import "runtime"

func main() {

//We’ll use an unsigned integer to represent our (always-positive) counter.
    var ops uint64 = 0

//To simulate concurrent updates, we’ll start 50 goroutines that each increment the counter about once a millisecond.
    for i := 0; i < 50; i++ {
        go func() {
            for {

//To atomically increment the counter we use AddUint64, giving it the memory address of our ops counter with the & syntax.
                atomic.AddUint64(&ops, 1)

//Allow other goroutines to proceed.
                runtime.Gosched()
            }
        }()
    }

//Wait a second to allow some ops to accumulate.
    time.Sleep(time.Second)

//In order to safely use the counter while it’s still being updated by other goroutines, we extract a copy of the current value into opsFinal via LoadUint64. As above we need to give this function the memory address &ops from which to fetch the value.
    opsFinal := atomic.LoadUint64(&ops)
    fmt.Println("ops:", opsFinal)
}

//Running the program shows that we executed about 40,000 operations.
$ go run atomic-counters.go
ops: 40200

Next we’ll look at mutexes, another tool for managing state.

Mutexes


In the previous example we saw how to manage simple counter state using atomic operations. For more complex state we can use a mutex to safely access data across multiple goroutines.

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "math/rand"
    "runtime"
    "sync"
    "sync/atomic"
    "time"
)

func main() {

//For our example the state will be a map.
    var state = make(map[int]int)

//This mutex will synchronize access to state.
    var mutex = &sync.Mutex{}

//To compare the mutex-based approach with another we’ll see later, ops will count how many operations we perform against the state.
    var ops int64 = 0

//Here we start 100 goroutines to execute repeated reads against the state.
    for r := 0; r < 100; r++ {
        go func() {
            total := 0
            for {

//For each read we pick a key to access, Lock() the mutex to ensure exclusive access to the state, read the value at the chosen key, Unlock() the mutex, and increment the ops count.
                key := rand.Intn(5)
                mutex.Lock()
                total += state[key]
                mutex.Unlock()
                atomic.AddInt64(&ops, 1)

//In order to ensure that this goroutine doesn’t starve the scheduler, we explicitly yield after each operation with runtime.Gosched(). This yielding is handled automatically with e.g. every channel operation and for blocking calls like time.Sleep, but in this case we need to do it manually.
                runtime.Gosched()
            }
        }()
    }

//We’ll also start 10 goroutines to simulate writes, using the same pattern we did for reads.
    for w := 0; w < 10; w++ {
        go func() {
            for {
                key := rand.Intn(5)
                val := rand.Intn(100)
                mutex.Lock()
                state[key] = val
                mutex.Unlock()
                atomic.AddInt64(&ops, 1)
                runtime.Gosched()
            }
        }()
    }

//Let the 10 goroutines work on the state and mutex for a second.
    time.Sleep(time.Second)

//Take and report a final operations count.
    opsFinal := atomic.LoadInt64(&ops)
    fmt.Println("ops:", opsFinal)

//With a final lock of state, show how it ended up.
    mutex.Lock()
    fmt.Println("state:", state)
    mutex.Unlock()
}

//Running the program shows that we executed about 3,500,000 operations against our mutex-synchronized state.
$ go run mutexes.go
ops: 3598302
state: map[1:38 4:98 2:23 3:85 0:44]

Next we’ll look at implementing this same state management task using only goroutines and channels.

Stateful Goroutines


In the previous example we used explicit locking with mutexes to synchronize access to shared state across multiple goroutines. Another option is to use the built-in synchronization features of goroutines and channels to achieve the same result. This channel-based approach aligns with Go’s ideas of sharing memory by communicating and having each piece of data owned by exactly 1 goroutine.

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "math/rand"
    "sync/atomic"
    "time"
)

//In this example our state will be owned by a single goroutine. This will guarantee that the data is never corrupted with concurrent access. In order to read or write that state, other goroutines will send messages to the owning goroutine and receive corresponding replies. These readOp and writeOp structs encapsulate those requests and a way for the owning goroutine to respond.
type readOp struct {
    key  int
    resp chan int
}

type writeOp struct {
    key  int
    val  int
    resp chan bool
}

func main() {

//As before we’ll count how many operations we perform.
    var ops int64 = 0

//The reads and writes channels will be used by other goroutines to issue read and write requests, respectively.
    reads := make(chan *readOp)
    writes := make(chan *writeOp)

//Here is the goroutine that owns the state, which is a map as in the previous example but now private to the stateful goroutine. This goroutine repeatedly selects on the reads and writes channels, responding to requests as they arrive. A response is executed by first performing the requested operation and then sending a value on the response channel resp to indicate success (and the desired value in the case of reads).
    go func() {
        var state = make(map[int]int)
        for {
            select {
            case read := <-reads:
                read.resp <- state[read.key]
            case write := <-writes:
                state[write.key] = write.val
                write.resp <- true
            }
        }
    }()

//This starts 100 goroutines to issue reads to the state-owning goroutine via the reads channel. Each read requires constructing a readOp, sending it over the reads channel, and the receiving the result over the provided resp channel.
    for r := 0; r < 100; r++ {
        go func() {
            for {
                read := &readOp{
                    key:  rand.Intn(5),
                    resp: make(chan int)}
                reads <- read
                <-read.resp
                atomic.AddInt64(&ops, 1)
            }
        }()
    }

//We start 10 writes as well, using a similar approach.
    for w := 0; w < 10; w++ {
        go func() {
            for {
                write := &writeOp{
                    key:  rand.Intn(5),
                    val:  rand.Intn(100),
                    resp: make(chan bool)}
                writes <- write
                <-write.resp
                atomic.AddInt64(&ops, 1)
            }
        }()
    }

//Let the goroutines work for a second.
    time.Sleep(time.Second)

//Finally, capture and report the ops count.
    opsFinal := atomic.LoadInt64(&ops)
    fmt.Println("ops:", opsFinal)
}

//Running our program shows that the goroutine-based state management example achieves about 800,000 operations per second.
$ go run stateful-goroutines.go
ops: 807434

For this particular case the goroutine-based approach was a bit more involved than the mutex-based one. It might be useful in certain cases though, for example where you have other channels involved or when managing multiple such mutexes would be error-prone. You should use whichever approach feels most natural, especially with respect to understanding the correctness of your program.


