Bibliography A-Z


Empedocles - Empedocle - Empédocle - Empedokles - Empedoklés - Empédocles - Эмпедокл - Empedoklész - エンペドクレス -  Емпедокле  -  Empedoklo  -  Empedioklis  - אמפדוקלס  - إمبيدوكليس 

Bibliographie présentée par Tomáš Vítek, avec la collaboration de J.-C. Picot 

Le site empedocles.acragas, créé en 2007, a pour objectif de promouvoir les études empédocléennes. La constitution d'une bibliographie la plus complète possible contribue à cet objectif.

Installée désormais sur le web, la bibliographie d'Empédocle, parue dans l'Empedoklés : II (2006) de Tomáš Vítek, est régulièrement mise à jour. D'éventuelles erreurs typographiques ou imprécisions sont réparées. Toutes les références écrites en vert sont des références ajoutées depuis la parution de Empedoklés : II (2006).

Pour s'informer des nouveautés, de quelques futures publications, concernant les études empédocléennes :

Pour connaître une part importante de la bibliographie attachée à un fragment donné :  

Pour compléter la mise à jour de cette bibliographie sélective par fragment, nous conseillons de naviguer dans la présente page avec la fonction Find, à savoir CTRL-F (sous PC) plus B numéro du fragment dans DK. Exemple : CTRL-F B 17 pour repérer les articles s'intéressant au fr. 17 DK. 

Je n'adhère pas à l'écriture B 17 pour désigner le fragment 17 (= fr. 17 DK). "B" signifiant "fragment" est une coquetterie de Diels introduite en 1906. Mais par respect du travail de T. Vítek, qui s'exprime de cette façon avec B pour fragment, je prolonge ici cette écriture.

Pour découvrir les trois ouvrages de Tomáš Vítek concernant Empédocle :

Pour consulter des articles et des livres :

Je remercie en particulier la Fondation Pythagoras ( pour les indications bibliographiques fournies dans sa Newsletter annuelle.

Jean-Claude Picot

Dernière mise à jour : 22/ 07/ 2016   -    

Empedocles - Bibliography


            This bibliography includes all books and articles somehow devoted to Empedocles from 1500 until nowadays. It excludes most reviews, translations of modern works, and some more general works of reference. Simply, it was not possible to involve exhaustively all encyclopaedias, histories and surveys of Greek, European and World philosophy. I add to some titles very concise annotation or the discussed fragments and testimonies (in numbering of D-K).

This bibliography is a work in progress. It is not quite completed and is not rid of all lacks and errors. I could personally verify only ca 70 % items, the other data were acquired from different sources.

The list of bibliographies: (1) General bibliography (without Nr. 2); (2) Works of arts and art-historical articles; (3) 1500 - 1804.


Tomáš Vítek

Praha, May 2007



New titles recently introduced into the general bibliography

Bussanich, JohnReincarnation and Salvation in Magna Graecia and Plato, in: Philosopher Kings and Tragic Heroes: Essays on Images and Ideas from Western Greece, ed. Reid H.L., Tanasi D., Sioux City: Parnassos Press 2016, p. 79-92. (Empedocles's Escatology at pages 81-84.)

See Marmodoro, AnnaPrimavesi, OliverPalmer, John,Curd, Patricia,  Rowett, Catherine, Sedley, David, in: Rhizomata, 4, 1, 2016. 


Brague, Rémi, The Body of Speech: A New Hypothesis in the Compositional Structure of Timaeus’ Monologue, in: Platonic Investigations, ed. Dominic J. O’Meara, Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America Press 1985, p.53-83, (Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy, 13). (Pages 57-58: B 29, B 134.)

                                 (1) General bibliography  (name and first name of author appear on coloured background; references introduced after 2006 are written in green)


Abt, Adam, Die Apologie des Apuleius von Madaura und die Antike Zauberai, Giessen 1908, p. 112-5. (B 111.1: farmaka.).

Acri, F[rancesco?], Dei sistemi di Empedocle e Democrito, in: Rivista sicula di scienze, letteratura ed arti 2/4, 1870, p. 408-21, p. 408-11 (very general and little original outline of the principal theses of Emp. doctrine; perhaps only one more detailed idea of author is the roots being composed of small divisible parts, which are able to penetrate the pores of each element during the maximal dominance of Strife).

Adam, James, The religious teachers of Greece: Gifford lectures delivered at Aberdeen University, 1904-1906, Aberdeen 1908. (P. 244-253; B 17, B 21, B 26, B 29, B 30, B 31,B 35, B 59, B 105, B 109, B 110, B 133, B 134.)

Afonasina, Anna S.The birth of harmony out of the spirit of tekhe, in: ΣΧΟΛΗ vol. 6. 1, 2012, p. 68-75.

– Эмпедокл о дыхании, in: ΣΧΟΛΗ vol. 9. 2, 2015, p. 353-362. (Empedocles on breathing, B 100.).

Agnello, NinoEmpedocles : Frammenti, traduzione et commento, Cosenza : L. Pellegrini, 2008, (Filosofia teoretica ; 6). (Agnello follows B. Inwood's edition.)

Albinus, LarsThe Greek δαίμων between Mythos and Logos, in: Die Dämonen – Demons. Die Dämonologie der israelitisch-jüdischen und frühchristlichen Literatur im Kontext ihrer Umwelt (pp. 395–415), eds. A. Lange - H. Lichtenberger - K. F. D. Römheld, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2003, p. 425-446. (Empedocles: p. 431-433, B 115, B112.)

Alesse, Francesca, L’Empedocle di Renato Laurenti, in: Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, ed. L. Rossetti - C. Santaniello, ‘Le Rane’, Collana di studi e testi, Studi 37, Bari: Levante editori 2004, p. 291-304.

Alessio, Felice., Empedocle, in: La Rassegna Nazionale 9/35 (16. maggio, Firenze), 1887, s. 308-55. (A popular sketch of Emp. teaching.)

Alexander, Thomas M.Aristotle's Dialectical Criticism of Empedocles' Concept of Animate Being, Master Thesis (Dir. John Anton), Emory University, 1976. 

– The Sphairos God in Empedocles' Two Poems, in: Southwest Philosophical Studies, Vol. X, No. 1, 1985, p. 84-95, (B 27, B 29, B 98, B 105, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 134, B 146, in favor of daimôn = piece of Love, discussion of Cornford and Kahn's views about the daimôn.)

Algra, Keimpe - Mansfeld, Jaap, Three thetas in the “Empédocle de Strasbourg”, in: Mnemosyne 54, 2001, p. 78-84. (B 27, B 1115.)

Alt, Karin, Einige Fragen zu den Katharmoi des Empedokles, in: Hermes 115, 1987, s. 385-411; in: Hermes 116, 1988, p. 264-71.

Altheim, Franz - Stiehl, Ruth, Porphyrios und Empedokles, Tübingen: Niemeyer 1954.

New Fragments of Greek Philosophers I: Empedocles, Democritus, Theophrastus in Arabic Translation, in: East and West 12, n°1, 1961, p. 3-18.

Althoff, Jochen, Presocratic discourse in poetry and prose: The case of Empedocles and Anaxagoras, in: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, Volume 43(2), 2012, p. 293–299. (B 6, B  8, B 11.)

Amato, Eugenio, Un discorso inedito di Procopio di Gaza: In Meletis et Antoninae Nuptias, Revue des études tardo-antiques, 1, 2011-2012, p. 15-69. (P. 48-56 - B 17, B 26, B 51, B 154, Papyrus Strasbourg.)

Ambrosano, GiovannaCosmologia e daimonologia in Empedocle, in: Incidenza dell'antico. Dialoghi di storia greca, 9, 2011, pp. 101-121.

 La respirazione empedoclea, in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. 6 nº12, 2012, p. 6-38. Released in October 2014. (B 100.)

Andò, Valeria, Nestis o l’elemento acqua in Empedocle, in: Kokalos 28-29, 1982-3, p. 31-51. (B 6, B 96.)

Andreus, H[ans?], Empedocles, de ander, Gravenhage : Stols 1955 (36 p.).

Andriopoulos, Démétrios Z., Empedocles’ Theory of Perception, in: Platon 24, 1972, p. 290-8.

Angiò, F., Review of R. Laurenti, Empedocle (1999) and A. Martin - O. Primavesi, L’Empédocle de Strasbourg (1999), in: Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft 3, 2000, p. 1039-41.

– Review of R. Laurenti, Empedocle (1999), in: Quaderni di storia 52, 2000, p. 301-4.

Anonymus, Über die Bergdurchstechung des Empedokles in Akragas, in: Beilage zur Augsburger allgemeinen Zeitung 319 (15. Nov.), 1881, p. 4691-2.

Anonymus, Empedocles, in: The North British Review 45/6, 1866, p. 420-40. Also Art.VI.- Empedocles, in: The North British Review, American edition, Sept. and Dec. 1866, Vol. 45, December n° 90, p. 221-231.

Anonymus, I frammenti di Empedocle, Napoli : Stabilimento Industrie Editoriale Meridionali 1935.

Apelt, Ernst Friedrich, Parmenidis et Empedoclis doctrina de mundi structura (diss.), Ienae: Sumptibus F. Maukii1857, p. 10-14.

Arata, Luigi, Sul frammento 100 D.-K. di Empedocle, in: Studi classici e orientali 45, 1995, s. 65-84. (B 100.)

Arcellashi, André, Empedoclea - Terentia ou la ruelle de la rhétorique, in: Helmantica 50, 1999, p. 45-55. 

Armstrong, David – Ponczoch Joseph A., [Philodemus] On Wealth (PHerc. 1570 Cols. VI-XX, Pcc. 4-6a): New Fragments of Empedocles, Menander, and Epicurusin: Cronache Ercolanesi. Bollettino del Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi, 2011, 41, p. 97-138.

 Empedocles and Philodemus in PHerc. 1570, col. VI 9-19, in: Cronache Ercolanesi 43, 2013, p. 113-116.

Arundel, Maureen Rosemary (= M. R. Wright), Empedocles fr. 35.12-15, in: The Classical Review 12, 1962, p. 109-111. (B 35.)

An Interpretation of Empedocles (diss.), University of Oxford 1963.

– "Principio Caelum" (Aeneid VI. 724-751), in: Proceedings of the Virgil Society, 3, 1963-1964, p. 27-34. (B 38.4., B 134.)

Asheri, David, Agrigenti libera: Rivolgimenti interni e problemi constituzionali ca. 471 - 446 a. C., in: Athenaeum 68, 1990, p. 482-501.

Atanasijevič, Xenija, Empedokle iz Agrigenta, in: Misao 7/131-2, 1925, p. 699-702 and 891-905.

Empedoklovi religijski fragmenti, in: Kalendar Vreme (Beograd 1925), p. 64-5.

Attilio Piovano, G., Review of Ettore Bignone. I poeti filosofi della Grecia, Empedocle, 1916, in: Athenaeum 6, 1918, p. 76-82.

Azevedo, Cristiane A. deUma questão de saber: thymós e nóos em Parmênides e Empédocles, in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. VI nº11, 2012, p. 63-77. 



Babut, Daniel, Sur l’unité de la pensée d’Empédocle, in: Philologus 120, 1976, p. 139-64. (B 21, B 115, B 116, B 118, B 120, B 126, B 128, B 136, B 137, B 139, B 146, B 147, B 148.)

Bacca, Juan David GarcíaLos Presocraticos, México: Fondo de Cultura Económica 1980 (1996: 6 ed.).

Bacigalupo, Maria Vittoria, Teriomorfismo e trasmigrazione, in: Filosofia, rivista trimestrale (Torino), 16.2, 1965, p. 267-290. (Empedocles: p. 278-280.)

Badolati, Giuseppe S., Empedocle di Agrigento: l’uomo, il medico, l’ambiente, in: Index Empedocleus, Genova 1991, I.37-48.  

Baestlein, Albert, Quid Lucretius debuerit Empedocli Agrigentino, in: Jahresbericht des Königlichen Preussischen Hennebergischen Gymnasiums zu Schleusingen, Druck der Keyssner’schen Hofbuchdruckerei in Meiningen 1875, p. 1-21 [printed also under the title Quid debeat Lucretius Empedocli Agrigentino].

Baffioni, Carmela, Una storia della filosofia greca nell’Islam del XII. secolo (Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Karím aš-Šahrastání), Vol. II: Anassagora ed Empedocle, in: Elenchos 3, 1982, s. 87-107 (Roma 1983).

Bakhouche, BéatriceLes citations d’Empédocle chez Calcidius, in: Ítaca : quaderns catalans de cultura clàssica, 28-29, 2013, p. 45-62. Online:

 Quelques remarques sur les présocratiques à Rome: la figure d’Empédocle de Cicéron à Saint Augustin, in: Revue des Etudes Tardo-antiques, Tome IV, Supplément 3, 2014, p. 53-71.

 Empedocles latinus : citations et traductions latines de fragments empédocléens, in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. 6 nº12, 2012, p. 56-67. Released in October 2014. (B 90, B 105, B 109, B 117, B 121.)

Bakhuizen van den Brink, Regnerus Cornelius (Reinier Cornelis), Disputatio literaria inauguralis continens varias lectiones ex historia philosophiae antiquae etc., H. W. Hazenberg, Lugduni-Batavorum, 1842, p. 31-5. (B 115.6.)

Bakker, C., Iets over den invloed van Empedokles en Aristoteles op de geneeskunde en de magie bij de oude Grieken en Romeinen, in: Bijdragen tot de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde = Uitgave van het Nederlandisch Tijdschrift voor Genneskunde 10, 1930, p. 29-44. (A 145.)

Balaudé, Jean-FrançoisLe Démon et la communauté des vivants. Étude de la tradition d’interprétation antique des Catharmes d’Empédocle, de Platon à Porphyre, diss., Lille III 1992.

– Parenté du vivant et végétarisme radical: le “défi” d’Empédocle, in: L’Animal dans l’antiquité, ed. B. Cassin - J.-L. Labarrière, dir. G. Romeyer-Dherbey, Paris 1997, p. 31-53. (B 2, B 16, B 22, B 115, B 117, B 124, B 135, B 136.)

Notes de la Vie d’Empédocle, in: Diogène Laërce, Vies et doctrines des philosophes illustres, Paris 1999, p. 980-1002. (A 1.)

Le Vocabulaire des Présocratiques, Paris : Ellipses 2002. (B 2, B 3, B 6, B 17, B 23, B 27, B 35, B 89, B 114, B 115, B 134, B 135, B 136, B 139.)

Empédocle d’Agrigente, in: Le Dictionnaire de l’Antiquité, publié sous la direction de Jean Leclant, Paris : Les Presses Universitaires de France 2005, p. 785-9. (A general sketch of Emp. teaching which is based on J. Bollack’s theories from Sixties.)

– Le Savoir-vivre philosophique : Empédocle, Socrate, Platon, Paris : Grasset et Fasquelle 2010, (Le collège de philosophie)Empedocles: p. 87-128. – Chap. 4. La réflexion éthique avant Socrate : les Catharmes d'Empédocle, (a) les deux poèmes et le papyrus de Strasbourg (p. 87-91), (b) les démons, et leurs significations  (p. 92-104). – Chap. 5. Refonder la communauté humaine : le végétarisme radical d'Empédocle (p. 105-128: a reprint of "Parenté du vivant et végétarisme radical: le “défi” d’Empédocle", with little modifications or improvements). (B 2, B 8, B 16, B 17, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 120, B 122, B 123, B 127, B 128, B 136, B 137, B 139, B 151.) 

Baloyannis, Stavros, J.Empedocles: Neurophilosophy and neurosciences- prophecy and reality, in: Journal of neurology & Stroke, Vol. 1, 6, 2014, 00037. p. 1-5.  

–  Empedocles and Neurosciences, in: Encephalos 51, 2014, p. 66-78.

Baltussen, Han, An Empedoclean ‘Hearing Aid’? Fragment B 99 Revisited, in: Méthexis 19, 2006. (B 99.)

