ISIA L01 C1 S3

Intro Stats-Islamic Approach-Part 2: Prob & Stat - Lecture 1: Random Samples
Concept 1: Models & Reality -- Slide 3: Models as Metaphors
A metaphor is a statement like "Asad is a Lion". It is obviously false, if taken literally. It is way to make a striking comparison. What is the purpose of making such a comparison, which cannot be understood literally? We are saying the some properties of Asad (courage) are similar to some properties of the Lion (courage). 
When we say: An uphill struggle, this is a metaphor. We describe something which requires constant effort and is difficult to do by a picture of something completely different, but which is similar in certain key aspects. These key aspects are NOT SPELLED OUT, and we might guess at what the similarities are. 
Reality is VERY COMPLEX. Every moment of time is unique -- it has never occurred before and will never occur again. BUT if we think of it as unique, that means that NONE of the lessons of history apply to it. If we want to learn from experience, we have to IGNORE some of the unique features, and think of the COMMON features of this moment with other moments that we have experienced. By focusing on COMMONALITIES, it is possible to transfer learning from other SIMILAR moments to this one. HOWEVER there is always the risk that our MODEL, which simplifies reality to make it similar to other times, is TOO simple -- it misses some essential element.