Sorting


Go’s sort package implements sorting for builtins and user-defined types. We’ll look at sorting for builtins first.

package main

import "fmt"
import "sort"

func main() {

//Sort methods are specific to the builtin type; here’s an example for strings. Note that sorting is in-place, so it changes the given slice and doesn’t return a new one.
    strs := []string{"c", "a", "b"}
    sort.Strings(strs)
    fmt.Println("Strings:", strs)

//An example of sorting ints.
    ints := []int{7, 2, 4}
    sort.Ints(ints)
    fmt.Println("Ints:   ", ints)

//We can also use sort to check if a slice is already in sorted order.
    s := sort.IntsAreSorted(ints)
    fmt.Println("Sorted: ", s)
}

//Running our program prints the sorted string and int slices and true as the result of our AreSorted test.
$ go run sorting.go
Strings: [a b c]
Ints:    [2 4 7]
Sorted:  true


Sorting by Functions



Sometimes we’ll want to sort a collection by something other than its natural order. For example, suppose we wanted to sort strings by their length instead of alphabetically. Here’s an example of custom sorts in Go.

package main

import "sort"
import "fmt"

//In order to sort by a custom function in Go, we need a corresponding type. Here we’ve created a ByLength type that is just an alias for the builtin []string type.
type ByLength []string

//We implement sort.Interface - Len, Less, and Swap - on our type so we can use the sort package’s generic Sort function. Len and Swap will usually be similar across types and Less will hold the actual custom sorting logic. In our case we want to sort in order of increasing string length, so we use len(s[i]) and len(s[j]) here.
func (s ByLength) Len() int {
    return len(s)
}

func (s ByLength) Swap(i, j int) {
    s[i], s[j] = s[j], s[i]
}

func (s ByLength) Less(i, j int) bool {
    return len(s[i]) < len(s[j])
}

//With all of this in place, we can now implement our custom sort by casting the original fruits slice to ByLength, and then use sort.Sort on that typed slice.
func main() {
    fruits := []string{"peach", "banana", "kiwi"}
    sort.Sort(ByLength(fruits))
    fmt.Println(fruits)
}

//Running our program shows a list sorted by string length, as desired.
$ go run sorting-by-functions.go 
[kiwi peach banana]

By following this same pattern of creating a custom type, implementing the three Interface methods on that type, and then calling sort.Sort on a collection of that custom type, we can sort Go slices by arbitrary functions.


Panic


A panic typically means something went unexpectedly wrong. Mostly we use it to fail fast on errors that shouldn’t occur during normal operation, or that we aren’t prepared to handle gracefully.

package main

import "os"

func main() {

//We’ll use panic throughout this site to check for unexpected errors. This is the only program on the site designed to panic.
    panic("a problem")

//A common use of panic is to abort if a function returns an error value that we don’t know how to (or want to) handle. Here’s an example of panicking if we get an unexpected error when creating a new file.
    _, err := os.Create("/tmp/file")
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
}

//Running this program will cause it to panic, print an error message and goroutine traces, and exit with a non-zero status.
$ go run panic.go
panic: a problem
goroutine 1 [running]:
main.main()
/.../panic.go:12 +0x47
...
exit status 2

Note that unlike some languages which use exceptions for handling of many errors, in Go it is idiomatic to use error-indicating return values wherever possible.


Defer


Defer is used to ensure that a function call is performed later in a program’s execution, usually for purposes of cleanup. defer is often used where e.g. ensure and finally would be used in other languages.

package main

import "fmt"
import "os"

//Suppose we wanted to create a file, write to it, and then close when we’re done. Here’s how we could do that with defer.
func main() {
//Immediately after getting a file object with createFile, we defer the closing of that file with closeFile. This will be executed at the end of the enclosing function (main), after writeFile has finished.
    f := createFile("/tmp/defer.txt")
    defer closeFile(f)
    writeFile(f)
}

func createFile(p string) *os.File {
    fmt.Println("creating")
    f, err := os.Create(p)
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
    return f
}

func writeFile(f *os.File) {
    fmt.Println("writing")
    fmt.Fprintln(f, "data")
}

func closeFile(f *os.File) {
    fmt.Println("closing")
    f.Close()
}

//Running the program confirms that the file is closed after being written.
$ go run defer.go
creating
writing
closing


Collection Functions


We often need our programs to perform operations on collections of data, like selecting all items that satisfy a given predicate or mapping all items to a new collection with a custom function.

In some languages it’s idiomatic to use generic data structures and algorithms. Go does not support generics; in Go it’s common to provide collection functions if and when they are specifically needed for your program and data types.

Here are some example collection functions for slices of strings. You can use these examples to build your own functions. Note that in some cases it may be clearest to just inline the collection-manipulating code directly, instead of creating and calling a helper function.

package main

import "strings"
import "fmt"

//Returns the first index of the target string t, or -1 if no match is found.
func Index(vs []string, t string) int {
    for i, v := range vs {
        if v == t {
            return i
        }
    }
    return -1
}

//Returns true if the target string t is in the slice.
func Include(vs []string, t string) bool {
    return Index(vs, t) >= 0
}

//Returns true if one of the strings in the slice satisfies the predicate f.
func Any(vs []string, f func(string) bool) bool {
    for _, v := range vs {
        if f(v) {
            return true
        }
    }
    return false
}

//Returns true if all of the strings in the slice satisfy the predicate f.
func All(vs []string, f func(string) bool) bool {
    for _, v := range vs {
        if !f(v) {
            return false
        }
    }
    return true
}

//Returns a new slice containing all strings in the slice that satisfy the predicate f.
func Filter(vs []string, f func(string) bool) []string {
    vsf := make([]string, 0)
    for _, v := range vs {
        if f(v) {
            vsf = append(vsf, v)
        }
    }
    return vsf
}

//Returns a new slice containing the results of applying the function f to each string in the original slice.
func Map(vs []string, f func(string) string) []string {
    vsm := make([]string, len(vs))
    for i, v := range vs {
        vsm[i] = f(v)
    }
    return vsm
}

func main() {
//Here we try out our various collection functions.
    var strs = []string{"peach", "apple", "pear", "plum"}
    fmt.Println(Index(strs, "pear"))
    fmt.Println(Include(strs, "grape"))
    fmt.Println(Any(strs, func(v string) bool {
        return strings.HasPrefix(v, "p")
    }))
    fmt.Println(All(strs, func(v string) bool {
        return strings.HasPrefix(v, "p")
    }))
    fmt.Println(Filter(strs, func(v string) bool {
        return strings.Contains(v, "e")
    }))
//The above examples all used anonymous functions, but you can also use named functions of the correct type.
    fmt.Println(Map(strs, strings.ToUpper))
}

$ go run collection-functions.go 
2
false
true
false
[peach apple pear]
[PEACH APPLE PEAR PLUM]


String Functions


The standard library’s strings package provides many useful string-related functions. Here are some examples to give you a sense of the package.

package main

import s "strings"
import "fmt"

//We alias fmt.Println to a shorter name as we’ll use it a lot below.
var p = fmt.Println

func main() {

//Here’s a sample of the functions available in strings. Note that these are all functions from package, not methods on the string object itself. This means that we need pass the string in question as the first argument to the function.
    p("Contains:  ", s.Contains("test", "es"))
    p("Count:     ", s.Count("test", "t"))
    p("HasPrefix: ", s.HasPrefix("test", "te"))
    p("HasSuffix: ", s.HasSuffix("test", "st"))
    p("Index:     ", s.Index("test", "e"))
    p("Join:      ", s.Join([]string{"a", "b"}, "-"))
    p("Repeat:    ", s.Repeat("a", 5))
    p("Replace:   ", s.Replace("foo", "o", "0", -1))
    p("Replace:   ", s.Replace("foo", "o", "0", 1))
    p("Split:     ", s.Split("a-b-c-d-e", "-"))
    p("ToLower:   ", s.ToLower("TEST"))
    p("ToUpper:   ", s.ToUpper("test"))
    p()