– Philosophy and Exegesis in Simplicius: The Methodology of a Commentator, Duckworth, 2008, p. 76-78, 165. (B 17, B 21, B 22, B 24, B 109, B 115, B 134.)

Baltzer, Eduard, Empedokles, eine Studie, in: Athenaeum 2-4, 1876, p. 159-65 a 203-7.

Empedocles, eine Studie zur Philosophie der Griechen, Leipzig : Hartung & Sohn 1879. (More or less the reprint of the previous article plus a translation of the B fragments.)

Βαμβακάς, Κ., Οι θεμελιωτές της δυτικής σκέψης : ένας διαχρονικός παραλληλισμός μεταξύ προσωκρατικού στοχασμού, φιλοσοφίας και φυσικής επιστήμης, Ηράκλειο : Πανεπιστημιακές εκδόσεις Κρήτης, 2001. Pp. 341-409 (Εμπεδοκλής).

Barbanti, Maria, Empedocle in Plotine e in Porfirio, in: Giornale di metafisica 21, 1999, p. 217-33.

Barberius, Iosephus, D. Josephi Barberii De miseria poetarum Graecarum liber, in: Thesaurus Graecarum antiquitatum, Volumen decimum, Lugduni Batavorum 1701, p. 814-51. (Emp.: p. 822-3: very superficial biography of Emp. plus some enumeration of sources.)

Barker, AndrewEmpedocles Mousikos, in: Musica, culti e riti nell'Occidente greco, ed. A. Bellia, Pisa - Roma: Istituti editoriali e poligrafici internazionali 2014, p. 87-94. (B 17.)

Barnes, Hazel Estella., Unity in the Thought of Empedocles, in: Classical Journal 63, 1967, p. 18-23.

Barnes, Jonathan, The Presocratic Philosophers, London 1979 (1982, 1986, 1987), p. 161-201. (An extensive translation of B fragments and their contexts.)

Early Greek Philosophy, Penguin Classics, London: Penguin Books 1987 (revised edition London : Penguin Books 2001).

Review of Wright, Empedocles: The Extant Fragments, in: The Classical Review 32.2, 1982, p. 191-6. (Important.)

Review of  Index Empedocleus by Imbraguglia, Badolati, Morchio, Battegazzore, Messina, in: The Classical Review, 43.1, 1993, p. 165.

Barrio Gutiérrez, José, Empédocles: Sobre la naturaleza de los seres. Las purificaciones, Buenos Aires : Aguilar 1964 (19813).

Bartolini Niccolini, Olga, De T. Lucretio Caro, in: Latinitas 3, 1955, p. 280-6.

Bartoš, Hynek, Nesmrtelná PSYCHÉ a putující DAIMÓN [The immortal Psyché and the wandering Daimón], in: Reflexe 29, 2005, pp. 27-57, p. 43-56. (A solid analysis of the Empedoclean conception of wandering “daimôn” and reincarnation on basis of the contemporary sources and theories; the text is written in Czech, summaries in English and German.)

Battegazzore, Antonio Mario, Il linguaggio di Empedocle, in: Index Empedocleus, ed. G. Imbraguglia, Genova 1991, I.69-80.

La magia ella parola in Empedocle e Gorgia, in: Giornale di metafisica 21, 1999, s. 67-99.

Battistini, Yves, Empédocle, in: Revue Empédocle 1, 1949, p. 55-60.

Les Purifications, in: Revue Empédocle 1, 1949, p. 61-6.

Trois contemporains: Héraclite, Parménide, Empédocle, Paris : Gallimard 1955, p. 115-91; corrected reedition: Trois présocratiques: Héraclite, Parménide, Empédocle, Paris : Gallimard 1965, 19682, 19883. (A free translation of the B fragments).

Empédocle, Légende et oeuvre : Sur la nature, Purifications, Texte intégral, présentation, traduction. et notes Y. B., Paris : Imprimerie nationale 1997.

Baumann, Hermann, Das doppelte Geschlecht. Ethnologische Studien zur Bisexualität in Ritus uns Mythos, Berlin : Dietrich Reimer 1955, p. 179-80 (on influence of Empedoclean conception of bisexuality on Aristophanes’ mythus in Plato’s Symposion) and 304-7 (on background of Empedoclean theory about influence of left and right sides of body on generation).

Bauer, Johannes Bapt., "Μονίη" Empedokles B 27.4 und 28.3, in: Hermes 89, 1961, p. 361-9.

Baxter, Timothy M. S. , The Cratylus: Plato's critique of naming, Leyde : Brill, 1992, pp. 122-124. (B 6).

Beare, John IsaacGreek Theories of Elementary Cognition: from Alcmaeon to Aristotle, Oxford 1906, p. 13-21 and 95-9. (A 86.)

Becker, Otfrid, Das Bild des Weges und verwandte Vorstellungen im frühgriechischen Denken (Hermes Einzelschriften, Heft 4), Weidmannische Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 1937, p. 147-50.

Βέικος, Θ., Οι προσωκρατικοί, Αθήνα : Ελληνικά γράμματα, 1998. Pp. 165-183 (Εμπεδοκλής).

Bennett, J., Empedocles the Poet: His Style and Metre (diss.), Trinity College, Dublin 1940. 

Benson, J. L., Greek color theory and the four elements: a cosmological interpretation, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Libraries, 2000. (Empedocles: p. 21-24, A 69a, A 86, A 92, B 21, B 94, B 67, B 71, B 23.)

Bercovitch, Sacvan, Empedocles in the English Renaissance, in: Studies in Philology, 65, 1, 1968, p. 67-80.

Bergemann, Lutz, Transformation und Konstruktion: Empedokles als „religious atomist" und exemplum eines „true system" of the universe, in: Ralph Cudworth - System aus Transformation : zur Naturphilosophie der Cambridge Platonists und ihrer Methode, Berlin – Boston (Mass.) : Walter de Gruyter 2012, p. 99 – 114.

Bergk, TheodorSchedae criticaefasciculus II, in: Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft, 39, 1835, p. 313-314. (B 17, B 123.)

– De scolio Pindari in Xenophontem Corinthium dissertatio et coniecturae in poetas graecos, in: Acta Societatis Graecae 1, Lipsiae 1836, p. 187-208; Empedocles: p. 203-207. (See also reprint in De locis quibusdam Empedocleis, 1886; B 2, B 3, B 17, B 27, B 42, B 82, B 100, B112, B 136.)

 Coniectanea non reiectanea, in: Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft 54-5, 1837, p. 447-52.

Commentatio de Prooemio Empedoclis, in: Ankündigungschrift... des Königlichen Joachimsthalschen Gymnasiums, September 28 1839 (diss.), Berlin: Gedruckt in der Druckerei der Königl. Akademie der Wissenschaften 1839, p. 1-34. (= Kleine philologische Schriften, ed. R. Peppmüller, Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses 1886, II, p. 8-43.)

– Review of Karsten’s Empedocles, in: Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft, 97, 1842, p. 1001-11. (= Kleine philologische Schriften, Halle 1886, II, p. 45-59.)

Empedocles, in: Poetae lyrici Graeci, Leipzig: Reichenbach 1843, chap. XVI, p. 431 (1853, Chap. 23, p. 468). (B 156, B 157.)

Commentationum criticarum specimen II, in: Indices lectionum et publicarum et privatarum, quae in Academia Marburgensi per semestre hibernum anno 1844-5, Marburgi 1844, p. ii-iv (= Kleine philologische Schriften, Halle 1886, II, p. 43-5).

– Review of Stein, in: Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie und Pädagogik 68/23, 1853, p. 21-6. (= Kleine philologische Schriften, Halle 1886, II, p. 59-66.)

De locis quibusdam Empedocleis, in: Kleine philologische Schriften, Halle 1886, II, p. 3-7. (Previously published in De scolio Pindari in Xenophontem Corinthium dissertatio et coniecturae in poetas graecos, in: Acta Societatis Graecae 1, Lipsiae 1836, p. 187-208; Empedocles: p. 203-207. B 2, B 3, B 17, B 27, B 42, B 82, B 100, B112, B 136.)

Philologische Thesen, zweite Centurie, Schluss, in: Philologus 29, 1870, p. 319-30, p. 320. (= Kleine philologische Schriften, 1886, II.320: B 98, B 21.3-6).

Commentationum de reliquiis comoediae atticae antiquae, Lipsiae 1888. (B 105, B 137 etc.).

Bernabé Pajares, Alberto, Los filosofos presocráticos como autores literários, in: Emerita 47, 1979, p. 357-394.

– Lo uno y lo múltiple en la especulación presocrática: nociones, modelos y relaciones, in: Taula 27-28, 1997, p. 75-99.

– La física de Empédocles y Anaxágoras, in: Ciencia y cultura en la grecia antigua, clásica y helenística, in: Actas años vi y vii, Fundación Canaria Orotava de Historia de la Ciencia, 2000, p. 71-95.

– De Tales a Demócrito. Fragmentos presocráticos, Madrid: Alianza Editorial 2001². Pp. 181-242, 327-340.

– Orphisme et Présocratiques : bilan et perspectives d’un dialogue complexe, in: Qu’est-ce que la philosophie présocratique : what is presocratic philosophy? ed. A. Laks - C. Louguet, Villeneuve d’Ascq: Presses universitaires du Septentrion 2002, p. 205-247.  (B6.)

 – Poeta Epici Graeci, Testimonia et fragmenta, Pars II, Orphicorum et Ophicis Similium. Testimonia et Fragmenta, Fasc. I, Munich-Leipzig : Saur 2004. (B 112, B 146-147, B 115, B 126, B 117, B 118, B 148.)

Bernabé, Alberto - Jiménez San Cristóbal, Ana Isabel Instrucciones para el más allá : las laminillas órficas de oro, Madrid, Ediciones Clásicas, 2001. B6 (pp. 193-194), B25 (p. 195).

Bernays, JacobTheophrastos' Schrift über Frömmigkeit. Ein Beitrag zur Religionsgeschichte, Berlin, Wilhelm Hertz 1866. (B 128 : p. 79-81, 95-96, 117-179.)

Bersano, Arturo, Review of E. Bignone, I poeti della Grecia - Empedocle, 1916, in: Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica 44, 1916, p. 569-574,

Bertini, Giovanni Maria, Dottrine religiose di Empedocle, in: Atti della reale Accademia delle scienze di Torino 4, 1868-9, p. 675-82 (a popular and superficial study dealing a) on Love, B 132 - B 134, B 31: she should be the highest god of Empedocles’ system; b) on transmigration, B 115, B 117, B 146: some unoriginal theses; c) on the theory of cognition, B 2 - B 4: the senses are untrustworthy, the only one criterion of cognition is a reason; d) on the alleged eclecticism of Empedocles).  

La filosofia greca prima di Socrate, esposizione storico-critica, Stamperia reale, Torino 1869 (Emp.: p. 233-56).

Betegh, Gábor, A strasbourgi empedoklész-papirusz, in: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Filozófiai Bizottságának folyóirata, 1999. 6 -

– Empédocle, Orphée et le papyrus de Derveni, in: Les anciens savants: études sur les philosophies préplatoniciennes, réunies par Pierre-Marie Morel et Jean-François Pradeau, Strasbourg (Les Cahiers philosophiques de Strasbourg, Tome 12), Université Marc Bloch, 2001, p. 47-70. (B 17, B 26, B 27, B 111, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 127, B 140,  B 136, B 137, B 139, d MP.)

The Derveni Papyrus: Cosmology, Theology and Interpretation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2004. (P. 370-372 :Empedocles and Orpheus; B 21, B 111, B 112, B 115.)

Bicknell, Peter J., The Shape of the cosmos in Empedocles, in: La Parola del Passato 23, 1968, p. 118-119. (A 501, A 47.)

Bidez, Joseph, La Biographie d’Empédocle, Gent 1894.

Observations sur quelques fragments d’Empédocle et de Parménide, in: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 9, 1896, p. 190-7, 298-309; published also separately (B 2, B 3, B 23, B 110).

Bidez, Joseph - Cumont, Franz, Les Mages hellénisés I-II, Paris 1938 (A 145, 7-8).

Bierl, Anton“Riddles over Riddles”, “Mysterious” and “Symbolic” (Inter)textual Strategies, The Problem of Language in the Derveni Papyrus, in: Poetry as initiation - The Center for Hellenic Studies Symposium on the Derveni Papyrus, ed. I. Papadopoulou - L. Muellner, Cambridge (Ma) - London: Harvard University Press, 2014, p.187-210.

Biès, Jean, Empédocle d’Agrigente, Paris, Éditions Traditionnelles 1969 (19772, 20033). [“Frère des chamanes, devins, voyants, bardes errants, Empédocle est le plus “hindou” des présocratiques. L’auteur en étudie la vie du point de vue symbolique, découvre dans l’oeuvre d’étranges rapprochements avec la cosmologie, la métaphysique et les ascèses des Orients traditonnels. L’ouvrage s’achève sur une traduction inédite et annotée des Fragments.” . ]

Empédocle et l’Orient, in: Bulletin de l’Association G. Budé 1968, p. 365-403 (very disputable comparison between Emp. and Indian sources plus a very free translation of some fragments). 

– Empédocle. Philosophie présocratique et spiritualité orientale, Paris : Éditions Almora, 2010, 220 p. (collection "Chemins de flammes").

Bignone, Ettore, Review of Emilio Bodrero. Il principio fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle, 1905, in: Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica 34, 1906, p. 613-616.

 Empedocle ed Epicuro, in: Bolletino di filologia classica 21, 1915, p. 156-61.

Due versi di Arato attribuiti erroneamente ad Empedocle, in: Bolletino di filologia classica 22, 1916, p. 151-2. (B 154b.)

Empedocle: Studio critico, traduzione e commento delle testimonianze e dei frammenti, Torino: Fratelli Bocca 1916, (Il pensiero greco, vol. 11). (Roma: "L’Erma" di Bretschneider 19632).

La teoria del peso in Empedocle ed Anassagora, in: Bolletino di filologia classica 24, 1918, p. 97-100.

Ennio ed Empedocle, in: Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica 57, 1929, p. 10-30; reprinted in Studi sul pensiero antico, Napoli : L. Loffredo 1938, chap. 7, p. 327-55, Roma : L’Erma di Bretschneider 19652 (on alleged Empedoclean content of Ennius’verses, cf. B 17.18 and frg. 357, Valmaggi).  

Note di critica del testo a Epicuro, a Seneca, alla vita di Empedocle di Diogeni Laerzio, a Polistrato epicureo, in: Bolletino del comitato per la preparazione dell´edizione nazionale dei classici greci e latini 2, 1941, p. 103-9, p. 106 (A 1).

Bing, Peter, The Voice of those who live in the Sea: Empedocles and Callimachus, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 41, 1981, p. 33-6. (B 74, B 71.)

Blanc Alain. - De Lamberterie Charles, Chronique d'étymologie grecque n° 14 (CEG 2015), in: Revue de philologie, de littérature et d'histoire anciennes, 2013/2, Tome 87, p. 157-202. (B 110.10.)

Blass, Friedrich, Zu Empedokles, in: Jahrbücher für classische Philologie, 1883, p. 19-20. (B 23.9, B 84, B 85, B 121.1).

Bluck, Richard Stanley Harold, On ΤΡΑΓΙΚΗ: Plato, Meno 76 E, in: Mnemosyne 4/14, 1961, p. 289-95. (A 921.)

Plato’s Meno, Cambridge 1964, p. 61-75. (“Transmigration and recollection before Plato”: B 115, B 146, B 117, B 64 and 250-3 A 921.)

Blumenthal, Henry Jacob, Empedocles fr. 17.19-20, in: Grazer Beiträge 3, 1975, p. 21-9.

Bocayuva, Izabela Aquino, Filosofia como tradição e a "presença" de Empédocles no Banquete, in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. 6 nº12, 2012, p. 68-73. Released in October 2014. (A 86, B 107.)

Bock, Martin, Aischylos und Akragas, in: Gymnasium 65, 1958, p. 402-50.

Bodei Giglioni, Gabriella, Come gli uomini divennero malvagi: sviluppo della civiltà, alimentazione e sacrificio in Teofrasto, in: Rivista storica italiana 103, 1991, p. 5-32. (B 128, B 154.)

