Skimming  fermenting ale



 [above] Skimming ale, open fermenter, Newark, 1930's.

[below] 1938 VP Otto Badenhausen and brewmaster MacKechnie - 1400 bbl. fermenter

[BELOW] Detail from schematic drawing of Ballantine brewing process, showing both open and closed fermenters.  Open typically used for top fermenting ale, allowing for the skimming, collection and reuse of yeast, and closed, for lager beers and for the collection of carbon dioxide used to carbonate finished beer before packaging.