//You can find more functions in the strings package docs.
//Not part of strings but worth mentioning here are the mechanisms for getting the length of a string and getting a character by index.
    p("Len: ", len("hello"))
    p("Char:", "hello"[1])
}

$ go run string-functions.go
Contains:   true
Count:      2
HasPrefix:  true
HasSuffix:  true
Index:      1
Join:       a-b
Repeat:     aaaaa
Replace:    f00
Replace:    f0o
Split:      [a b c d e]
toLower:    test
ToUpper:    TEST
Len:  5
Char: 101


String Formatting


Go offers excellent support for string formatting in the printf tradition. Here are some examples of common string formatting tasks.

package main

import "fmt"
import "os"

type point struct {
    x, y int
}

func main() {

//Go offers several printing “verbs” designed to format general Go values. For example, this prints an instance of our point struct.
    p := point{1, 2}
    fmt.Printf("%v\n", p)

//If the value is a struct, the %+v variant will include the struct’s field names.
    fmt.Printf("%+v\n", p)

//The %#v variant prints a Go syntax representation of the value, i.e. the source code snippet that would produce that value.
    fmt.Printf("%#v\n", p)

//To print the type of a value, use %T.
    fmt.Printf("%T\n", p)

//Formatting booleans is straight-forward.
    fmt.Printf("%t\n", true)

//There are many options for formatting integers. Use %d for standard, base-10 formatting.
    fmt.Printf("%d\n", 123)

//This prints a binary representation.
    fmt.Printf("%b\n", 14)

//This prints the character corresponding to the given integer.
    fmt.Printf("%c\n", 33)

//%x provides hex encoding.
    fmt.Printf("%x\n", 456)

//There are also several formatting options for floats. For basic decimal formatting use %f.
    fmt.Printf("%f\n", 78.9)

//%e and %E format the float in (slightly different versions of) scientific notation.
    fmt.Printf("%e\n", 123400000.0)
    fmt.Printf("%E\n", 123400000.0)

//For basic string printing use %s.
    fmt.Printf("%s\n", "\"string\"")

//To double-quote strings as in Go source, use %q.
    fmt.Printf("%q\n", "\"string\"")

//As with integers seen earlier, %x renders the string in base-16, with two output characters per byte of input.
    fmt.Printf("%x\n", "hex this")

//To print a representation of a pointer, use %p.
    fmt.Printf("%p\n", &p)

//When formatting numbers you will often want to control the width and precision of the resulting figure. To specify the width of an integer, use a number after the % in the verb. By default the result will be right-justified and padded with spaces.
    fmt.Printf("|%6d|%6d|\n", 12, 345)

//You can also specify the width of printed floats, though usually you’ll also want to restrict the decimal precision at the same time with the width.precision syntax.
    fmt.Printf("|%6.2f|%6.2f|\n", 1.2, 3.45)

//To left-justify, use the - flag.
    fmt.Printf("|%-6.2f|%-6.2f|\n", 1.2, 3.45)

//You may also want to control width when formatting strings, especially to ensure that they align in table-like output. For basic right-justified width.
    fmt.Printf("|%6s|%6s|\n", "foo", "b")

//To left-justify use the - flag as with numbers.
    fmt.Printf("|%-6s|%-6s|\n", "foo", "b")

//So far we’ve seen Printf, which prints the formatted string to os.Stdout. Sprintf formats and returns a string without printing it anywhere.
    s := fmt.Sprintf("a %s", "string")
    fmt.Println(s)

//You can format+print to io.Writers other than os.Stdout using Fprintf.
    fmt.Fprintf(os.Stderr, "an %s\n", "error")
}

$ go run string-formatting.go
{1 2}
{x:1 y:2}
main.point{x:1, y:2}
main.point
true
123
1110
!
1c8
78.900000
1.234000e+08
1.234000E+08
"string"
"\"string\""
6865782074686973
0x42135100
|    12|   345|
|  1.20|  3.45|
|1.20  |3.45  |
|   foo|     b|
|foo   |b     |
a string
an error


Regular Expressions


Go offers built-in support for regular expressions. Here are some examples of common regexp-related tasks in Go.

package main

import "bytes"
import "fmt"
import "regexp"

func main() {

//This tests whether a pattern matches a string.
    match, _ := regexp.MatchString("p([a-z]+)ch", "peach")
    fmt.Println(match)

//Above we used a string pattern directly, but for other regexp tasks you’ll need to Compile an optimized Regexp struct.
    r, _ := regexp.Compile("p([a-z]+)ch")

//Many methods are available on these structs. Here’s a match test like we saw earlier.
    fmt.Println(r.MatchString("peach"))

//This finds the match for the regexp.
    fmt.Println(r.FindString("peach punch"))

//This also finds the first match but returns the start and end indexes for the match instead of the matching text.
    fmt.Println(r.FindStringIndex("peach punch"))

//The Submatch variants include information about both the whole-pattern matches and the submatches within those matches. For example this will return information for both p([a-z]+)ch and ([a-z]+).
    fmt.Println(r.FindStringSubmatch("peach punch"))

//Similarly this will return information about the indexes of matches and submatches.
    fmt.Println(r.FindStringSubmatchIndex("peach punch"))

//The All variants of these functions apply to all matches in the input, not just the first. For example to find all matches for a regexp.
    fmt.Println(r.FindAllString("peach punch pinch", -1))

//These All variants are available for the other functions we saw above as well.
    fmt.Println(r.FindAllStringSubmatchIndex(
        "peach punch pinch", -1))

//Providing a non-negative integer as the second argument to these functions will limit the number of matches.
    fmt.Println(r.FindAllString("peach punch pinch", 2))

//Our examples above had string arguments and used names like MatchString. We can also provide []byte arguments and drop String from the function name.
    fmt.Println(r.Match([]byte("peach")))

//When creating constants with regular expressions you can use the MustCompile variation of Compile. A plain Compile won’t work for constants because it has 2 return values.
    r = regexp.MustCompile("p([a-z]+)ch")
    fmt.Println(r)

//The regexp package can also be used to replace subsets of strings with other values.
    fmt.Println(r.ReplaceAllString("a peach", "<fruit>"))

//The Func variant allows you to transform matched text with a given function.
    in := []byte("a peach")
    out := r.ReplaceAllFunc(in, bytes.ToUpper)
    fmt.Println(string(out))
}

$ go run regular-expressions.go 
true
true
peach
[0 5]
[peach ea]
[0 5 1 3]
[peach punch pinch]
[[0 5 1 3] [6 11 7 9] [12 17 13 15]]
[peach punch]
true
p([a-z]+)ch
a <fruit>
a PEACH

For a complete reference on Go regular expressions check the regexp package docs.