Bodéüs, R., De la poésie à la métaphysique. Regards sur un terme d’Empédocle, in: Revue Belge de philologie et d´histoire 52, 1974, p. 36-58.

Bodrero, Emilio, Il principio fondamentale del sistema di Empedocle. Studio preceduto da un saggio bibliografico e dalla traduzione dei frammenti Empedoclei, Roma 1904 (Roma : Bretschneider 19752).

Böhme, Angelika, Die Lehre von der  Seelenwanderung in der antiken griechischen und indischen Philosophie: ein Vergleich der philosophischen Grundlegung bei den Orphikern, bei Pythagoras, Empedocles und Platon mit dem Upanischaden, dem Urbuddhismus und dem Jainismus (diss.), Jüchen, Düsseldorf 1989, p. 29-41 (on Emp. daimonology: B 115, B 141, B 117, B 140, B 146 etc.).

Bollack, JeanDie Metaphysik des Empedokles als Entfaltung des Seins, in: Philologus 101, 1957, p. 30-54.

– Styx et Serments (et ὄρκος chez Empédocle), in: Revue des études grecques 71, 1958, p. 1-35.

– Lukrez und Empedokles fr. 110, in: Die Neue Rundschau 70, 1959, p. 656-689. (B 110.)

Le Proème du Περὶ φύσεως d´Empédocle, in: Revue des études grecques 72, 1959, p. 15-6.

Lukrez I. 1114-1117 und Empedokles fr. 110, in: Philologus 104, 1960, p. 295-298.

 Eros und die Liebe. Der Mythos des Aristophanes im Gastmahl des Plato », in: Die Neue Rundschau 72, 1961, p. 781-793.

Empédocle ou l’ancienne physique, in: L’information littéraire 17, 1965, p. 203-207.

Empédocle, I-III, Paris, Éditions de Minuit 1965-9 (Vol. I: Introduction à l’ancienne physique, 1965; Vol. II: Les Origines, édition et traduction des fragments et des témoignages, 1969; vol. III, Les Origines, commentaire 1, Paris 1969; vol. III, Les Origines, commentaire 2,1969). Reprint Paris: Gallimard 1992 (collection Tel, 201, 202, 203). In the reprint "commentaire 1" and "commentaire 2" are in one book (coll. Tel, 203) instead of two.

 Review of G. Nélod, Empédocle d'Agrigente, 1959, in: Gnomon, 38.7, 1966, p. 725-727.

Les zones de la cosmogonie d’Empédocle, in: Hermes 96, 2, 1968, p. 239-240.

 Empédocle, in: Encyclopædia Universalis, vol. 6, Paris: 1970, p. 146-147. (The text has been modified later [probably for the 5th edition in 2002, just before Empédocle: Les Purifications was out], after publication of L'Empédocle de Strasbourg, 1999, in order to include the edition of the Papyprus. The bibliography following the text helps to precise the date of publication.)

  Review of D. O’Brien, Empedocles’ Cosmic Cycle. A Reconstruction from the Fragments and Secondary Sources, Cambridge, 1969, in: Gnomon 43.5, 1971, p. 433-439.

Empedocle e la fisica antica, in: I Presocratici, a cura di W. Lezsle, Bologna 1982, p. 360 - ? (An Italian translation of Empédocle ou l'ancienne physique appeared in "L'information littéraire" XVII, 1965, p. 203-207.)

Le modèle scientiste : Empédocle chez Freud, in: Littoral 15-16 (L'hainamoration de transfert), 1985, p. 21-27. (Revue de psychanalyse:  .)

Empedokles von Agrigent, in: Der Neue Pauly, herausgegeben von H. Cancik und H. Schneider, Stuttgart-Weimar 1997, Band III, p. 1011-5.

La Grèce de personne, Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1997, p. 107-14 et 396-7. (Le modèle scientiste: Empédocle chez Freud), p. 265-87 et 435-43 (Styx et serment). [annotation cf. ]

Oliver Primavesi the Empedocles of Strasbourg, in: Quinzaine littéraire 784, May 1, 2000, p. 19.

“Voir la Haine”: Sur les nouveaux fragments d’Empédocle, in: Methodos 1, 2001, p. 173-85.

Remarques générales et particulières, in: Aevum antiquum, N.S. 1, 2001, p. 69-77.

Empédocle: Les Purifications. Un projet de paix universelle, édité, traduit du grec et commenté par Jean Bollack, Paris : Éditions du Seuil 2003. Spanish translation by José M. ZamoraBollack J., Empédocles: Las purificaciones, Madrid: Arena Libros 2007.

– 13 - Empedokles in: Dichtung wider Dichtung. Paul Celan und die LiteraturWallstein Verlag 2006, p. 301-314. (translation of chap. 13, Lecture de l'antique, p. 196 in: Poésie contre poésie : Celan et la littérature, Paris: PUF 2011.

Empedocles: Two Theologies, Two Projects, in: The Empedoclean kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 45-72.

– Arcimboldo rencontre Empédocle, in: Philosophie magazine 10, septembre, 2007.

– Empédocle, in: Au Jour le jour, J. Bollack, Paris: PUF 2013, p. 203-214 (A1.72, B 143, B 6.)

Bollack, Jean, – Balaudé, Jean-François, Empédocle d’Agrigente, in: Encyclopédie philosophique universelle III/1: Les Oeuvres, ed. J.-F. Mattéi, Paris: P.U.F. 1992, p. 124-127.

Bollack, Mayotte, La Chaîne aimantine, Lucrèce et ses modèles grecs, in: Revue des études latines 41, 1963, p. 165-85 (A 89).

Bonamy, Pierre-Nicolas, Recherches sur la vie d’Empédocle, in: Mémoires de littérature tirés de l’Académie royale des inscriptions et belles lettres 10, 1736, p. 54-75 (=  Ueber das Leben des Empedokles, in: Magazin für die Philosophie und ihre Geschichte 2, 1779, p. 183-222 (transl. by Michael Hissmann).

Bonnard, Jean-Baptiste, Le Complexe de Zeus: Représentations de la paternité en Grèce ancienne, Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne 2004. (B 63, B 66, A 81.).

Booth, Nathaniel B., Empedocles’ account of breathing, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 80, 1960, p. 10-5.

Aristotle on Empedocles B 100, in: Hermes 103, 1975, p. 373-5.(B 100.)

A Mistake to be avoided in the Interpretation of Empedocles fr. 100, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 96, 1976, p. 147-8. (B 100.)

Bordigoni, Carlitria, Empedocle e la dizione omerica, in: Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, a cura di L. Rossetti - C. Santaniello, ‘Le Rane’, Collana di studi e testi, Studi 37, Bari: Levante editori 2004, p. 199-290. (B 2, B 3, B 6, B 8, B 15, B 17, B 20, B 21, B 27, B 29, B 33, B 35, B 38, B 39, B 40, B 42, B 45, B 51, B 61, B 62, B 70, B 73, B 74, B 83, B 84, B 85, B 86, B 96, B 98, B 100, B 101, B 108, B 109, B 110, B 111.)

Borkowski, Zbigniew, Local Cults and Resistance to Christianity, in: The Journal of Juristic Papyrology 20, 1990, p. 25-30 (about non-Christians cults in Achmim where the Pap. Strasb. was written).

Borman, Karl, Parmenides. Untersuchungen zu den Fragmenten, Hamburg 1971.

Bornheim Gerd A.(ed.), Os filósofos Pré–socráticos. São Paulo: Cultrix 1967.

Börtzler, FriedrichZu den antiken Chaoskosmogonien, in: Archiv für Religionswissenschaft 28 (1930), p. 253-268 (p. 262-267: on influence of Empedoclean roots in the form of the primordial disordereded mixture on the Roman interpretation of Hesiodic Chaos; brief notices of B 8, B 16, B 17, B 28).

Boulogne, Jacques, Plutarque exégète d’Empédocle. Une leçon de lecture, in: Revue de philosophie ancienne XXII(2), 2004, p. 97-110. (B 8, B 9, B 11, B 15.)

Boussoulas, Nicolas-Isidore, Essai sur la structure du mélange dans la pensée présocratique. Empédocle, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale 63, 1958, p. 135-48.

Boyancé, Pierre, Les deux démons personnels dans l’antiquité grecque et latine, in: Revue de philologie, de littérature et d'histoire anciennes, 61, 1935, p. 189-202. (P. 199-200 : B 122.)

Le Culte des Muses chez les philosophes grecs, Paris 1937, chap. VI (A 15).

Sur quelques vers de Virgile (Georg. II v. 490-2), in: Revue archéologique 25/5, 1927, p. 361-79.

Brague, Rémi, The Body of Speech: A New Hypothesis in the Compositional Structure of Timaeus’ Monologue, in: Platonic Investigations, ed. Dominic J. O’Meara, Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America Press 1985, p.53-83, (Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy, 13). (Pages 57-58: B 29, B 134.)

Brague Rémi, Freudenthal Gad, Ni Empédocle, ni Plotin : pour le dossier du pseudo-Empédocle arabein: Agonistes - Essays in honour of Denis O'Brien, (ed.) J. Dillon, M. Dixsaut, Aldershot: Ashgate 2005, p. 267-283.

Brandis, Christian August, Handbuch der Geschichte der griechisch-römischen Philosophie, vol. I, Berlin: G. Reimer 1835. (Empedokles: p. 188-232).

Geschichte der Entwicklungen der griechischen Philosophie und ihrer Nachwirkungen im römischen Reiche, vol. I, Berlin: G. Reimer 1862. (Empedokles: p. 103-119).

–  Empedocles, in: W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology, 1870, volume 2, Boston: Little, Brown, and company, p. 12-14.

Bremer, Dieter, Aristoteles, Empedokles und die Erkenntnisleistung der Metapher, in: Poetica 12, 1980, p. 350-76.

Hölderlin, Homer und Empedokles: Der Dichter-Philosoph als Seher und seine griechische Vorbilder, in: Begegnung mit dem “Fremden”. Akten des internationalen Germanisten-Kongresses, hrsg. von E. Iwasaki - Sch. Yoshinori, Tokyo - München 1991, p. 349-61 (probably an art-historical article).

Bremmer, Jan N., The Early Greek Concept of the Soul, Princeton University Press 19934 (19831).

The Rise and Fall of the Afterlife, London - New York : Routledge 2002. (B 112, B 115, B 117, B 128, B 139, B 147, Pap. Strasb. aii7, d5-6.)

– Balaam, Mopsus and Melampous: Tales of Traveling Seers, in: van Kooten, Geurt Hendrik – van Ruiten, Jacques (ed.), The Prestige of the Pagan Prophet Ballam in Judaism, Early Christianity and Islam, Leiden: Brill, 2008, s. 49–67 (printed also in: J. Bremmer, Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, Leiden: Brill, 2008, s. 133–151, s. 65-66 (E. as a seer and purifier).

– The Place of Performance of Orphic Poetry (OF 1), in: Tracing Orpheus. Studies of Orphic Fragments in Honour of Alberto Bernabé, ed. Miguel Herrero de Jáurequi et alii, Berlin – Boston: De Gruyter 2011, p. 1-6. (P. 2, n. 7: Empedocles, heavily influenced by the Orphics, borrowed from them the verses B 3.3-5 DK; a short mention without argumentation.)

Bremond, MathildeEmpédocle chez Hippolyte de Rome, mémoire de Master II, Lettres Classiques et Philosophie, Université Paris IV Sorbonne, 2011-2012.

Bréton, Guillaume, Essai sur la poésie philosophique en Grèce, Xénophane, Parménide, Empédocle, Paris : Hachette 1882, p. 177-257.

Brieger, Adolf, Das atomistische System durch Correctur des anaxagoreischen Entstanden, in: Hermes 36, 1901, p. 161-181, p. 170-2 (Empedocles was not any atomist)

Brink, C. O., Horace and Empedocles´ Temperature. A rejected Fragment of Empedocles, in: Phoenix 23, 1969, p. 138-42 (A 162).

Brisson, Luc, « Le corps “dionysiaque” : L'anthropogonie décrite dans le Commentaire sur le Phédon de Platon (1, par. 3-6) attribué à Olympiodore est-elle orphique? », in: ΣΟΦΙΗΣ ΜΑΙΗΤΟΡΕΣ Chercheurs de sagesse. Hommage à Jean Pépin, Collection des Études Augustiniennes, Série Antiquité-131, Paris : 1992, p. 481-499.  B 115 related to De esu carnium I, 996 b-c.

Broadie, Sarah, Rational theology, in: The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Philosophy, ed. by A. A. Long, Cambridge University Press 1999, s. 225-49 (Emp.: p. 216-220, B 17, B 29, B 134).

Brown, Geoffrey, The Cosmological theory of Empedocles, in: Apeiron 18, 1984, p. 97-101.

Brown, Robert D., Lucretian Ridicule of Empedocles, in: Classical Quarterly 33, 1983, p. 146-60.

Brown, T. S., The Greek Exiles: Herodotus’ Contemporaries, in: Ancient World 17, 1988, p. 17-28 (Anaxagoras, Empedocles).

Brun, Jean, Empédocle ou le Philosophe de l’amour et de la haine : présentation, choix de textes, traduction et bibliographie, Paris : Seghers 1966 (a study plus the translation of the fragments and some testimonies).

Chapitre V Empédocle, in: Les Présocratiques, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France 1968, (Coll. "Que sais-je ?", n° 1319), p. 85-104. New edition in 2003, p. 81-99.  

Brunck, Richard Franz Philipp, Analecta veterum poetarum graecorum I-III, Argentorati : I. H. Heitz 1772 (I), 1773 (II), 1776 (III), I.163 (B 156, B 157).

Buhl, Maria Sophia, Untersuchungen zu Sprache und Stil des Empedokles (diss.), Heidelberg 1956.

Büchel, Carl, Die Lehre von der elementaren Zusammensetzung der Körper in ihrer Entwicklung von Empedokles bis Lavoisier, Druck von M. Becker, Düren 1876.

Bucur Bogdan G., Bucur CristinaThe Place of Splendor and Light: Observations on the Paraphrasing of Enn 4.8.1 in the Theology of Aristotle", in: Le Muséon 119 (2006): 271-292.  . (arabic Plotinus - B 115.)

Bueno, GustavoEmpédocles y Anaxágoras, in: La metafísica presocrática, Oviedo: Pentalfa 1974, p. 281-326. (Historia de la Filosofía, nº 1)

Buchheim, Thomas, Maler, Sprachbildner: Zur Verwandtschaft des Gorgias mit Empedokles, in: Hermes 113.4, 1985, p. 417-29.

Die Vorsokratiker, München 1994, p. 145-82. 

Bulcão, Marly, En retrouvant Empédocle: un prétexte pour philosopher, in: Diotima 43, p. 121-130, 2015. (Empedocles and Bachelard.)

Burkert, Walter, Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, tr. by. E. L. Minar, Cambridge 1972 (Weisheit und Wissenschaft, Nüremberg 1962). (A 30, A 50, A 56, A 62, A 75, A 83, B 27, B 44, B 48, B 96, B 111, B 115, B 117, B 120, B 129, B 141, B 153a.)

– Review of J. Bollack, Empédocle II-III, in: Gnomon 44, 1972, p. 433-42 (important).

– Review of G. Zuntz, Persephone, in: Gnomon 46, 1974, p. 321-8, p. 324-5 (B 137.2, B 121.3.)

Zur griechischen Schamanismus, in: Rheinisches Museum 105, 1962, p. 36-56.

Plotin, Plutarch und die platonisierende Interpretation von Heraklit und Empedokles, in: Kephalaion. Studies in Greek Philosophy and its Continuation offered to C.J. de Vogel, ed. J. Mansfeld - L. M. de Rijk, Assen 1975, p. 137-46.

Diels Vorsokratiker: Rückschau und Ausblick, in: Hermann Diels (1848-1922) et la science de l’antiquité (Entretiens sur l’antiquité classique 45), Vandoeuvres - Genève 1999, p. 169-206.

 Die Griechen und der Orient. Von Homer bis zu den Magiern, München : C. H. Beck 20041 (20031), p. 125-6 (Emp. and the Orient; the possible knowledge of the Eastern texts is undetectable in Empedocles and only tiny useful for interpretation of his philosophy).

Burnet, John, Early Greek Philosophy, London: Macmillan 19304, reprint New York: Meridian books library edition, 1957, 1958 (London - Edinburgh: Adam and Charles Black 18921, p. 207-271; London: Adam and Charles Black 19082p. 227-289London: Adam and Charles Black 19203, p. 197-250), p. 197-250.

–  Greek Philosophy: Thales to Plato, London: Macmillan 1914. (Several reprints. Empedocles: p. 71-75. B 100.)

Burnyeat, Miles F., Empedocles Scholarship (Author’s Response to Letter of Catherine Osborne), in: The Times Literary Supplement Jun 11, 1999, p. 17.

Bussanich, John, Review of P. Kingsley, Ancient Philosophy, in: Bryn Mawr Classical Review 97.10.19 ( or

–  Reincarnation and Salvation in Magna Graecia and Plato, in: Philosopher Kings and Tragic Heroes: Essays on Images and Ideas from Western Greece, ed. Reid H.L., Tanasi D., Sioux City: Parnassos Press 2016, p. 79-92. (Empedocles's Escatology at pages 81-84.)

Butler, James Eric, Effluvia: Empedocles Studies, in: Epoché 9/2, 2005, p. 215-31 (B 89, B 17.3-5, 21-5, B 35, 2.1, B 100, B 84.)

Buttmann, Philippus, Observationes in Cl. Sturzii Empedoclea, in: Commentarii societatis philologicae Lipsiensis 4/1, 1804, p. 31-43 (B 28, B 59, B 63, B 65, B 71, B 73, B 75, B 101.).

Byk, Samuel Alexander, Die vorsokratische Philosophie der Griechen in ihrer irganischen Gliederung dargestellt. Erster Theil, Leipzig: 1876. (P. 147-190)

Byl, Simon, Le vocabulaire de l’intelligence dans le chapitre 35 du livre I du traité du ‘Régime’, in: Revue de philologie, de littérature et d'histoire anciennes 76/2, 2002, p. 217-24. The chapter in question of the Hippocratic treatise sets out to classify men according to different categories of intelligence ; its precedents are to be found in Empedocles, and it was read by Plato and by the author of Alcibiades II, which follows it very closely. The psychological vocabulary of the chapter is particularly rich, with six hapax legomena and six words that occur nowhere else in the Hippocratic corpus.


Calame, Claude, Procédures hymniques dans les vers des sages cosmologues : pragmatique de la poésie didactique (d’Hésiode et Théognis à Empédocle et Parménide), in: Hymnes de la Grèce antique : Approches littéraires et historiques – Actes du colloque international de Lyon, 19-21 juin 2008, ed. R. Bouchon, P. Brillet-Dubois, N. Le Meur-Weissman, Lyon: Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée 2012, p. 59-77. (See Empédocle : voix d’autorité divine et publique, p.  67-74; B 1, B 3, B 112, B 131.)

–  Procedure inniche nei versi dei sophoi cosmologi. Pragmatica della poesia didascalica (da Esiodo e Teognide a Empedocle e Parmenide), in: Mythologeîn : mito e forme di discorso nel mondo antico : studi in onore di Giovanni Cerri, ed. A. Gostoli - R. Velardi, Pisa: Fabrizio Serra editore 2014, (AION. Quaderni ; 18), p. 151-159.

Calderini, Aristide, Ancora di un epigramma attribuito ad Empedocle e tradotto da Francesco Filelfo, in: Athenaeum 3, 1915, p. 41-46 (B 161).

Calogero, Guido, L’eleatismo di Empedocle, in: Studi in onore di Luigi Castiglioni, ed. G. C. Sansoni, Firenze 1960, p. 127-67.

Calzolari, Alessandro, Empedocle, Frr. 2 e 3 Diels-Kranz, in: Studi classici e orientali 34, 1984, p. 71-81.

Cameron, AlisterThe Pythagorean background of the theory of recollection, Menasha (Wisconsin) 1938. (B 129: p.20-21.)

Campailla, Sergio, La leggenda di Empedocle, in: Studia Phoenicia and East Mediterranean in the First Millenium B. C., Actes du conférence au 14. - 16. 11. 1985, ed. by E. Lipinski, Leuven 1987, V.659-70.

Campbell, Gordon Lindsay,  Zoogony and Evolution in Plato's Timaeus: The Presocratics, Lucretius and Darwin,  in: Reason and necessity. Essays on Plato's Timaeus, M.R. Wright (ed.), London: Duckworth, The Classical Press of Wales, 2000, p. 145-180. (Empedocles: p. 149-152: fr. 57, 59, 61, 71, a(ii) 23-30.)

–  Fragments and "The Ruin of Time", 2003 (on line).  This paper examines the way in which poets, historians and philosophers use the topos of eternal flux, and seeks to apply some lessons learned from them to the editing and interpretation of philosophical fragments. (B 11, B 15, B 17, B 111)

–  Empedocles divided, in: The Classical Review, 55 (1), 2005, p. 12-13. (Review of J. Bollack's book on Empédocle, les Purifications.)

–  Empedocles (of Acragas), in: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006.

–  "And bright was the flame of their friendship" (Empedocles B130): humans, animals, justice, and friendship, in Lucretius and Empedocles, in: Leeds International Classical Studies, 7.4,, December 2008, pp. 1-23. (B 115, d MP, B 117, B 112, B 146, B 147, B 137, B 136, B 128, B 130.)

– Lucretius, Empedocles, and Cleanthes, in: The Philosophizing Muse: The Influence of Greek Philosophy on Roman Poetry, (Pierides, 3), ed. M. Garani - D. Konstan, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing 2014, p. 26-60.

Cañas Quirós, Roberto, La estructura de la materia en los filósofos pluralistas pre-socráticos, in: InterSedes Vol. XIII, 25, 2012, p. 143-168, on-line:  or  (P. 144-154.)

Čanyšev see after Curletto.

Capelle, Wilhelm, Zur Geschichte der griechischen Botanik, in: Philologus 69/4, 1910, p. 264-91 (B 77, B 78).

Die Vorsokratiker, die Fragmente und Quellenberichte übersetzt und eingeleitet, A. Kröner, Leipzig 1935 (Stuttgart 19382), p. 181-249.

Empedocles von Agrigent - Über die Natur der Seelen. Empedocles-Zitate und Kommentar in der Übersetzung von W. Capelle mit von Hand gedr. Holzschn. von Wilhelm Neufeld, Methusalem 1988.

Capizzi, Antonio, Several comments in: Zeller, E. - Mondolfo, R. La filosofia dei Greci nel suo sviluppo storico. Parte I : I Presocratici. Volume V : Empedocle, Atomisti, Anassagora. A cura di Antonio Capizzi, Firenze: La nuova Italia 1969. See review by Brunschwig J. in: Revue des Études Grecques, 1970, 83, n°394,  p. 252-253.

 Trasposizioni del lessico omerico in Parmenide ed Empedocle. Osservazioni su un problema di metodo, in: Quaderni urbinati di cultura classica, 25.1, 1987, p. 107-118. (B. 17, B 20, B 21, B 22, B 27, B 35, B 42.3, B 43, B 44, B 47, B 55, B 57.3, B 100, B 110.)

Cardullo, R. LoredanaEmpedocle πυθαγορικός. Un’“invenzione” neoplatonica? in: λόγον διδόναι. La filosofia come esercizio del render ragione. Studi in onore di Giovanni Casertano, ed. Lidia Palumbo, Napoli: Loffredo 2011, p. 817-839.

Carlini, Francesco, Lettera al Compilatore dell’estratto della Vita di Empedocle, in: Biblioteca Italiana 3, 1816, p. 73-5 = P. Giordani, Opere, a cura di A. Gussalli, Milano 1857, X.38-40 (a reaction on some theses of Scinà’s book concerning to scientific nature of fr. B 100).

Carrizosa, Diana, El pensamiento de Empédocles a partir de sus versos, Medellín (Colombia) : Universidad EAFIT, 2003, (Bordes de Vida).

Caruso, ValentinaEmpedocle, ‘figura di frontiera’, in: Vichiana. Rassegna di Studi filologici e Storici IV serie, XII 1/2010, p. 99-114. (Review of Empedocle tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, Napoli, 2007.)

– Empedocle: una duplice cosmogonia, una duplice etica, in: Vichiana. Rassegna di Studi filologici e Storici IV serie, XIV 1/2012, p. 94-105. (Review of Empedocle d’Agrigento, Napoli 2010, by Federica Montevecchi.)

Casadio, Giovanni.La metempsicosi tra Orfeo e Pitagora, in: Orphisme et Orphée, en l'honneur de Jean Rudhardt, ed. Ph. Borgeaud, Genève: Droz 1991, (Recherches et Rencontres, 3), p. 119-155. (B 126, Plut. De esu.)

Casanova, Angelo, La critica di Diogene d’Enoanda alla metempsicosi Empedoclea (NF 2 + frg. 34 Ch.), in: Studi in onore di Adelmo Barigazzi I-II, Roma : Edizioni dell’Ateneo 1984, I.51-72 (A 99). 

Casertano, Giovanni, Amore e morte in Empedocle, in: Giornale di metafisica 21, 1999, p. 51-65.

Orfismo e pitagorismo in Empedocle?, in: Tra Orfeo e Pitagora, a cura di Marisa Tortorelli Ghidini - Alfredina Storchi Marino - Amedeo Visconti, Napoli : Biblopolis 2000, p. 195-237.

 (ed.), Empedocle : tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, Napoli: Loffredo 2007.

–  Une volta fui arbusto e muto pesce del mare, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo 2007, p. 331-337.

i presocratici, roma: edizioni carocci, 2009, (pensatori. 4). Chap. 6. Empedocle - Pluralisti contro monisti ? La vista e gli scritti. Le radici, il cosmo e il mondo. Sensazione, pensiero e conoscenza. Il dio, l'anima e la reincarnazione.

Casini, Paolo, Zoogonia e transformismo nella fisica epicurea, in: Giornale critico della filosofia italiana 42, 1963, p. 178-207 (Emp.: p. 186-97).

Castelleti, Christiano, Porfirio. Sullo Stige, Milano: Bompiani 2006. (B 105.)

Castner, Catherine J., De Rerum Natura 5.101 - 3: Lucretius’ Application of Empedoclean Language to Epicurean Doctrine, in: Phoenix 41, 1987, p. 40-9.

The ‘Fulmen’ and Sicily: Imagery in Lucretius’ Sixth Book, in: Studies in Latin Literature and Roman History 11, ed. C. Deroux, Bruxelles, Latomus, 2003, p. 157-76.

Caston, Victor, Empedocles’ Theory of Vision (diss.), University of Texas, Austin 1985.

Catarzi, Marcello, La seconda "volta". Note al frammento di Empedocle DK 31 B25, in: Incidenza dell'antico, 5, 2007, p. 145-173. (B 25) 

Cataudella, Quintino, Empedoclea, in: Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica 88, 1960, p. 124-32. (B 137.) 

Cavalcante de Souza, José (ed.), Os Pré-socráticos. Vida e obra, fragmentos, doxografia e comentarios seleção de textos, São Paulo: Nova Cultural 1989 (4th ed.), (Col. Os Pensadores).

Cazzaniga, A., Le metafore enniane relative a cielo ed alcuni placita di tradizione Anassimeno-Empedoclea, in: La Parola del Passato 26, 1971, p. 102-19.

Cerasuolo, Salvatore, Empedocles frigidus, in: Vichiana 8, 1979, p. 252-79 (A 162).

Cerri, Giovanni, L’ideologia dei quattro elementi da Omero ai Presocratici, in: Annali dell’Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli 20, 1998, p. 5-58 (p. 26-32: B 6).

Il poema di Empedocle “Sulla natura” ed un rituale siceliota, in: Studi in onore di G. Aurelio Privitera, ed. M. Cannatà Fera - S. Grandolini, Napoli 2000, p. 205-12 (B 6.3).

Poemi greci arcaici sulla natura e rituali misterici: Senofane, Parmenide, Empedocle, in: Mediterraneo Antico 3/2, 2000, p. 603-19 (p. 604-13: on the mysteries celebrated in Acragas and Thurioi in honour of Nestis).

“Physica” e “Katharmoi” di Empedocle, in: Aevum antiquum, N.S. 1, 2001, p. 181-96 (there were three Emp. poems; B 3.1-8).

Empedocle, fr. 3 D.-K: saggio di esegesi letterale, in: Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, a cura di L. Rossetti - C. Santaniello, ‘Le Rane’, Collana di studi e testi, Studi 37,  Bari: Levante editori, p. 83-94.

Empedocle narratore di miti : la vicenda cosmica, in: A I O N xxviii, 2006, pp. 49-63.

Livello scientifico e livello mitico nei poemi di Empedocle, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo 2007, pp. 122-142.

Chaignet, Antelme-ÉdouardHistoire de la psychologie des Grecs, Tome I: avant et après Aristote, Paris: Hachette et Cie 1887. (Chapitre douzième: Empédocle, p. 82-96)

Chapouthier, Georges, Le courant zoophile dans la pensée antique, in: Revue des questions scientifiques 161/3, 1990, p. 261-87, p. 266-7 (superficial, unprecise, without direct evidence, and dependent on unvalid literature).

Cherniss, Harold, Aristotle’s Criticism of Presocratic Philosophy, Baltimore 1935.

Chitwood, Ava, The Deaths of the Greek Philosophers, Diss., John Hopkins University Baltimore, Md. 1993 (Heraclitus, Empedocles, Democritus).

The Death of Empedocles, in: American Journal of Philology 107, 2, 1986, p. 179-91.

Death by Philosophy: the Biographical Tradition in the Life and Death of the Archaic Philosophers Empedocles, Heraclitus, and Democritus, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press 2004.

Christianus [Chrestien], Quintus Septimus Florens, I. 'Empedoklέouj Sfaῖra, ἢ Dhmhtrίou toῦ Triklinίou. Empedoclis sphaera, vel Demetrii Triclinii senariis versibus, ab eruditiss. viris castigatis, descripta. Vetus est, et nunc primum in lucem edita, E Bibliotheca ornatissimi ac prudentiss. viri Io. à S. Andrea... II. Sphaera vetus Graeca [Empedocli tributa]: quam Latinis senariis recentavit et recensuit Q. Sept. Fl. Christianus, Lutetiae 1586-7 (B 161).

Chrysakopoulou, Vasiliki, Théologie versus physique dans la poésie présocratique de Xénophane à Empédocle, Thèse de doctorat, Paris, Sorbonne (Paris IV), mars 2004, sous la Direction de G. Romeyer Dherbey.

Ciglenečki, Jan, Empedoklova kozmološka misel v luči strasburških fragmentov: diplomska naloga, Ljubljana 2005. (Short degree essay.)

 Empedoklov nauk o posmrtnem preseljevanju v luči hermetičnega traktata Korē Kosmou, in: Anthropos 2007, 1-2, p. 1-24.

Ćirković, Milan M., Ancient origins of a modern anthropic cosmological argument, in: Astronomical and astrophysical transactions, vol. 22, no. 6, dec. 2003, pp. 879–886. (B 21.)

Clark, Gordon Haddon, Empedocles and Anaxagoras in Aristotle’s De anima (diss.), Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania 1929.

Clarke, Michael, The Wisdom of Thales and the Problem of the Word ΙΕΡΟΣ, in: Classical Quarterly, 45.2, 1995, p. 296-317. (Useful for homeric background, and specially for interpration of B 134.) 

 Flesh and Spirit in the songs of Homer: a study of words and myths, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1999. (Useful for homeric background.)

Classen, Carl Joachim, Empedokles, in: Pauly-Wissowa Real-Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, Suppl. Band XII, Stuttgart 1970, p. 241-7.