JSON


Go offers built-in support for JSON encoding and decoding, including to and from built-in and custom data types.

package main

import "encoding/json"
import "fmt"
import "os"

//We’ll use these two structs to demonstrate encoding and decoding of custom types below.
type Response1 struct {
    Page   int
    Fruits []string
}

type Response2 struct {
    Page   int      `json:"page"`
    Fruits []string `json:"fruits"`
}

func main() {
//First we’ll look at encoding basic data types to JSON strings. Here are some examples for atomic values.
    bolB, _ := json.Marshal(true)
    fmt.Println(string(bolB))
    intB, _ := json.Marshal(1)
    fmt.Println(string(intB))
    fltB, _ := json.Marshal(2.34)
    fmt.Println(string(fltB))
    strB, _ := json.Marshal("gopher")
    fmt.Println(string(strB))

//And here are some for slices and maps, which encode to JSON arrays and objects as you’d expect.
    slcD := []string{"apple", "peach", "pear"}
    slcB, _ := json.Marshal(slcD)
    fmt.Println(string(slcB))
    mapD := map[string]int{"apple": 5, "lettuce": 7}
    mapB, _ := json.Marshal(mapD)
    fmt.Println(string(mapB))

//The JSON package can automatically encode your custom data types. It will only include exported fields in the encoded output and will by default use those names as the JSON keys.
    res1D := &Response1{
        Page:   1,
        Fruits: []string{"apple", "peach", "pear"}}
    res1B, _ := json.Marshal(res1D)
    fmt.Println(string(res1B))

//You can use tags on struct field declarations to customize the encoded JSON key names. Check the definition of Response2 above to see an example of such tags.
    res2D := &Response2{
        Page:   1,
        Fruits: []string{"apple", "peach", "pear"}}
    res2B, _ := json.Marshal(res2D)
    fmt.Println(string(res2B))

//Now let’s look at decoding JSON data into Go values. Here’s an example for a generic data structure.
    byt := []byte(`{"num":6.13,"strs":["a","b"]}`)

//We need to provide a variable where the JSON package can put the decoded data. This map[string]interface{} will hold a map of strings to arbitrary data types.
    var dat map[string]interface{}

//Here’s the actual decoding, and a check for associated errors.
    if err := json.Unmarshal(byt, &dat); err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
    fmt.Println(dat)

//In order to use the values in the decoded map, we’ll need to cast them to their appropriate type. For example here we cast the value in num to the expected float64 type.
    num := dat["num"].(float64)
    fmt.Println(num)

//Accessing nested data requires a series of casts.
    strs := dat["strs"].([]interface{})
    str1 := strs[0].(string)
    fmt.Println(str1)

//We can also decode JSON into custom data types. This has the advantages of adding additional type-safety to our programs and eliminating the need for type assertions when accessing the decoded data.
    str := `{"page": 1, "fruits": ["apple", "peach"]}`
    res := Response2{}
    json.Unmarshal([]byte(str), &res)
    fmt.Println(res)
    fmt.Println(res.Fruits[0])

//In the examples above we always used bytes and strings as intermediates between the data and JSON representation on standard out. We can also stream JSON encodings directly to os.Writers like os.Stdout or even HTTP response bodies.
    enc := json.NewEncoder(os.Stdout)
    d := map[string]int{"apple": 5, "lettuce": 7}
    enc.Encode(d)
}

$ go run json.go
true
1
2.34
"gopher"
["apple","peach","pear"]
{"apple":5,"lettuce":7}
{"Page":1,"Fruits":["apple","peach","pear"]}
{"page":1,"fruits":["apple","peach","pear"]}
map[num:6.13 strs:[a b]]
6.13
a
{1 [apple peach]}
apple
{"apple":5,"lettuce":7}

We’ve covered the basic of JSON in Go here, but check out the JSON and Go blog post and JSON package docs for more.


Time


Go’s offers extensive support for times and durations; here are some examples.

package main

import "fmt"
import "time"

func main() {
    p := fmt.Println

//We’ll start by getting the current time.
    now := time.Now()
    p(now)

//You can build a time struct by providing the year, month, day, etc. Times are always associated with a Location, i.e. time zone.
    then := time.Date(
        2009, 11, 17, 20, 34, 58, 651387237, time.UTC)
    p(then)

//You can extract the various components of the time value as expected.
    p(then.Year())
    p(then.Month())
    p(then.Day())
    p(then.Hour())
    p(then.Minute())
    p(then.Second())
    p(then.Nanosecond())
    p(then.Location())

//The Monday-Sunday Weekday is also available.
    p(then.Weekday())

//These methods compare two times, testing if the first occurs before, after, or at the same time as the second, respectively.
    p(then.Before(now))
    p(then.After(now))
    p(then.Equal(now))

//The Sub methods returns a Duration representing the interval between two times.
    diff := now.Sub(then)
    p(diff)

//We can compute the length of the duration in various units.
    p(diff.Hours())
    p(diff.Minutes())
    p(diff.Seconds())
    p(diff.Nanoseconds())

//You can use Add to advance a time by a given duration, or with a - to move backwards by a duration.
    p(then.Add(diff))
    p(then.Add(-diff))
}

$ go run time.go
2012-10-31 15:50:13.793654 +0000 UTC
2009-11-17 20:34:58.651387237 +0000 UTC
2009
November
17
20
34
58
651387237
UTC
Tuesday
true
false
false
25891h15m15.142266763s
25891.25420618521
1.5534752523711128e+06
9.320851514226677e+07
93208515142266763
2012-10-31 15:50:13.793654 +0000 UTC
2006-12-05 01:19:43.509120474 +0000 UTC

Next we’ll look at the related idea of time relative to the Unix epoch.


Epoch


A common requirement in programs is getting the number of seconds, milliseconds, or nanoseconds since the Unix epoch. Here’s how to do it in Go.

package main

import "fmt"
import "time"

func main() {

//Use time.Now with Unix or UnixNano to get elapsed time since the Unix epoch in seconds or nanoseconds, respectively.
    now := time.Now()
    secs := now.Unix()
    nanos := now.UnixNano()
    fmt.Println(now)

//Note that there is no UnixMillis, so to get the milliseconds since epoch you’ll need to manually divide from nanoseconds.
    millis := nanos / 1000000
    fmt.Println(secs)
    fmt.Println(millis)
    fmt.Println(nanos)

//You can also convert integer seconds or nanoseconds since the epoch into the corresponding time.
    fmt.Println(time.Unix(secs, 0))
    fmt.Println(time.Unix(0, nanos))
}

$ go run epoch.go 
2012-10-31 16:13:58.292387 +0000 UTC
1351700038
1351700038292
1351700038292387000
2012-10-31 16:13:58 +0000 UTC
2012-10-31 16:13:58.292387 +0000 UTC

Next we’ll look at another time-related task: time parsing and formatting.