Claus, David B., Toward the Soul: An Inquiry into the Meaning of Psyche before Plato, New Haven: Yale University Press 1981. Chapter III.2: “Eschatological Uses of psuchè: Pythagoras, Orphism, Empedocles, p. 111-123.

Clay, Diskin, Lucretius contra Empedocle. A textual Note, in: Classical Journal 73, 1977, p. 27-9 (A 21, B 37).

– Paradosis and Survival: Three Chapters in the History of Epicurean Philosophy, The University of Michigan Press 1998, p. 126-127 (B 71, B 21), p. 154-155 (B 3, B 131).

Recovering Originals: Peri Physeos and De Rerum Natura, in: Apeiron 33/3, 2000, p. 259-71.

– Empedocles at Panopolis and Delphi, in: Presocratics and Plato: Festschrift at Delphi in honor of Charles Kahn, ed. R. Patterson, V. Karasmanis and A. Hermann, Las Vegas - Zurich - Athens: Parmenides Publishing 2012. p. 59-78 (Papyrus a, b, c, d Martin-Primavesi, B 3, B 17, B 20, B 76, B 111, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 127, B 131, B 133, B 139, B 140.)

Clay, Jenny Strauss, review of Empedokles Physika I- Eine Rekonstruktion - by Oliver Primavesi, in: Religious Studies Review, volume 37, n°1, 2011, p. 52

Clermont - Ganneau, C., Empédocle, Les Manichéens et les Cathares, in: Journal asiatique série 9, tome 15, 1900, p. 179-86 (a Syrian work of the ninth century, which depends on Epiphanius and Scithinus, asserts the predecessors of Manicheans were Pythagoras and Empedocles).

Cleve, Felix Merori, The Giants of Pre-Sophistic Greek Philosophy: an attempt to reconstruct their thoughts II, The Hague : Martinus Nijhoff, 19733 (19651, 19692), p. 329-95.

– Review of H. Lambridis, Empedocles, in: Journal of the History of Philosophy 17, 1979, p. 455-7.

Cohen, S. Marc - Curd Patricia - Reeve, C.D.C. (ed.),  Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy: from Thales to Aristotle, 4th edition, Indianapolis: Hackett 2011. (P. 52-74. Translation of the fragments by R. McKirahan, 2010.) 

Colli, Giorgio, Lezioni di storia della filosofia antica: Empedocle, Parte prima, Anno accademico 1948-49, Università degli studi di Pisa, Facultà di lettere, Pisa : Libreria 1949.

Conger (Perrigo Conger), GeorgeTheories of macrocosms and microcosms, New York: Columbia University Press 1922. (Empedocles: p. 4-5. B 84, B 100.)

Conte, Gian Biagio, Generi e lettori, Milano 1991, p. 17-26.

Cook, Arthur Bernard, Zeus: A Study in ancient Religion, Vol. I, Zeus god of the bright sky, Cambridge: University Press 1914, p. 31-32. (B 6.)

Cordero, Nestor-LuisPlaton, Empédocle, et l’origine de l’être humain, in: Platon, source des Présocratiques: exploration, ed. M. Dixsaut - A. Brancacci, Paris, J. Vrin 2002, p. 93-106. (A 49, A 66, A 68, A 72, B 6, B 57, B 60, B 61, B 62, B 67, B 96, B 98.)

Cornavaca, Ramón, (ed.) Filósofos presocráticos. Fragmentos II, Buenos Aires: Losada 2011. 

Cornelli, GabrieleIn Search of Pythagoreanism: Pythagoreanism as an historiographical category, Berlin - Boston: De Gruyter 2013. (Chap. 3.3, 'Ten or twenty human generations' (Empedocles), p. 97-99: B 129.)

Cornford, Francis MacdonaldFrom Religion to Philosophy. A Study in the Origins of Western Speculation, Princeton 19912 (19121), p. 63, 150-2, 224-42. 

 Empedocles, in: The Cambridge Ancient Philosophy, ed. J. B. Bury, S. A. Cook, F. E. Adcock, Cambridge 1926, IV.563-9.

 Principium sapientiae: the origins of Greek philosophical thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1952. (P. 121-124, 151-152.)

Costa, Alexandre da Silva, Como e por que sobrevivem os pré-socráticos: os exemplos de Empédocles e Heraclito, in: Revista filosófica de Coimbra, Vol. 11, n° 21, 2002, p. 163-178. (Emp. Strasbourg.)

– Die Unterscheidung der parmenideischen Vernunft in den Werken des Zenons und des Empedokles. Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades Doktor der Philosophie Universität Osnabrück, Osnabrück, 2009.     

– Mito e filosofia em Empédocles. A redenção pelo saber, in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. VI nº11, 2012, p. 99-110. On-line:  (B 17, B 115, B 128, B 136, B 137.)

Couloubaritsis, LambrosThe Strasbourg Empedocles (P. Strasb. gr. Inv. 1665-1666), in: Diogenes 1999, p. 96-9.

 Émergence de l’individualité dans la pratique archaïche du mythe d’Homère à Empédocle, in : Hypnos, 24, 2010 (1), p. 1-23

 Les transfigurations de la notion de physis entre Homère et Aristote, in Kriterion, nº 122, Dec./2010, p. 349-375. (B 8, B 110).

Courtney, EdwardThe Proem of Lucretius, in: Museum Helveticum 58, 2001, p. 201-211. (B 17.)

Covotti, Aurelio, La filosofia nella Magna Grecia e in Sicilia fino a Socrate, in: Annali delle Università Toscane, vol. XXIII, Pisa: Vannucchi 1901. (Empedocles: p. 137-169).

Il mondo ‘non ingannevole’ di Empedocle e le sue ‘quattro radici’, in: Atti dell’Accademia Pontaniana di scienze morali e politiche 47, 1921, p. 63-84.

I presocratici, sagi (Collezione di studi filosofici, serie storica, monografie no. 3), Napoli : Rondinella 1934, p. 159-87.

Cowan, Robert, Of gods, men and stout fellows: Cicero on Sallustius' Empedoclea (Q. FR. 2.10[9].3), in: The Classical Quarterly, 63, 2013, p. 764-771.

Crowley, Timothy, J.On the Use of Stoicheion in the Sense of ‘Element’, in: Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, XXIX, 2005, p. 367-394. (B 6, B 17.)

 Aristotle on the matter of the elements, Thesis submitted for the Degree of D. Phil. at the University of Oxford, 2009. (P. 19-20 [B 6], p. 77, 98 : B 21.)

 De generatione et corruptione 2.3: does Aristotle identify the contraries as elements?, in: Classical Quarterly, 63.1, 2013, p. 161-182. (P. 176 : B 21.)

Crusius, Otto, Lobon und seine Verwandten, in: Philologus 30, 1925, p. 176-91.

Cubells, Fernando, Los filósofos presocráticos. Estudios inéditos de filosofia antigua (Empedocles: orígenes históricos de la ciencia ética), Valencia : Facultad de Teología San Vicente Ferrer 1956 (1979).

Cucinotta, Emilia, Empedocle e le guerre persiane, in: Cucinotta, E., Produzione poetica e storia nella prassi e nella teoria greca di età classica, Firenze: Firenze University Press 2014, (Premio Tesi di Dottorato; 40), p. 37-43 (chapter I.3). See:

Cudworth, Radulphus, Radulphi Cudworthi systema intellectuale hujus universi seu de veris naturae rerum originibus commentarii ... accedunt reliqua ejus opuscula, [ed. and comm. by] Joannes Laurentius Mosheimus, Lugduni Batavorum 1773, Tomus I-II, I.22-7 et passim.

Culianu, Ioan P., Iatroi kai manteis: sulle strutture dell’estatismo greco, in: Studi Storico-religiosi 4/2, 1980, s. 287–303, s. 290-294 (E. as a shaman; the miraculous elements in his biography).

Cumont, FranzRecherches sur le symbolisme funéraire romain, Paris: Librairie orientaliste P. Geuthner, 1942. (P. 132-140: the later parallels of B 115.8-12 and a background of the idea; very informative text.)

Curd, PatriciaThe Legacy of Parmenides. Eleatic Monism and Later Presocratic Thought, Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1998 (Las Vegas:  Parmenides Publishing, 2004). Chapter IV 3.1 Empedocles and the roots of all things, 3.2 Particles and pores, p. 155-171, plus p. 128 n.3. (A 34, A 43, A 44, A 86, A 87, B 8, B 9, B 11, B 12, B 17, B 21, B 26, B 27, B 71, B 91, B 96, B 98, B 100, B 107.) 

 A New Empedocles? Implications of the Strasburg Fragments for Presocratics Philosophy, in: Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, November 2000, ed. J. J. Cleary - G. M. Gurtler, Leiden - Boston - Köln 2002, p. 27-49 and 57-9 (bibliography).

The Metaphysics of Physics: Mixture and Separation in Empedocles and Anaxagoras, in: Presocratic Philosophy, Essays in Honour of Alexander Mourelatos, ed. by V. Caston - D. W. Graham, Ashgate Publishing Company 2002, p. 139-58. (B 8, B 9, B 17, B 21, B 23, B 96, B 98, B 112, B 146.)

On the Question of Religion and Natural Philosophy in Empedocles, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 137-62.

 Parmenides and After: Unity and Plurality, in: A Companion to Ancient Philosophy, ed. M. L Gill - P. Pellegrin, Malden - Oxford - Victoria: Blackwell Publishing 2006, (Blackwell companions to philosophy), p. 34-55. (A section about Empedocles: p. 42-44)

 A Presocratics reader: selected fragments and testimonia, translations by R.D. McKirahan and P. Curd, 2nd edition, Indianapolis: Hackett 2011.

 Where are Love and Strife? Incorporeality in Empedocles, in: Early Greek Philosophy: The Presocratics and the emergence of reason, ed. J. McCoy, Washington, D.C.: CUA Press, 2013, (Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy, vol. 57), p. 113-138. (B 2, B 17, B 20, B 21, B 23, B 26, B 30, B 33, B 35, B 36, B 71, B 73, B 96, B  98, B 109, [B 115], papyrus.)

 Powers, Structure, and Thought in Empedocles, in: Rhizomata, 4, 1, 2016, p. 55-79. On-line:

Curletto, Silvio, L’immaginazione e il concepimento: fortuna di una teoria embriogenetica e di un mito letterario, in: Maia 52/3, 2000, p. 533-64.

Čanyšev, A. N., Materializm Empedokla, in: Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta, serija filosofija 1, 1976, p. 81-90.

­– Kurs lekcij po drevnej filosofiji [Course of Lessons in Ancient Philosophy], Moskva, Vysšaja škola 1981, p. 166-70 (very general, unformative and ideologically biased outline of Empedocles’ teaching without knowledge of the basic literature).


D'Alfonso, Francesca, La terra desolata. Osservazioni sul destino di Bellerofonte (Il. 6, 200-202), in: Museum Helveticum 65, 2008, p.  1-21. (B 115. See Abstract page Abstracts and summaries.)

Darcus, Shirley M., Daimon parallels the holy phrèn in Empedocles, in: Phronesis 22, 1977, p. 175-90.

Darcus Sullivan, Shirley M., The Nature of Phren in Empedocles, in: Studi di filosofia preplatonica, a cura di M. Capasso - F. De Martino - P. Rosati, Napoli: Bibliopolis 1985, p. 119-36. (B 5, B 15, B 17, B 23, B 110, B 114, B 133, B 134, B 138.) 

Davies, C., Empedocles of Acragas, in: History To-day 21, 1971, p. 708-14 (very sketchy and too general study on Emp. life and teaching).

Decharme, Paul, La Critique des traditions religieuses chez les Grecs, Paris 1904, p. 58-63 (the author denies the existence of all traditional gods in Emp. including of thoses in B 6 and B 134, there are only long-lived daimones).

Decleva Caizzi, Fernanda, The Strasbourg Text of the Works of Empedocles, in: Rivista di storia della filosofia 55, 2000, p. 691-4 (review of Martin - Primavesi, 1999).

Defradas, Jean, Un nouvel Empédocle, in: Revue des études grecques 86, 1973, p. 212-23.

Degani, E., Empedocle B 16.2 D.- Kr., in: Quaderni dell’instituto di filologia greca 2, 1967, p. 6-7.

De Azevedo Vianna, S. B., Empédocles e o pluralismo grego, in: Kriterion 25/72, 1984, p. 125-43.

De Cecco, Daniela, Guerra e giustizia nella filosofia greca della natura: da Eraclito a Empedocle, pp. 55-82, in: La guerra : una riflessione interdisciplinare, ed. Gilda Manganaro Favaretto, Trieste : Edizioni Università di Trieste, 2003.

De Grandi, Nicola, Riferimenti Empedoclei nelle Baccanti di Euripide, in: Dioniso 65, 1995, p. 55-9 (Bacch. 1-9 = par. B 6; Bacch. 4 = B 112.4, Bacch. 917-1170 = B 137, Bacch. 1141-2 = B 127.1).

De Leo, Daniela, Empedocle, pp. 52-63, in: Michelstaedter filosofo del Frammento : con Appunti di filosofia di Carlo Michelstaedter, Lecce : Milella 2004. (Pubblicazioni del Dipartimento di filosofia e scienze sociali. Nuova serie. Saggi / Università degli studi di Lecce, 13.)

Deichgräber, Karl, Review of Ernst Wenkebach, Beiträge zur Textgeschichte der Epidemienkommentare Galens, in: Gnomon 6, 1930, p. 375-6 (B 67).

Xenophanes Περι φύσεως, in: Rheinisches Museum 87, 1938, p. 1-31, p. 22-3 (B 2.9, B 5, B 15.3).

Delatte, Armand, Études sur la littérature pythagoricienne, Paris : Édouard Champion 1915, p. 39-40 (B 136), 41-2, n. 62 (B 2.9, B 3), 63 (B 2.6), 72 (B 152), 77 (B 112.4), 78 (B 146-B 147) and 252 (B 6 and tetraktys, B 129).

Les Conceptions de l’enthousiasme chez les philosophes présocratiques, in: Antiquité Classique 3, 1934, p. 5-79, p. 21-7. (This is also printed separately, under the same title, and with the same pagination, in the series Collection d’Études Anciennes, Belles Lettres, Paris 1934.)

Les Harmonies dans l’embryologie hippocratique, in: Mélanges P. Thomas, Bruges 1930, p. 160-71.

Delcourt, Marie, Chapitre V. Les Fléaux en Sicile au temps d’Empédocle, in: Stérilités mystérieuses et naissances maléfiques dans l’antiquité classique, Liège : Librairie E. Droz 1938 (Bibliothèque de la faculté de philosophie et lettres, fasc. 83 ;   reimprim. Paris : Les Belles Lettres, 1986), p. 83-88, Liége: Presses universitaires de Liège 1986, & OpenEdition Books 2013 on-line: (chap. V “Les fléaux en Sicile au temps d’Empédocle”; Emp. as a tamer of winds, a healer of plague and a baren woman: A 2, A 14; these stories are derived from B 111.2-3).

Hermaphrodite. Mythes et rites de la Bisexualité dans l’Antiquité classique, Paris: PUF 1958, p. 115 (on possible influence of Empedoclean zoogony - A 72, B 57 - B 63 - on Aristophanes’ speech in Plato’s Symposion with an general analysis of the background of the whole myth).

– Pyrrhos et Pyrrha, Paris: Les belles lettres, 1965, p. 69-70 (A 1, par. 68-69: immortalization of E. by help of fire).

de Ley, Herman, Empedocles’ Sexual Theory. A Note on Fragment B 63, in: L’Antiquité classique 47, 1978, p. 153-62.

della Corte, Francesco, Gli Empedoclea e Ovidio, in: Maia 37, 1985, p. 3-12.

Demand, Nancy, Pindar’s Olympian 2. Theon’s Faith and Empedocles’ Catharmoi, in: Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 16, 1975, p. 347-57.

de Miro, Ernesto, Società e arte nell'età di Empedocle, in: Elenchos 19/2, 1998, p. 325-344. (Elenchos 19/2 = Empedocle e la cultura della Sicilia antica: Illustrazione di un frammento inedito della sua opera. Atti del Convegno tenuto ad Agrigento dal 4 al 6 settembre 1997, p. 217-411.)

Derenne J-Ph., Debru A., Grassino A.E., Whitelaw W.A., The earliest History of diaphragm physiology, in: European Respiratory Journal, 1994, 7, p. 2234–2240.  (B 100.)

 History of diaphragm physiology: the achievements of Galen, in: European Respiratory Journal1995, 8, p. 154–160.  

de Romilly, Jacqueline, Gorgias et le pouvoir de la poésie, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 93, 1973, p. 155-62.

de Rubeis, Maria Grazia, Ripetizioni nel ΠΕΡΙ ΦΥΣΕΩΣ di Empedocle, in: Studi Classici e Orientali, 41, 1991, p. 87-93 (B 26, B 20, B 17, B 71).

De Sanctis, Dino, La Musa πολυμνηστη: Penelope nella poetica di Empedocle (fr. 3 DK), in: Studi Classici e Orientali, LIII , 2007 (published in 2010), p. 11-30. (B 3.)

De Santoro Moreira, Fernando, JoséΑllégories et rondeaux philosophiques dans le Poème de la Nature d’Empédocle, in: χώρα REAM, 11, 2013, p. 183‑200.

 Empédocles, Aristóteles e os elementosin: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. 6 nº12, 2012, p. 39-55. Released in October 2014. (A 37, B 6, B 8, B 17, B 22, B 71, B 82, B 90, B 111, B 117.)

Deschamps, Lucienne, 'Victrix Venus'. Varron et la cosmologie empédocléenne, in: Beiträge zur altitalischen Geistesgeschichte: Festschrift für Gerhard Radke zum 18. Februar 1984, ed. R. Altheim-Stiehl - M. Rosenbach, Münster - Westfalen: Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung 1986, p. 51-72.

– Le chant V du De rerum natura de Lucrèce et Varron de Reate. in: Vita Latina, 151, 1998. pp. 6-18.

de Smet, Daniel, The Influence of the Arabic Pseudo-Empedocles on Medieval Latin Philosophy: Myth or Reality? in: Across the Mediterranean Frontiers: Trade, Politics and Religion 650-1450, ed. by D. Agius - I. Netton, Turnhout 1997, p. 225-34.

Empedocles Arabus. Une lecture néoplatonicienne tardive, (Koninklijke academie voor wetenschappen, letteren en schone kunsten van België, Klasse der Letteren, Nr. 165) Brussel : Paleis der Academiën 1998 (cf. the reviews of S. I. Stroumsa, in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 122, January 2002, p. 94-7; and J. Janssens, in: Tijdschrift voor filosofie 63, 2001, p. 405-6).

Empedocles, p. 142-144,  

des Places, Edouard, La religion grecque, Paris 1969, p. 187-191.

Despotopoulos [Δεσποτόπουλος], Konstantinos I., Θέματα φιλοσοφίας του Εμπεδοκλέους, in: Πρακτικα της Ακαδημίας Αθηνων  67, 1992, p. 192-202 (B 3.9-13, B 110 etc.).

Φιλοσοφικά και διαλεκτικά: Μελετήματα, Θεσσαλονίκη 1990 (Emp.: p. 80-7).

Detienne, Marcel, La ‘Démonologie’ d’Empédocle, in: Revue des études grecques 72, 1959, p. 1-17 (B 115, B 21, B 146, B 112, B 117, B 118, B 119, B 120, B 122, B 123, B 124, B 126).

La notion de daïmôn dans le pythagorisme ancien, Paris: Les Belles Lettres 1963, p. 79-85 (B 129).

Deussen, Paul, Die Philosophie der Griechen, Leipzig 1921, p. 106-24.

de Waele, Josef Arthur, Acragas Graeca : Die historische Topographie des griechischen Akragas auf Sizielen, I. Historischer Teil, ’s-Gravenhage : 1971, pp. 33, 204-205, planche V. (B 123.2)

Dezeimeris, Jean-Eugene, De quelques ouvrages retrouvés d’Empédocle, de Démocrite et de Diogène d’Apollonie, in: Le Moniteur Universel, Paris 1846, coll. 1647c - 1648a, 1702b - 1703a, 1717c - 1718b (the third part which concentrates only on Empedocles was published also in Séances et travaux de l’académie des sciences morales et politiques 9, 1846, p. 199-224). 

Diano, Carlo, Empedocle. L'eredità di Parmenide e dei Pitagorici, - Mitizzazione del principio del movimento, - L'escatologia di Empedocle, pp. 72-76, in: Il pensiero greco da Anassimandro agli stoici. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri 2007. (Series 1: Nuova cultura; 156.)

Diels, Hermann, Critica, in: Commentationes in honorem Francisci Buecheleri Hermanni Useneri editae a Societate Philologa Bonnensi, Bonnae 1873, p. 61-7, p. 65-6 (B 42).

Doxographi Graeci, Collegit, recensuit, Prolegomenis Indicibusque instruxit Hermannus Diels, Berlin:  G. Reimer 1879.

Studia Empedoclea, in: Hermes 15, 1880, p. 161-79.

Gorgias und Empedokles, in: Sitzungsberichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, XIX, 1884 (1), p. 343-68 (= in: Sophistik, ed. C. J. Classen, Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1976, p. 351-83; B 21, B 84).

Pseudonaevianum, in: Rheinisches Museum 49, 1894, p. 478 (B 121.2).

Über ein Fragment des Empedokles, in: Sitzungsberichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, XLIX, 1897(2), p. 1062-73 (B 142; published also separately as a Sonderabdruck of SPAW, 12 p.).

Über die Gedichte des Empedokles, in: Sitzungsberichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 63, 1898, s. 396-415; published also separately as a Sonderdruck of SPAW, 20 p. (these three articles are also reprinted in H. Diels, Kleine Schriften, hrsg. von W. Burkert, Darmstadt 1969).

Symbola Empedoclea, in: Mélanges Henri Weil, Paris : A. Fontemoing 1898, p. 125-30 (B 115.1, 4 et 5-7, B 143, B 61).

Poetarum philosophorum fragmenta, Tomus I, fasciculus prior of Poetarum graecorum fragmenta, ed. U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Berolini : Weidmann 1901, ( p. 74-168 (Hildesheim : Weidmann 20002).

Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, Berlin: Weidmann 19224 (1903, 1st ed. ; 1906, 2nd ed. ; 1912, 3rd ), Band I, p. 193-283, and appendix p. XXX-XXXIII.

Diels, Hermann – Kranz, WaltherDie Fragmente der VorsokratikerBand I, Berlin: Weidmann 19345p. 276-375, without Appendix.(however Appendix in Band II, p. 424). (Reprint in Berlin West SO 36: Lindemann und Lüdecke 19515). 

– Die Fragmente der VorsokratikerBand III (Wortindex von Walther Kranz. Namen- und Stellenregister von Hermann Diels ergänzt von Walther Kranz), Berlin: Weidmann 19375,

 Die Fragmente der VorsokratikerBand I, Berlin: Weidmann 19516p. 276-375 and 498-501 (Appendix).  (Many reprints. Berlin: Weidmann 1954[...] Zürich-Hildesheim: Weidmann 198918,199219etc.) 

 Die Fragmente der VorsokratikerBand III (Wortindex von Walther Kranz. Namen- und Stellenregister von Hermann Diels ergänzt von Walther Kranz), Zürich-Hildesheim: Weidmann 19526(Many reprints.). [Band II is dated also 1952.] 

Diès, AugusteL’évolution de la théologie dans les philosophes grecs III. D’Empédocle à Socrate, in: Revue d’histoire et de littérature religieuses, 11, 1906, p. 320-352 (Emp.: p. 325-35) = (A general and not very original sketch of Emp. teaching which was heavily influenced by H. Diels. B 31, B 28, B 29, B 115, B 133, B 134, B 146, B 147.)

 Le Cycle mystique : la divinité, origine et fin des existences individuelles dans la philosophie antésocratiqueParis: F. Alcan 1909, (Collection historique des grands philosophes), p. 83-99. (B 6, B 11, B 15, B 16, B 17, B 21, B 23, B 27, B 28, B 29, B 30, B 31  B 35, B 110, B 112, B 115, B 116, B 117, B 121, B 127, B 128, B 130, B 132, B 133, B 134, B 136, B 144, B 146, B 147.)

Dieterich,  Albert, Nekyia, Leipzig 1893, p. 119. (B 115.6.)

Dietrich, Ernst Ludwig, Der Urmensch als Androgyn, in: Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte 58, dritte Folge IX, Heft III-IV, 1939, p. 297-345. (P. 299-301: sphairos as an androgynous god: B 27, B 28, B 30, B 134; influence of Empedocles on Aristophanes’s speech in Plato’s Symposion.).

Di Giovanni, Piero, Empedocle e le quattro radici del mondo, in: P. Di Giovanni , La storia della filosofia nell'età classica : dal VII secolo a.C. al II secolo d.C. Milano: FrancoAngeli 2013, p. 125-134.

Di Giovanni, PietroL’Empedocle di Freud, in: Un secolo di ricerche in Magna Grecia, Atti del ventottesimo Convegno di studi sulla Magna Grecia, Taranto, 7-12 ottobre 1988, Taranto 1989, p. 173-84.

Diller, Hans, OYIS ADHLWN TA FAINOMENA, in: Hermes 67, 1932, p. 14-5. (B 84.). 

– Προθέλυμνος, in: Philologus 97, 1948, p. 361-363. (B 21.)

Dillon, John, Empedocles' cosmic cycle in the later platonist traditionin: Agonistes - Essays in honour of Denis O'Brien, (ed.) J. Dillon, M. Dixsaut, Aldershot: Ashgate 2005, p. 227-234.

Di Marco, Massimo, La metensomatosi in Empedocle, in: Filosofia e società, 4, 1995, p. 31-58. Reimpr. in: M. di Marco, Sapienza italica: studi su Senofane, Empedocle, Ippone, Roma: Edizioni Studium 1998, (Quaderni della Libera Università "Maria SS. Assunta" Lumsa - Roma, 13), p. 33-68.

Di Pasquale Barbanti, Maria, Empedocle in Plotino e in Porfirio, in: Invigilata Lucernis 22, 2000, p. 31-45 (both authors were heavily influenced with Plato’s and Aristotle’s views on Empedocles and they placed him ahistorically into context of Orphic and Pythagorean teachings; A 37, ad B 1154, ad B 1202, B 120, ad B 1172, B 126, B 129).

Disandro, Carlos Alberto, Filosofía y poesía en el pensar griego. Anaxágoras, Empédocles, Demócrito, La Plata : Hosteria Volante 1974. (B2, B 3, B 35, B 112, B 114, B 115, B 131, B 132, B 134.)

Ditadi, Gino, Orfeo, Pitagora, Empedocle, pp. 61-91, in: Theophrastus. Della pietà, ed. Gino Ditadi, Este (Padova): Isonomia 2005. (Bibliophilia.)

Dixsaut, Monique, L'Empedocle di Nietzschein: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo 2007, p. 310-330.

Dodds, Erik R., The Greeks and the Irrational, Berkeley 1951, p. 145-56.

Dolce, Lodovico, Empedocle philosopho, p. 177, in: Terzetti per le Sorti : poesia oracolare nell'officina di Francesco Marcolini. edizione e commento, ed. Paolo Procaccioli, Treviso : Fondazione Benetton studi ricerche ; Roma : Viella. 2006. (Ludica; 6.)

D’Onofrio, S., L’unità del pensiero empedocleo alla luce del Papiro di Strasburgo (P. Strasb. gr. Inv. 1665-1665), Tesi di laurea in Storia della filosofia Antica, Trieste a. a., 1998-99.

Döring, August, Das Weltsystem des Empedokles, in: Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik 105, 1895, s. 29-45 (A 30, A 49, A 50, A 53, A 54, A 561, A 58, A 59 etc.).

Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie, gemeinverständlich nach den Quellen, Leipzig 1903, I.197-216.

Dorandi, Tiziano, Gli studi Ercolanesi, in: Hermann Diels (1848-1922) et la science de l’antiquité (Entretiens sur l’antiquité classique 45), Vandoeuvres - Genève 1999, p. 227-60, s. 239-42 (B 2.1, B 100.1-2, B 142).

Qualche considerazione di metodo, in: Aevum antiquum, N.S. 1, 2001, p. 197-203 (“we” in Pap. Strasb., B 115.3-4).

Drozdek, Adam, Empedocles’ Theology, in: Myrtia 18, 2003, p. 5-20. or  (B 134)

Greek philosophers as theologians: the divine arche, Aldershot (UK)-Burlington (VT) : Ashgate 2007. (P. 71-83, Chap. 6: Empedocles and the holy phren. Elements and forces, Harmony, Chance and necessity, God, Immortality. B 134.)

 In the beginning was the apeiron: infinity in Greek philosophy, Stuttgart: F. Steiner 2008, (Palingenesia, 94). (Chapter 7: p. 57-60. B 17, B 27, B 28, B 29, B 39, B 98, B 112, B 135.)

– Athanasia: afterlife in Greek philosophy, Hildesheim – Zürich – New York, NY: Olms 2011. (Spudasmata, 137). (Chapter 8: Empedocles; 8.1 The soul, 8.2 Blood, 8.3 The daimôn, 8.4 The body, 8.5 Immortality, p 125-142. A 78, A 85, A 86, B 2, B 17, B 21,  B 59, B 98, B 105, B 109, B 110, B 112, B 113, B 115, B 117, B 128, [B 134], B 138, B 141, B 146, B 147.)

Duchesne-Guillemin, J., D’Anaximandre à Empédocle: Contacts gréco-iraniens, in: Atti del convegno sul tema: La Persia e il mondo greco-romano. Roma 11. - 14. Aprile 1965, ed. A.Pagliano, Roma: Accademia Nazionale di Lincei, 1966, p. 423-31.

Duminil, Marie-Paule, Le Sang, les vaisseaux, le cœur, dans la collection hippocratique, anatomie et physiologie, Paris: Les Belles Lettres 1983. (P. 216 & 247 : B 98 ; p. 239 : B 150 ; p. 270-272: B 100 ; p. 309 : B 105.)

Dümmler, FerdinandAkademika, Beiträge zur Litteraturgeschichte der sokratischen Schulen, Giessen 1889, p. 216-41 (there are two worlds and two zoogonies; the zoogony of the Strife is documented with A 30, B 62, A 85 and A 70).

Zur orphischen Kosmologie, in: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 7, 1894, p. 147-53 (Emp. and Orphismus; a critical reaction to Kern, in: AGPh 1, 1888, B 134.).

Dumont, Jean-Paul, Empédocle, in: Les Présocratiques, édition établie par Jean-Paul Dumont avec la collaboration de Daniel Delattre et de Jean-Louis Poirier, (Bibliothèque de la Pléiade) Paris : Gallimard 1988, p. 319-439, plus end notes p. 1294-1331. Reprint in Collection Folio Essais, Gallimard, 1991, under the title Les Ecoles Présocratiques, p. 127-247, plus end notes p. 792-824.

Dumoulié, Camille, Empédocle ou le pathos de l’Harmonie (au Ve siècle avant J.-C), in: Critique 49 (Nr. 553-554), 1993 (juin-juillet), p. 357-71 (a popular, antiquated and literary orientated sketch of Emp. teaching with some superficial parallels with Freud, Hölderlin, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Lacan; useless for Empedoclean studies).

Düntzer, Heinrich, Schedae criticae, in: Archiv für Philologie und Pädagogik 5, 1837, p. 205-11, p. 208 (B 21.2, B 71.1).

Duprat, Guillaume Léonce, Quomodo apud Aristotelem in ejus. De Anima doctrina. Empedocles et Hippocrates auctoritate contenderint cum Platone, apud A. Fontemoing, Lutetiae Parisiorum 1898 (61 p.).

Durić [Djurić], Miloš N., Empedokles und Anaxagoras als Ethiker [Etička shvatanja u Empedokla i Anaksagore], in: Živa antika 6, 1956, p. 93-118.