Time Formatting \ Parsing


Go supports time formatting and parsing via pattern-based layouts.

package main

import "fmt"
import "time"

func main() {
    p := fmt.Println

//Here’s a basic example of formatting a time according to RFC3339, using the corresponding layout constant.
    t := time.Now()
    p(t.Format(time.RFC3339))

//Time parsing uses the same layout values as Format.
    t1, e := time.Parse(
        time.RFC3339,
        "2012-11-01T22:08:41+00:00")
    p(t1)

//Format and Parse use example-based layouts. Usually you’ll use a constant from time for these layouts, but you can also supply custom layouts. Layouts must use the reference time Mon Jan 2 15:04:05 MST 2006 to show the pattern with which to format/parse a given time/string. The example time must be exactly as shown: the year 2006, 15 for the hour, Monday for the day of the week, etc.
    p(t.Format("3:04PM"))
    p(t.Format("Mon Jan _2 15:04:05 2006"))
    p(t.Format("2006-01-02T15:04:05.999999-07:00"))
    form := "3 04 PM"
    t2, e := time.Parse(form, "8 41 PM")
    p(t2)

//For purely numeric representations you can also use standard string formatting with the extracted components of the time value.
    fmt.Printf("%d-%02d-%02dT%02d:%02d:%02d-00:00\n",
        t.Year(), t.Month(), t.Day(),
        t.Hour(), t.Minute(), t.Second())

//Parse will return an error on malformed input explaining the parsing problem.
    ansic := "Mon Jan _2 15:04:05 2006"
    _, e = time.Parse(ansic, "8:41PM")
    p(e)
}

$ go run time-formatting-parsing.go 
2014-04-15T18:00:15-07:00
2012-11-01 22:08:41 +0000 +0000
6:00PM
Tue Apr 15 18:00:15 2014
2014-04-15T18:00:15.161182-07:00
0000-01-01 20:41:00 +0000 UTC
2014-04-15T18:00:15-00:00
parsing time "8:41PM" as "Mon Jan _2 15:04:05 2006": ...


Random Numbers


Go’s math/rand package provides pseudorandom number generation.

package main

import "time"
import "fmt"
import "math/rand"

func main() {

//For example, rand.Intn returns a random int n, 0 <= n < 100.
    fmt.Print(rand.Intn(100), ",")
    fmt.Print(rand.Intn(100))
    fmt.Println()

//rand.Float64 returns a float64 f, 0.0 <= f < 1.0.
    fmt.Println(rand.Float64())

//This can be used to generate random floats in other ranges, for example 5.0 <= f' < 10.0.
    fmt.Print((rand.Float64()*5)+5, ",")
    fmt.Print((rand.Float64() * 5) + 5)
    fmt.Println()

//The default number generator is deterministic, so it’ll produce the same sequence of numbers each time by default. To produce varying sequences, give it a seed that changes. Note that this is not safe to use for random numbers you intend to be secret, use crypto/rand for those.
    s1 := rand.NewSource(time.Now().UnixNano())
    r1 := rand.New(s1)

//Call the resulting rand.Rand just like the functions on the rand package.
    fmt.Print(r1.Intn(100), ",")
    fmt.Print(r1.Intn(100))
    fmt.Println()

//If you seed a source with the same number, it produces the same sequence of random numbers.
    s2 := rand.NewSource(42)
    r2 := rand.New(s2)
    fmt.Print(r2.Intn(100), ",")
    fmt.Print(r2.Intn(100))
    fmt.Println()
    s3 := rand.NewSource(42)
    r3 := rand.New(s3)
    fmt.Print(r3.Intn(100), ",")
    fmt.Print(r3.Intn(100))
}

$ go run random-numbers.go
81,87
0.6645600532184904
7.123187485356329,8.434115364335547
0,28
5,87
5,87

See the math/rand package docs for references on other random quantities that Go can provide.


Number Parsing


Parsing numbers from strings is a basic but common task in many programs; here’s how to do it in Go.

package main

//The built-in package strconv provides the number parsing.
import "strconv"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//With ParseFloat, this 64 tells how many bits of precision to parse.
    f, _ := strconv.ParseFloat("1.234", 64)
    fmt.Println(f)

//For ParseInt, the 0 means infer the base from the string. 64 requires that the result fit in 64 bits.
    i, _ := strconv.ParseInt("123", 0, 64)
    fmt.Println(i)

//ParseInt will recognize hex-formatted numbers.
    d, _ := strconv.ParseInt("0x1c8", 0, 64)
    fmt.Println(d)

//A ParseUint is also available.
    u, _ := strconv.ParseUint("789", 0, 64)
    fmt.Println(u)

//Atoi is a convenience function for basic base-10 int parsing.
    k, _ := strconv.Atoi("135")
    fmt.Println(k)

//Parse functions return an error on bad input.
    _, e := strconv.Atoi("wat")
    fmt.Println(e)
}

$ go run number-parsing.go 
1.234
123
456
789
135
strconv.ParseInt: parsing "wat": invalid syntax

Next we’ll look at another common parsing task: URLs.


URL Parsing


URLs provide a uniform way to locate resources. Here’s how to parse URLs in Go.

package main

import "fmt"
import "net"
import "net/url"

func main() {

//We’ll parse this example URL, which includes a scheme, authentication info, host, port, path, query params, and query fragment.
    s := "postgres://user:pass@host.com:5432/path?k=v#f"

//Parse the URL and ensure there are no errors.
    u, err := url.Parse(s)
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }

//Accessing the scheme is straightforward.
    fmt.Println(u.Scheme)

//User contains all authentication info; call Username and Password on this for individual values.
    fmt.Println(u.User)
    fmt.Println(u.User.Username())
    p, _ := u.User.Password()
    fmt.Println(p)

//The Host contains both the hostname and the port, if present. Use SplitHostPort to extract them.
    fmt.Println(u.Host)
    host, port, _ := net.SplitHostPort(u.Host)
    fmt.Println(host)
    fmt.Println(port)

//Here we extract the path and the fragment after the #.
    fmt.Println(u.Path)
    fmt.Println(u.Fragment)

//To get query params in a string of k=v format, use RawQuery. You can also parse query params into a map. The parsed query param maps are from strings to slices of strings, so index into [0] if you only want the first value.
    fmt.Println(u.RawQuery)
    m, _ := url.ParseQuery(u.RawQuery)
    fmt.Println(m)
    fmt.Println(m["k"][0])
}

//Running our URL parsing program shows all the different pieces that we extracted.
$ go run url-parsing.go 
postgres
user:pass
user
pass
host.com:5432
host.com
5432
/path
f
k=v
map[k:[v]]
v


SHA1 Hashes



SHA1 hashes are frequently used to compute short identities for binary or text blobs. For example, the git revision control system uses SHA1s extensively to identify versioned files and directories. Here’s how to compute SHA1 hashes in Go.

package main

//Go implements several hash functions in various crypto/* packages.
import "crypto/sha1"
import "fmt"

func main() {
    s := "sha1 this string"

//The pattern for generating a hash is sha1.New(), sha1.Write(bytes), then sha1.Sum([]byte{}). Here we start with a new hash.
    h := sha1.New()

//Write expects bytes. If you have a string s, use []byte(s) to coerce it to bytes.
    h.Write([]byte(s))

//This gets the finalized hash result as a byte slice. The argument to Sum can be used to append to an existing byte slice: it usually isn’t needed.
    bs := h.Sum(nil)

//SHA1 values are often printed in hex, for example in git commits. Use the %x format verb to convert a hash results to a hex string.
    fmt.Println(s)
    fmt.Printf("%x\n", bs)
}

//Running the program computes the hash and prints it in a human-readable hex format.
$ go run sha1-hashes.go
sha1 this string
cf23df2207d99a74fbe169e3eba035e633b65d94

You can compute other hashes using a similar pattern to the one shown above. For example, to compute MD5 hashes import crypto/md5 and use md5.New().