Empedokle i načelo koegzistencije, in: Savremenik X knj., XIX br. 2, 1964, p. 179-87.

Dyer, Robert, Empedocles fr. 64 (Plut. Quaest. Nat. 21. 917 C), in: Mnemosyne 27, 1974, p. 175-6. (B 64.)

Istorija helenske etike, Beograd : Zavod za izdavanije udžbenika 1961 (19672, 19973), p. 146-62 (= ŽA 6, 1956, p. 93-118).


Ebbesen, Sten, Boethius as an Aristotelian scholar, in: Aristoteles. Werk und Wirkung. Paul Moraux gewidmet, vol. 2, Kommentierung, Überlieferung, Nachleben, Berlin / New York: De Gruyter 1987, p. 286-311. (p. 309-311: an account of Empedocles found in a scholium in MS Laur. gr. 72,15, folio 22, a 13th-century codex of Aristotele's Categories. This account is taken up in Primavesi 2008b, Janko 2010, Primavesi 2011 as 65 R, p. 460.)

Ebert, Theodor, A Presocratic Philosopher behind the ‘Phaedrus’: Empedocles, in: Revue de philosophie ancienne XI(2), 1993, p. 211-27.

Edwards, Mark J., Lucretius, Empedocles and Epicurean Polemics, in: Antike und Abendland 35, 1989, p. 104-15.

A Late Use of Empedocles: The Oracle on Plotinus, in: Mnemosyne 43, 1990, p. 151-5.

Being and Seeming: Empedocles’ Reply, in: Hermes 119/3, 1991, p. 282-93.

Egleston Robbins, Frank, The creation story in Ovid Met. i, in: Classical Philology, 8, (4), 1913, p. 401-414. (four elements, B 38, B 27. The text reads fr. 8 but it is a misprint for fr. 38, and to be precise fr. 38.4 with Titan = sun.)

Egorov (Yegorov), A. S., Empedokl i problema gretcheskogo chamanizma [= Empedocles and a problem of the Greek shamanism], in: Voprosy Filosofii., 2007, 8, p 97-105. (B 111; B 128.See abstract (in French) on page

– K voprosou o lokalizatsii potoustoronnego mira ou Empedokla [= The question of the location of the Other World in Empedocles], in: Opuscula cathedrae linguarum antiquarum. Fasc. II. Moscou, 2009, p. 72-81. (B 115; B 118; B 121; B 128.) See abstract (in French) on page

– Empedokl na Etne [Empedocles on Etna], in: Aristeas: Philologia classica et historia antiqua., Vol. II, 2010, p. 15-25. (Fr.:  B 126; B 128; В 151 DK.See abstract (in French) on page

Eisler, Robert, Bildopfer bei Empedokles, in: Archiv für Religionswissenschaft 13, 1910, p. 625-6 (B 128.4-5).

Eitrem, Samuel, Die vier Elemente in der Mysterienweihe, in: Symbolae osloenses 4, 1926, p. 39-59 and 5, 1927, p. 39-59 (B 115.9-12).

Ellis, Robinson, Some suggestions on Diels’ Poetarum Philosophorum Fragmenta, in: The Classical Review 16, 1902, p. 269-70. (B 3.9-11, B 17.20-1 and 25, B 64.)

Emperius, Adolf, Opuscula philologica et historica amicorum studio collecta, ed. F. G. Schneidewin, Gottingae 1847, p. 287 (B 40).

English, Robert B., Empedoclean Psychology, in: Transactions and Proceedings of the American philological Association 16, 1914, p. xvi.

Erhardt-Siebold, Erika vonThe Anglo-Saxon Riddle 74 and Empedokles Fragment 117 in: Medium Aevum 15, 1946, p. 48-54. (B 115, B 117.)

Erler, M., Hermarch, in: Die Philosophie der Antike, Band I/1: Die hellenistische Philosophie, ed. H. Flashar, Basel : Schwabe 1994, p. 227-34.

Escudero, Santiago GonzalezRaices y elementos en Empédocles, in: El Basislisco, 13, 1981-82, p. 62-69, (B 6).,

Étienne (Estienne or Stephanus), HenriPlutarchi Chaeronensis Quae extant opera, cum latina interpretationeEx vetustis codicibus plurima nunc primum emendata sunt, ut ex Henr. Sephani annotationibus intelleges,

 Tome II, Geneva: 1572. (Greek. B 115, Page 1077: Empedocles in De exilio.) See

– Poesis philosophica, vel saltem reliquiae poesis philosophicae, Empedoclis, Parmenidis, Xenophanis ..., item Heracliti et Democriti loci quidam et eorum epistolae, Geneva: 1573.

ΕΥΑΓΓΕΛΙΔΕΣ, Μαργαρίτης, Ἱστορία τῆς θεωρίας τῆς γνώσεως, Athens 1885. Empedocles: p. 75-79.  -

Eyselein, K., Symbolgehalt antiker Kosmologien, in: Der altsprachliche Unterricht 27/5, 1984, p. 50-64.


Fabre-Serris, Jacqueline, La réception d’Empédocle dans la poésie latine : Virgile (Buc. 6), Lucrèce, Gallus et les poètes élégiaques, in: Dictynna  [], 11, 2014.

Fabricius, Joannes Albertus [1668-1736], Empedoclis Sphaera, Hamburgi 1705 (B 161).

Bibliotheca Graeca sive notitia scriptorum veterum Graecorum, Hamburgi 17183 (Sumptu F. Liebezeit 17051), p. 473-7 (Empedocles’ biography and the list and the content of his supposed treatises).

Faggi, A[dolfo?], Empedocle d’Agrigento e l’età dell’odio, in: Marzocco 46, 1919.

Fairbanks, ArthurOn Plutarch's Quotations from the Early Greek Philosophers, in: Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association Vol. 28, 1897, p. 75-87.

 The First Philosophers of Greece: An edition and translation of the remaining fragments of the pre-Sokratic philosophers, together with a translation of the more important accounts of their opinions contained in the early epitomes of their works,  London: Kegan Paul, Trench and Trübner (also: New York:  Charles Scribner's sons ), 1898, p. 157-234 (

Repetitions in Empedocles, in: The Classical Review 12, 1898, p. 16-7.

Fairweather, Jane A., Fiction in the Biographies of the Ancient Writers, in: Ancient Society 5, 1974-5, p. 231-75.

Farina, Antonio, Amore e Odio in Empedocle, Caserta 1948. 

Farnell, Lewis Richard, The Cults of the Greek states, Vol. I, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896. (B 6, Hera, earth, and critics, p.181-195.) 

FarrellJoe, Looking for Empedocles in Latin Poetry: A Skeptical Approach, in: Dictynna [], 11, 2014.

Fausti, D., Su alcuni problemi empedoclei, in: Annali della scuola normale superiore di Pisa 10, 1980, p. 363-82 (B 111).

Ferella, Chiara, L’ampia Natura di Empedocle, thesis, Università di Pisa, 2011,

 Empedocle, il giorno spietato e l'esilio dagli dei: a proposito di alcuni frammenti "demonologici", in: Origini e svolgimento del pensiero greco: studi per Jean-Pierre Vernant, ed. R. Di Donato, Pisa: ETS 2013 (Anthropoi. Studi e materiali di antropologia storica del mondo antico, 8), p. 29-47. (B 112, B 115, B 117, B 119, B. 126, B 127, B 146, B 147.)

Ferguson, John, Two Notes on the Preplatonics, in: Phronesis 9, 2, 1964, p. 98-106. (Chap. 1, p. 98-101: Empedocles DK 31 A 30; A 30, A 60, A 61, B 45.)

DINOS, in: Phronesis 16, 1971, p. 97-115.

Ferrari, Sante, Empedocle, Roma : Tipografia delle Terme Diocleziane di Giovanni Balbi 1891 (this work is a reprinting of the following items).

Empedocle, i frammenti del poema tradotti, in: La Biblioteca delle Scuole Italiana 13, 1891, p. 199-200 and 14, p. 215-20.

Empedocle, in: Rivista Italiana di Filosofia 1/6, 1891, p. 165-90 and La Filosofia di Empedocle, in: dtto 2/6, 1891, p. 52-79 and 250-93.

La filosofia nella magna Grecia dopo Empedocle, in: Atti e Memorie della R. Accademia di Scienze Lettere ed Arti in Padova 8/293, 1891-2, p. 113-51 (this article was published separately under the same title by Randi, Padova 1892).

Ferwerda, Rein, Aarde, lucht, water en vuur/Empedokles; ver. en toegel. door Rein Ferwerda, Amsterdam 1997. Reprint in 2006 (Budel: Damon Publisher). (B 6, on 4 elements of Emp., reviewed by: Beullens, P., Tijdschrift voor filosofie.70, 2,  2008, p 408).

Feshbach, S., Empedocles: The Phenomenology of the Four Elements in Literature, in: Analecta Husserliana 23, 1988, p. 9-63.

Fialho, Maria do Céu, Review of Rossetti L & Santaniello C., Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empédocle, 2004, in: Humanitas, Vol. 57, 2005, p. 468-470.

Filée, John, The Strasbourg Collection of Empedocles, in: Études classiques 67, 1999, p. 273-4 (review of Martin - Primavesi, 1999).

Finkelberg, Aryeh, Xenophanes’ Physics, Parmenides’ Doxa and Empedocles’ Theory of Cosmogonical Mixture, in: Hermes 125.1, 1997, p. 1-16.

On the History of the Greek KOSMOS, in: Harvard Studies in classical Philology 98, 1998, p. 103-36. (B 26.5, B 134.).

Flashar, Hellmut, Empedokles, frgm. B 111 und seine Stellung im Lehrgedicht über die Natur, in: Actes de la XIIe conférence internationale d’études classiques, 1975, p. 547-51.

Förster, Aurel, Empedocleum, in: Hermes 74, 1939, p. 102-4 (B 84.8).

Foti, Veronique Marion, Empedocles’s philosophy of nature as mandating non-violence p 91-102, in: Values and Justice in the Global Era, ed. Kostas Boudouris, Athens: Ionia Publications, 2007.

Fox, M. C., in: Ancient Skies: Official Logbook of the Ancient Astronaut Society 17/4, 1990, s. p. (B 57 - B 61).

Fraisse, Jean-Claude, Philia: La notion d’amitié dans la philosophie antique, essai sur un problème perdu et retrouvé, J. Vrin: Paris 1974, p. 84-7. (An uninformative sketch of one of principal Emp. idea; Emp. philia was allegedly confined to be a cosmological conception and had not any anthropologic and emotional meaning but even in the cosmology Empedocles was not able to contribute essentially to the history of the term.)

Fränkel, Hermann, A Thought Pattern in Heraclitus, in: American Journal of Philology 59/3, 1938, p. 309-337 (p. 325, n. 35: B 2.2 and B 110)

– Man’s “ephemeros” Nature according to Pindar and Others, in: Transactions of American philological Association 77, 1946, p. 131-45 (B 2.2-4, B 131.1).

Zur ‘Discordia’ des Ennius, in: Philologus 97 (N.S. 51), 1948, p. 354 (B 17.27; refusal of Norden’s theory on Ennius’ interpretation of Empedocles).

Homerische Wörter, in: 'Antίdwron. Festschrift für Jacob Wackernagel ... gewidmet von Schülern, Freunden und Kollegen, Göttingen : Vanderhoeck & Ruprecht 1923, p. 275-7 (B. 2.6-9, ad B 3). 

Freeman, Edward Augustus, The History of Sicily from the Earliest Times I-IV, Oxford : Oxford University Press 1891 - 1894, II.342-56.

Freeman, Kathleen, The Pre-Socratic Philosophers. A Companion to Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, Oxford: Blackwell 1946 (second edition: Cambridge [Ma]: Harvard University Press 1959), p. 172-204.

Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers: a Complete Translation of the Fragments in Diels, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, Cambridge (Mass.): Harvard University Press 1948 (199624), p. 51-69.

Frenkian, Aram M., Études de philosophie présocratique, Vol. II.: La philosophie comparée, Empédocle d’Agrigente, Parménide d’Élée, Paris: J. Vrin, 1937, p. 46-61 (110 p.). (B 8, B 109, B 96, B 98, B 105, B 134, B 62, B 110, B 100, B 84.)

Theophrast De Sensu Kap. 10, in: Philologus 107, 1963, p. 313 (A 86, par. 10).

Frère, Jean, Le Cosmos d'Empédocle et le triomphe de la vie autour de l'usage répétitif des formules-images, in: Philosophia 30, 2000, p. 231-234.

Trois penseurs présocratiques : Héraclite, Parménide, Empédocle, in: Les Annales de l'Académie d'Alsace, 68, 2002, p. 76-86.

– Les dieux d'Élée et d'Agrigente, in: Agonistes - Essays in honour of Denis O'Brien, (ed.) J. Dillon, M. Dixsaut, Aldershot: Ashgate 2005, p. 3-12.

Friedlaender, Paul, Δὶς καὶ τρὶς τὸ καλόν, in: Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 69, 1938, p. 375-80.

Friedländer, Pablo, El lenguaje poético de Empédocles, in: Synthesis, 2005, vol.12, pp. 59-77.

– La épica chamánica de Empédocles,  in: Societas Philosophorum Viventium - (without date; probably around 2006) 

Fritsche, Johannes, The riddle of the Sphinx: Aristotle, Penelope, and Empedocles, in: Monsters and Philosophy, ed. Charles T. Wolfe, London: College Publications, 2005, (Texts in Philosophy, 3), p. 1-19.

Fritzsche, R. A.Der Magnet und die Athmung in antiken Theorien, in: Rheinisches Museum 57, 1902, p. 363-391. (P. 368-369: Emp. theory of magnetism; p. 378-379: Emp. theory of breathing.)

Frontisi-Ducroux, FrançoiseAvec son diaphragme visionnaire : ᾿ΙΔΥΙΗΣΙ ΠΡΑΠΙΔΕΣΣΙ », Iliade XVIII, 481. À propos du bouclier d'Achille, in: Revue des Études Grecques, 115, 2, 2002. p. 463-484. (Useful for homeric background.)
Fuchs, Werner, Die Verseuchung des Wassers in Selinus und die Tat des Empedokles, in: Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäeologischen Instituts (Römische Abteilung) 64, 1957, p. 230-1 (A 1, par. 70).

Fülleborn, G. G., Die Fragmente des Empedokles, in: G. G. F., Beyträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie 6, Züllichau 1795, p. 90 (B 28).

Furley, David J., The Early History of the Concept of Soul, in: Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies 3, 1956, p. 1-18. (Pages 14-15; a not very original sketch of the Empedoclean conception of soul and cognition; B 117, B 115, B 3.9-12, B 105.2.)

– Empedocles and the Clepsydra, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 77, 1957, p. 31-4.

Variations on Themes by Empedocles in Lucretius’ Proem, in: Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies of the University of London 17, 1970, p. 55-64.

– Empedocles and the invention of elements, in: D. Furley, The Greek cosmologists, Vol I, The formation of the atomic theory and its earliest critics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987 (reprinted 1988, 1989), p. 79-104 (= chap. 7). (B 6, B 17, B 23, B 27, B 28, B 29, B 31, B 35, B 57, B 59, B 61, B 62, B 96, B 98.)

Furnari Luvarà, Giusi, Le origini siceliote della retorica e l’Empedocle di Domenico Scinà, in: Un secolo di ricerche in Magna Grecia, Atti del ventottesimo Convegno di studi sulla Magna Grecia, Taranto, 7-12 ottobre 1988, Taranto : Instituto per la storia e l’archeologia della Magna Grecia 1989, p. 185-204.

Furness, Raymond, Nietzsche and Empedocles, in: Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 2/2, 1971, p. 91-4.


Gain, Frédéric, Le statut du « daimon » chez Empédocle, in: Philosophie antique 7, 2007, p. 121-150. (B 59, B 112, B 115.)

Gagné, Renaud, L'esthétique de la peur chez Empédocle, in: Revue de philosophie ancienne, XXIV(1), 2006, p. 83-110. (B 115.3.)