Note that if you need cryptographically secure hashes, you should carefully research hash strength!


Base64 Enconding


Go provides built-in support for base64 encoding/decoding.

package main

//This syntax imports the encoding/base64 package with the b64 name instead of the default base64. It’ll save us some space below.
import b64 "encoding/base64"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//Here’s the string we’ll encode/decode.
    data := "abc123!?$*&()'-=@~"

//Go supports both standard and URL-compatible base64. Here’s how to encode using the standard encoder. The encoder requires a []byte so we cast our string to that type.
    sEnc := b64.StdEncoding.EncodeToString([]byte(data))
    fmt.Println(sEnc)

//Decoding may return an error, which you can check if you don’t already know the input to be well-formed.
    sDec, _ := b64.StdEncoding.DecodeString(sEnc)
    fmt.Println(string(sDec))
    fmt.Println()

//This encodes/decodes using a URL-compatible base64 format.
    uEnc := b64.URLEncoding.EncodeToString([]byte(data))
    fmt.Println(uEnc)
    uDec, _ := b64.URLEncoding.DecodeString(uEnc)
    fmt.Println(string(uDec))
}

//The string encodes to slightly different values with the standard and URL base64 encoders (trailing + vs -) but they both decode to the original string as desired.
$ go run base64-encoding.go
YWJjMTIzIT8kKiYoKSctPUB+
abc123!?$*&()'-=@~
YWJjMTIzIT8kKiYoKSctPUB-
abc123!?$*&()'-=@~


Reading Files


Reading and writing files are basic tasks needed for many Go programs. First we’ll look at some examples of reading files.

package main

import (
    "bufio"
    "fmt"
    "io"
    "io/ioutil"
    "os"
)

//Reading files requires checking most calls for errors. This helper will streamline our error checks below.
func check(e error) {
    if e != nil {
        panic(e)
    }
}

func main() {

//Perhaps the most basic file reading task is slurping a file’s entire contents into memory.
    dat, err := ioutil.ReadFile("/tmp/dat")
    check(err)
    fmt.Print(string(dat))

//You’ll often want more control over how and what parts of a file are read. For these tasks, start by Opening a file to obtain an os.File value.
    f, err := os.Open("/tmp/dat")
    check(err)

//Read some bytes from the beginning of the file. Allow up to 5 to be read but also note how many actually were read.
    b1 := make([]byte, 5)
    n1, err := f.Read(b1)
    check(err)
    fmt.Printf("%d bytes: %s\n", n1, string(b1))

//You can also Seek to a known location in the file and Read from there.
    o2, err := f.Seek(6, 0)
    check(err)
    b2 := make([]byte, 2)
    n2, err := f.Read(b2)
    check(err)
    fmt.Printf("%d bytes @ %d: %s\n", n2, o2, string(b2))

//The io package provides some functions that may be helpful for file reading. For example, reads like the ones above can be more robustly implemented with ReadAtLeast.
    o3, err := f.Seek(6, 0)
    check(err)
    b3 := make([]byte, 2)
    n3, err := io.ReadAtLeast(f, b3, 2)
    check(err)
    fmt.Printf("%d bytes @ %d: %s\n", n3, o3, string(b3))

//There is no built-in rewind, but Seek(0, 0) accomplishes this.
    _, err = f.Seek(0, 0)
    check(err)

//The bufio package implements a buffered reader that may be useful both for its efficiency with many small reads and because of the additional reading methods it provides.
    r4 := bufio.NewReader(f)
    b4, err := r4.Peek(5)
    check(err)
    fmt.Printf("5 bytes: %s\n", string(b4))

//Close the file when you’re done (usually this would be scheduled immediately after Opening with defer).
    f.Close()
}

$ echo "hello" > /tmp/dat
$ echo "go" >>   /tmp/dat
$ go run reading-files.go 
hello
go
5 bytes: hello
2 bytes @ 6: go
2 bytes @ 6: go
5 bytes: hello


package main

 import (
         "encoding/gob"
         "fmt"
         "os"
 )

 func main() {
         var data []int

         // open data file
         dataFile, err := os.Open("integerdata.gob")

         if err != nil {
                 fmt.Println(err)
                 os.Exit(1)
         }

         dataDecoder := gob.NewDecoder(dataFile)
         err = dataDecoder.Decode(&data)

         if err != nil {
                 fmt.Println(err)
                 os.Exit(1)
         }

         dataFile.Close()

         fmt.Println(data)
 }

Writing Files


Writing files in Go follows similar patterns to the ones we saw earlier for reading.

package main

import (
    "bufio"
    "fmt"
    "io/ioutil"
    "os"
)

func check(e error) {
    if e != nil {
        panic(e)
    }
}

func main() {

//To start, here’s how to dump a string (or just bytes) into a file.
    d1 := []byte("hello\ngo\n")
    err := ioutil.WriteFile("/tmp/dat1", d1, 0644)
    check(err)

//For more granular writes, open a file for writing.
    f, err := os.Create("/tmp/dat2")
    check(err)

//It’s idiomatic to defer a Close immediately after opening a file.
    defer f.Close()

//You can Write byte slices as you’d expect.
    d2 := []byte{115, 111, 109, 101, 10}
    n2, err := f.Write(d2)
    check(err)
    fmt.Printf("wrote %d bytes\n", n2)

//A WriteString is also available.
    n3, err := f.WriteString("writes\n")
    fmt.Printf("wrote %d bytes\n", n3)

//Issue a Sync to flush writes to stable storage.
    f.Sync()

//bufio provides buffered writers in addition to the buffered readers we saw earlier.
    w := bufio.NewWriter(f)
    n4, err := w.WriteString("buffered\n")
    fmt.Printf("wrote %d bytes\n", n4)

//Use Flush to ensure all buffered operations have been applied to the underlying writer.
    w.Flush()
}

//Try running the file-writing code.
$ go run writing-files.go 
wrote 5 bytes
wrote 7 bytes
wrote 9 bytes

//Then check the contents of the written files.
$ cat /tmp/dat1
hello
go
$ cat /tmp/dat2
some
writes
buffered

Next we’ll look at applying some of the file I/O ideas we’ve just seen to the stdin and stdout streams.

Saving Files


 
package main

 import (
         "encoding/gob"
         "fmt"
         "os"
 )

 func main() {
         data := []int{101, 102, 103}

         // create a file
         dataFile, err := os.Create("integerdata.gob")

         if err != nil {
                 fmt.Println(err)
                 os.Exit(1)
         }

         dataEncoder := gob.NewEncoder(dataFile)
         dataEncoder.Encode(data)

         dataFile.Close()
 }

Line Filters


A line filter is a common type of program that reads input on stdin, processes it, and then prints some derived result to stdout. grep and sed are common line filters.

Here’s an example line filter in Go that writes a capitalized version of all input text. You can use this pattern to write your own Go line filters.

package main

import (
    "bufio"
    "fmt"
    "os"
    "strings"
)

func main() {

//Wrapping the unbuffered os.Stdin with a buffered scanner gives us a convenient Scan method that advances the scanner to the next token; which is the next line in the default scanner.
    scanner := bufio.NewScanner(os.Stdin)

//Text returns the current token, here the next line, from the input.
    for scanner.Scan() {
        ucl := strings.ToUpper(scanner.Text())

//Write out the uppercased line.
        fmt.Println(ucl)
    }

//Check for errors during Scan. End of file is expected and not reported by Scan as an error.
    if err := scanner.Err(); err != nil {
        fmt.Fprintln(os.Stderr, "error:", err)
        os.Exit(1)
    }
}

//To try out our line filter, first make a file with a few lowercase lines.
$ echo 'hello'   > /tmp/lines
$ echo 'filter' >> /tmp/lines

//Then use the line filter to get uppercase lines.
$ cat /tmp/lines | go run line-filters.go
HELLO
FILTER


Command-Line Arguments



Command-line arguments are a common way to parameterize execution of programs. For example, go run hello.go uses run and hello.go arguments to the go program.

package main

import "os"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//os.Args provides access to raw command-line arguments. Note that the first value in this slice is the path to the program, and os.Args[1:] holds the arguments to the program.
    argsWithProg := os.Args
    argsWithoutProg := os.Args[1:]

//You can get individual args with normal indexing.
    arg := os.Args[3]
    fmt.Println(argsWithProg)
    fmt.Println(argsWithoutProg)
    fmt.Println(arg)
}

//To experiment with command-line arguments it’s best to build a binary with go build first.
$ go build command-line-arguments.go
$ ./command-line-arguments a b c d
[./command-line-arguments a b c d]       
[a b c d]
c

Next we’ll look at more advanced command-line processing with flags.


Command-Line Flags



Command-line flags are a common way to specify options for command-line programs. For example, in wc -l the -l is a command-line flag.

package main

//Go provides a flag package supporting basic command-line flag parsing. We’ll use this package to implement our example command-line program.
import "flag"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//Basic flag declarations are available for string, integer, and boolean options. Here we declare a string flag word with a default value "foo" and a short description. This flag.String function returns a string pointer (not a string value); we’ll see how to use this pointer below.
    wordPtr := flag.String("word", "foo", "a string")

//This declares numb and fork flags, using a similar approach to the word flag.
    numbPtr := flag.Int("numb", 42, "an int")
    boolPtr := flag.Bool("fork", false, "a bool")

//It’s also possible to declare an option that uses an existing var declared elsewhere in the program. Note that we need to pass in a pointer to the flag declaration function.
    var svar string
    flag.StringVar(&svar, "svar", "bar", "a string var")

//Once all flags are declared, call flag.Parse() to execute the command-line parsing.
    flag.Parse()

//Here we’ll just dump out the parsed options and any trailing positional arguments. Note that we need to dereference the pointers with e.g. *wordPtr to get the actual option values.
    fmt.Println("word:", *wordPtr)
    fmt.Println("numb:", *numbPtr)
    fmt.Println("fork:", *boolPtr)
    fmt.Println("svar:", svar)
    fmt.Println("tail:", flag.Args())
}

//To experiment with the command-line flags program it’s best to first compile it and then run the resulting binary directly.
$ go build command-line-flags.go

//Try out the built program by first giving it values for all flags.
$ ./command-line-flags -word=opt -numb=7 -fork -svar=flag
word: opt
numb: 7
fork: true
svar: flag
tail: []

//Note that if you omit flags they automatically take their default values.
$ ./command-line-flags -word=opt
word: opt
numb: 42
fork: false
svar: bar
tail: []

//Trailing positional arguments can be provided after any flags.
$ ./command-line-flags -word=opt a1 a2 a3
word: opt
...
tail: [a1 a2 a3]

//Note that the flag package requires all flags to appear before positional arguments (otherwise the flags will be interpreted as positional arguments).
$ ./command-line-flags -word=opt a1 a2 a3 -numb=7
word: opt
numb: 42
fork: false
svar: bar
trailing: [a1 a2 a3 -numb=7]

//Use -h or --help flags to get automatically generated help text for the command-line program.
$ ./command-line-flags -h
Usage of ./command-line-flags:
  -fork=false: a bool
  -numb=42: an int
  -svar="bar": a string var
  -word="foo": a string

//If you provide a flag that wasn’t specified to the flag package, the program will print an error message an show the help text again.
$ ./command-line-flags -wat
flag provided but not defined: -wat
Usage of ./command-line-flags:
...

Next we’ll look at environment variables, another common way to parameterize programs.


Environment Variables


Environment variables are a universal mechanism for conveying configuration information to Unix programs. Let’s look at how to set, get, and list environment variables.

package main

import "os"
import "strings"
import "fmt"

func main() {

//To set a key/value pair, use os.Setenv. To get a value for a key, use os.Getenv. This will return an empty string if the key isn’t present in the environment.
    os.Setenv("FOO", "1")
    fmt.Println("FOO:", os.Getenv("FOO"))
    fmt.Println("BAR:", os.Getenv("BAR"))

//Use os.Environ to list all key/value pairs in the environment. This returns a slice of strings in the form KEY=value. You can strings.Split them to get the key and value. Here we print all the keys.
    fmt.Println()
    for _, e := range os.Environ() {
        pair := strings.Split(e, "=")
        fmt.Println(pair[0])
    }
}

//Running the program shows that we pick up the value for FOO that we set in the program, but that BAR is empty.
$ go run environment-variables.go
FOO: 1
BAR: 

//The list of keys in the environment will depend on your particular machine.
TERM_PROGRAM
PATH
SHELL
...

//If we set BAR in the environment first, the running program picks that value up.
$ BAR=2 go run environment-variables.go
FOO: 1
BAR: 2
...


Spawning Processes


Sometimes our Go programs need to spawn other, non-Go processes. For example, the syntax highlighting on this site is implemented by spawning a pygmentize process from a Go program. Let’s look at a few examples of spawning processes from Go.

package main

import "fmt"
import "io/ioutil"
import "os/exec"

func main() {

//We’ll start with a simple command that takes no arguments or input and just prints something to stdout. The exec.Command helper creates an object to represent this external process.
    dateCmd := exec.Command("date")

//.Output is another helper that handles the common case of running a command, waiting for it to finish, and collecting its output. If there were no errors, dateOut will hold bytes with the date info.
    dateOut, err := dateCmd.Output()
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
    fmt.Println("> date")
    fmt.Println(string(dateOut))

//Next we’ll look at a slightly more involved case where we pipe data to the external process on its stdin and collect the results from its stdout.
    grepCmd := exec.Command("grep", "hello")

//Here we explicitly grab input/output pipes, start the process, write some input to it, read the resulting output, and finally wait for the process to exit.
    grepIn, _ := grepCmd.StdinPipe()
    grepOut, _ := grepCmd.StdoutPipe()
    grepCmd.Start()
    grepIn.Write([]byte("hello grep\ngoodbye grep"))
    grepIn.Close()
    grepBytes, _ := ioutil.ReadAll(grepOut)
    grepCmd.Wait()

//We ommited error checks in the above example, but you could use the usual if err != nil pattern for all of them. We also only collect the StdoutPipe results, but you could collect the StderrPipe in exactly the same way.
    fmt.Println("> grep hello")
    fmt.Println(string(grepBytes))

//Note that when spawning commands we need to provide an explicitly delineated command and argument array, vs. being able to just pass in one command-line string. If you want to spawn a full command with a string, you can use bash’s -c option:
    lsCmd := exec.Command("bash", "-c", "ls -a -l -h")
    lsOut, err := lsCmd.Output()
    if err != nil {
        panic(err)
    }
    fmt.Println("> ls -a -l -h")
    fmt.Println(string(lsOut))
}

//The spawned programs return output that is the same as if we had run them directly from the command-line.
$ go run spawning-processes.go 
> date
Wed Oct 10 09:53:11 PDT 2012
> grep hello
hello grep
> ls -a -l -h
drwxr-xr-x  4 mark 136B Oct 3 16:29 .
drwxr-xr-x 91 mark 3.0K Oct 3 12:50 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 mark 1.3K Oct 3 16:28 spawning-processes.go


Execing Processes


In the previous example we looked at spawning external processes. We do this when we need an external process accessible to a running Go process. Sometimes we just want to completely replace the current Go process with another (perhaps non-Go) one. To do this we’ll use Go’s implementation of the classic exec function.

package main

import "syscall"
import "os"
import "os/exec"

func main() {

//For our example we’ll exec ls. Go requires an absolute path to the binary we want to execute, so we’ll use exec.LookPath to find it (probably /bin/ls).
    binary, lookErr := exec.LookPath("ls")
    if lookErr != nil {
        panic(lookErr)
    }

//Exec requires arguments in slice form (as apposed to one big string). We’ll give ls a few common arguments. Note that the first argument should be the program name.
    args := []string{"ls", "-a", "-l", "-h"}

//Exec also needs a set of environment variables to use. Here we just provide our current environment.
    env := os.Environ()

//Here’s the actual syscall.Exec call. If this call is successful, the execution of our process will end here and be replaced by the /bin/ls -a -l -h process. If there is an error we’ll get a return value.
    execErr := syscall.Exec(binary, args, env)
    if execErr != nil {
        panic(execErr)
    }
}

//When we run our program it is replaced by ls.
$ go run execing-processes.go
total 16
drwxr-xr-x  4 mark 136B Oct 3 16:29 .
drwxr-xr-x 91 mark 3.0K Oct 3 12:50 ..
-rw-r--r--  1 mark 1.3K Oct 3 16:28 execing-processes.go

Note that Go does not offer a classic Unix fork function. Usually this isn’t an issue though, since starting goroutines, spawning processes, and exec’ing processes covers most use cases for fork.


Signals


Sometimes we’d like our Go programs to intelligently handle Unix signals. For example, we might want a server to gracefully shutdown when it receives a SIGTERM, or a command-line tool to stop processing input if it receives a SIGINT. Here’s how to handle signals in Go with channels.

package main

import "fmt"
import "os"
import "os/signal"
import "syscall"

func main() {

//Go signal notification works by sending os.Signal values on a channel. We’ll create a channel to receive these notifications (we’ll also make one to notify us when the program can exit).
    sigs := make(chan os.Signal, 1)
    done := make(chan bool, 1)

//signal.Notify registers the given channel to receive notifications of the specified signals.
    signal.Notify(sigs, syscall.SIGINT, syscall.SIGTERM)

//This goroutine executes a blocking receive for signals. When it gets one it’ll print it out and then notify the program that it can finish.
    go func() {
        sig := <-sigs
        fmt.Println()
        fmt.Println(sig)
        done <- true
    }()

//The program will wait here until it gets the expected signal (as indicated by the goroutine above sending a value on done) and then exit.
    fmt.Println("awaiting signal")
    <-done
    fmt.Println("exiting")
}

//When we run this program it will block waiting for a signal. By typing ctrl-C (which the terminal shows as ^C) we can send a SIGINT signal, causing the program to print interrupt and then exit.
$ go run signals.go
awaiting signal
^C
interrupt
exiting


Exit


Use os.Exit to immediately exit with a given status.

package main

import "fmt"
import "os"

func main() {

//defers will not be run when using os.Exit, so this fmt.Println will never be called.
    defer fmt.Println("!")

//Exit with status 3.
    os.Exit(3)
}

//Note that unlike e.g. C, Go does not use an integer return value from main to indicate exit status. If you’d like to exit with a non-zero status you should use os.Exit.

//If you run exit.go using go run, the exit will be picked up by go and printed.
$ go run exit.go
exit status 3

//By building and executing a binary you can see the status in the terminal.
$ go build exit.go
$ ./exit
$ echo $?
3

Note that the ! from our program never got printed.


Datastructures


Containers


Sets

HashSet

TreeSet

Lists

ArrayList

SinglyLinkedList

DoublyLinkedList

Stacks

LinkedListStack

ArrayStack

Maps

HashMap

TreeMap

Trees

RedBlackTree

BinaryHeap

Functions

Comparator

Sort


Misc


Convert string to and from []byte 


s := "some string"
b := []byte(s) // convert string -> []byte
s2 := string(b) // convert []byte -> string

Capture Ctrl+C Signal


package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "os"
    "os/signal"
    "syscall"
    "time" // or "runtime"
)

func cleanup() {
    fmt.Println("cleanup")
}

func main() {
    c := make(chan os.Signal, 1)
    signal.Notify(c, os.Interrupt)
    signal.Notify(c, syscall.SIGTERM)
    go func() {
        <-c
        cleanup()
        os.Exit(1)
    }()

    for {
        fmt.Println("sleeping...")
        time.Sleep(10 * time.Second) // or runtime.Gosched() or similar per @misterbee
    }
}







TBD






















































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