Gaisford, Thomas, Poetae minores graeci I-V, Lipsiae : BT 1814-20, III.284-6.

Gale, Monica Rachel.Myth and Poetry in Lucretius, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. (P. 59-74, p. 219. B 3, B 17, B 21, B 23, B 128, B 130, B 131, B 151.)

– Etymological Wordplay and Poetic Succession in Lucretius, in: Classical Philology, 96, 2, 2001.

– Avia Pieridum loca: Tradition an Innovation in Lucretius, in: Wissensvermittlung in dichterischer Gestalt, ed. Marietta Horster - Christiane Reitz, Palingenesia Band 85, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner 2005, p. 175-191. (Several fragments; mainly: B128.)

Gallavotti, Carlo, Alcune frasi di Empedocle interpretate con i criteri di Aristotele, in: Rendiconti della classe di scienze morali 28, 1973, p. 773-92. (B 115.7, B 35.17, B 13-14.)

Il proemio di Empedocle, in: Helicon 13-4, 1973-4, p. 7-34. (B 4, B 131; a trial to reconstruct original filiation of fragments: B 131-B 7-B 19, B 16-B 3-B 1-B 2-B 110-B 12-B 4, B 6, B 109-B 107.)

Il punto geometrico e l’uno di Empedocle nel trattato peripatetico della linea indivisible, in: Rendiconti dell’academia dell scienze dell’instituto di Bologna 29, 1974, p. 381-94. (The text of B 32 is δύο δεῖ; in the context of B 33 it is necessary to read ἡ δὲ στιγμὴ καὶ τὸ <ἓν> ἐν τοῖς ἀκινήτοις).

Empedocle nei papiri ercolanesi, in: Le monde grec, ed. J. Bingen - G. Cambier - G. Nachtergal, Brussels 1975, p. 153-61.

– Empedocle: Poema fisico e lustrale, Milano : Arnoldo Mondadori 19751 (19914, 19935).

La critica di Empedocle in Diogene di Enoanda, in: Museum Criticum (Bologna) 22, 1975-7, p. 243-9. (A 99, B 78.)

Qualche frammento di Empedocle, in: Studi in onore di Cleto Carbonara, Napoli 1976, p. 355 n. (B 9.5.)

Da Stesicoro ad Empedocle, in: Kokalos 26-7, 1980-1, p. 413-33.

Nuovi appunti sul testo di Empedocle, in: Bollettino dei classici 6, 1985, p. 3-27.

Gallo, Italo, Ermarco e la polemica Epicura contro Empedocle, in: Esistenza e destino nel pensiero greco arcaico, a cura di P. Cosenza, Napoli : Ed. Scientifiche Italiane 1985, p. 33-50. (A 99.)

Galsworthy, CarrieLanguage and Intent in Empedocles' cosmic cycle, Thesis for the degree of Doctor of philosophyUniversity of Cincinnati, 2010.

Garani, Myrto, Poetry and Analogy in Empedocles and Lucretius, PhD thesis, University of London 2005.

 Cosmological oaths in Empedocles and Lucretius, inHorkos: the oath in Greek societyed. A.H. Sommerstein - J. Fletcher, Exeter: Bristol Phoenix Press 2007, 189-202, and 264-7.

– Empedocles Redivivus: Poetry and analogy in Lucretius, New York - Abingdon: Routledge 2007. See review by Bill Gladhill at BMCR:  (A lot of fragments are mentioned in this book. The main ones are: B 2, B 3, B 4, B 6, B 8, B 9, B 11, B 13,  B 145, B 17, B 20, B 21, B 22, B 23, B 26, B 27, B 28, B 29, B 30, B 31, B 33, B 35, B 38, B 55, B 57, B 59, B 61, B 62, B 71, B 75, B 84, B 86, B 87, B 89B 91, B 92, B 93, B 95, B 96, B 98, B 100, B 109, B 110, B 115, B 128, B 129, B 131, a(ii).) 

The Palingenesis of Empedocles' Calliope in Lucretius, p. 231-26, in: Papers on ancient literatures : Greece, Rome and the near East : proceedings of the Advanced seminar in the humanities, Venice International University 2004-2005. Padova : Sargon, 2008. (Quaderni del Dipartimento di scienze dell'antichità e del Vicino Oriente / Università Ca' Foscari Venezia; 4.)

 Lucretius and Ovid on Empedoclean Cows and Sheep, in: Lucretius: Poetry, Philosophy, Science, ed. D.Lehoux - A. D. Morrison - A. Sharrock, Oxford: Oxford University Presse 2013, p. 233-259. (B 17, B 57, B 61, B 62, B 128 , B 136, B 137, a(ii).)

Gárcia Díaz, A., La metafísica de Empédocles, in: Dianoia 2, 1956, p. 167-80.

Garland, Robert, The Greek Way of Death, London: Ducktworth 1985. (Page 63: a short survey of E. Katharmoi; E. was influenced with Orphism; E. did not acknowledged any underworld and judgment after death; B 144.)

 The Eye of the Beholder. Deformity and Disability in the Graeco-Roman World, London: Duckworth, 1995, p. 174-176 (a rather traditional overview of Empedoclean „evolutionary“ zoology from untraditional teratological perspective; A 72, B 57, B 61, B 62).

Gatz, Bodo, Weltalter, goldene Zeit und sinnverwandte Vorstellungen, Hildesheim: Georg Olms 1967. (B 128, B 130.)

Gatzemeier, Matthias, Empedokles, in: Enzyklopädie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie, hrsg. von J. Mittelstraass, Mannheim - Wien - Zürich : Metzler 1980, I.540-1.

Gee, Emma, Aratus and the Astronomical Tradition, Oxford - New York: Oxford University Press, 2013, (Classical culture and society). (1.2 Aratus and Empedocles, p. 29-33, B 8, B 17, B 128.)

Geizie W. = Veazie, W. B. (the error in L’année philologique 1926).

Gemelli Marciano, Maria Laura, Le metamorfosi della tradizione: mutamenti di significato e neologismi nel Peri physeos di Empedocle, Bari : Levante editori 1990.

L’atomismo e il corpuscolarismo empedocleo: frammenti di interpretazioni nel mondo antico, in: Elenchos 12, 1991, p. 5-37.

Der Tod des Empedokles, in: Kleos: Estemporaneo di studi e testi sulla fortuna dell’antico, a cura di F. De Martino,  Bari : Levante 1994, p. 71-4.

Alain Martin, Oliver Primavesi: L’Empédocle de Strasbourg Empedocles (P. Strasb. gr. Inv. 1665-1666), in: Gnomon 72, 2000, p. 389-400.

Le “demonologie” Empedoclee, in: Aevum antiquum, N.S. 1, 2001, p. 205-35 (A 25, ambiguities in Emp., B 24, B 26, B 20, B 115, B 59, “we” in Pap. Strasb.).

Le Contexte culturel des Présocratiques : adversaires et destinataires, in: Qu’est-ce que la philosophie présocratique? What is Presocratic philosophy?, ed. by A. Laks - C. Louguet, Lille, Presses universitaires du Septentrion 2002, p. 83-114. (Emp.: p. 106-11)

Empedocles’ Zoogony and Embryology, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 373-407.  (A 72, B 20, B 27, B 62, B 126, d 14, reincarnation, P. Derveni, and P. Kingsley' s leitmotiv: Philia binds [imprisonment of the four divine roots], Neikos releases [freedom of the four divine roots]; Pausanias must learn how to bind and release. Empedocles is a purifier, iatromantis, seerhealer.)

Lire du début : Quelques observations sur les incipit des présocratiques, in: Philosophie antique, 7, 2007, pp. 7-37. Pp. 9-13: B 2.

Die Vorsokratiker, II, Parmenides, Zenon, Empedokles : griechisch-lateinisch-deutsch - Auswahl der Fragmente und Zeugnisse, Übersetzung. und Erläuterungen von M. L. G. M., Düsseldorf : Patmos, Artemis & Winkler, 2009, (Sammlung Tusculum); 2, überarbeitete Auflage, Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2011; 3, überarbeitete Auflage, Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2013. (The difference from the previous edition resides in the updated bibliography at the end of the volume.) See:

 Die empedokleische "Vierelementenlehre". Überlegungen über die Anfänge einer "naturwissenschaftlichen" Theorie, in: ELEMENTE – ΣΤΟΙΧΕΙΑ – ELEMENTA: Antike und moderne Naturwissenschaft zum Ursprung der DingeSchweizerischer AltphilologenverbandLuzern, 2012, p. 25-36. (B 2, B 6, B 38, B 62, B 96.) 

 Feuer bei Heraklit und Empedokles: Aspekte und Funktionen einer göttlichen Kraft, in: Feuer und Wasser, Beiträge der Eranos Tagungen 2011 und 2012, ed. E. Hornung-A. Schweizer, Basel: Schwabe 2013, p. 133-157.

Gencarella, Stephen Olbrys, Purifying Rhetoric: Empedocles and the Myth of Rhetorical Theory, in: The quarterly journal of speech, Vol. 96, 3, 2010, p. 231-256. 

Gerke, Hans, Sprache und Stil des Empedokles (diss.), Götingen 1953.

Gernet, Louis, Recherches sur le développement de la pensée juridique et morale en Grèce : étude sémantique, Paris: Ernest Leroux 19171 (2nd edition, Paris: Albin Michel 2001², with new pagination). (B 115 : p. 39 [p. 55], 47 [63], 312 [313], 316 [317], B 121 : 242 [246], B 144 : 242 [246].)

Γεωργακέλλος, Νίκος Ι, Εμπεδοκλής - υπό το πρίσμα των φυσικών επιστημών, Αθήνα, Ευρασία, 2008. 

Gheerbrant, XavierQui sont les destinataires du fragment 3 d'Empédocle ? in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. VI nº11, 2012, p. 78-98. 

On-line: 3.)

– Poésie et Argumentation dans les fragments des deux poèmes d'Empédocle, Thesis for Docteur en Langue et Littérature grecques, Université de Lille 3, October 2014 (B 1, B 2, B 3, B 4, B 17 + ensemble a, B 20 + ensemble c, B 21, B 23, B 24, B 25, B 26, B 35, B 84, B 86, B 100, B 112 (vv. 1-4), B 114, B 121, B 122, B 123, B 131, fr. 509 Bollack.)

Ghidini - Tortorelli, Marisa, Instanze utopiche nel mito dell’età dell’oro. Ricerca su alcuni frammenti di Empedocle, in: Atti dell’Accademia Pontaniana 20, 1970-1, p. 155-72 (N.S. XX, 1971, pp. 1-18).

Giannantoni, Gabriele, Review of Jean Bollack, Empédocle, I Introduction à l'ancienne physique, 1965, in: Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica 95, 1967, p. 331-335.

– 31. Empedocle, in: I presocratici: testimonianze e frammenti. Bari: Laterza, 1969, (Biblioteca Universale), p. 323-421. (Translation of Diels-Kranz 1951, with foot notes.)

 Empedocle: mito e realtà, in: La cultura filosofica della Magna Grecia, Messina 1989, p. 43-62.

L’originalità del pluralismo empedocleo, in: Elenchos 18, 1997, p. 235-55.

L’interpretazione aristotelica di Empedocle, in: Elenchos 19/2, 1998, p. 361-411. (Elenchos 19/2 = Empedocle e la cultura della Sicilia antica: Illustrazione di un frammento inedito della sua opera. Atti del Convegno tenuto ad Agrigento dal 4 al 6 settembre 1997, p. 217-411.)

Giardina, G.R., Empedocle e gli Empedoclei sui condotti vuoti, pp. 142-144, in: La chimica fisica di Aristotele : teoria degli elementi e delle loro proprietà : analisi critica del De generatione et corruptione. Roma : Aracne. 2008. (Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche; 285.)

Gigandet, Alain, Plutarque contre Colotès contre Empédocle, in: Aitia 3, 2013 [on-line : ], p. 2-10. (A 34, A 44, A 48, B 8, B 15, B 16, B 17, B 19, B 21, B 35.)

Gigante, Marcello, Attendendo Empedocle. Un’insidia al recupero del testo autentico, in: Studi Italiani di filologia classica 15, 1997, p. 131-4 (Pap. Strasb. aII.26 and 30, c 1-2 = B 20, B 2.1, B 100.1-2).

Gigon, Olof, Zum antiken Begriff der Harmonie, in: Studium Generale 19, 1966, p. 539-47.

Gilbert, Otto, Die Meteorologischen Theorien des griechischen Altertums, Leipzig: B. G. Teubner 1907. (Chap. V: Empedokles, p. 105-124; B 6, B 21)

Spekulation und Volksglaube in der ionischen Philosophie, in: Archiv für Religionswissenschaft 13, 1910, p. 306-32. 

Griechische Religionsphilosophie, Leipzig 1911, p. 197-225.

Gill, Christopher, La psychologie présocratique: quelques questions interprétatives, in: Les anciens savants: études sur les philosophies préplatoniciennes réunies par Pierre-Marie Morel et Jean-François Pradeau, (Les Cahiers philosophiques de Strasbourg, Tome 12), Université Marc Bloch, Strasbourg 2001, p. 169-89.

Giombini Stefania, review of Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, de Rossetti L., e C. Santaniello, in: Nova Tellus 28.2, 2010.

Giordani, Pietro, Review of Scinà, Memorie (1813), in: Biblioteca Italiana 1, 1816, p. 322-33, 2, p. 15-21, 4, p. 247-59 = P. Giordani, Opere, a cura di A. Gussalli, Milano 1857, X.14-37 (p. 25-7: B 100).

Giraldi (Gyraldus), Giglio Gregorio, Historiae poetarum tam Graecorum quam Latinorum dialogi decem, Basileae 1545, Dialogus III, p. 296-9 (a concise biography of Emp. with the quotation B 112.4 and B 117; the main source is evidently DL).

Gkarani, Myrto, see Garani, Myrto.

Gladisch, August, Empedokles und die alten Aegypter, in: Jahrbücher für speculative Philosophie und die philosophische Bearbeitung der empirischen Wissenschaften 2/4, 1847, s. 681-725 and 5/2, p. 903-44 (this is repeated more fully in 1858).

Empedokles und die Aegypter. Eine historische Untersuchung von A. G., mit Erläuterungen aus den Aegyptischen Denkmälern von Dr. Heinrich Brugsch und Joseph Passalacqua, Leipzig : J. C. Hinrichs 1858 (very fantastic und improbable identification of Empedoclean teaching with Egyptian beliefs; some textual suggestions).

Das mystische vierspeichige Rad bei den alten Aegyptern und Hellenen, in: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 15/2, 1861, p. 406-9.

Gladigow, Burkhard, Zum Makarismos des Weisen, in: Hermes 95, 1967, p. 403-33 (B 132, B 129).

Goebel, Karl, Empedokles, in: Die vorsokratische Philosophie, Bonn: Carl Georgi 1910, p. 191-226.

Golosovker, J., Empedokl iz Agrigenta, in: Gelděrlin, F., Smerť Empedokla, Moskva - Leningrad 1931.

Gomperz, Theodor, Griechische Denker. Eine Geschichte der antiken Philosophie, Leipzig 1903, I.183-204 (engl. transl. Greek Thinkers: A History of Ancient Philosophy, Bristol 1996 (19051), I.227-54).

Herculanische Notizen, in: Wiener Studien 2, 1880, p. 139-42, p. 140 (B 100.1-2).

Zu Empedokles, in: Hermes 31, 1896, p. 469-71 (plenty of textual suggestions).

Beiträge zur Kritik und Erklärung griechischen Schriftsteler, in: Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-historischen Klasse der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien 152, 1906, p. 1-31, p. 14-5 (the author attempts to identify the supposed Empedoclean fragment).

González Escudero, Santiago, Raíces y elementos en Empédocles, in: El Basilisco, 1st collection, 13, 1981-82, p. 62-9. , , . (B 6)

Goto (後藤), Jun ()エンペドクレス哲学において思惟性と生命性を担うフレーン [Φρήν carrying the thoughtfulness and vitality in Empedocles' philosophy], in: 東亜大学紀要no.12, 2010, p. 25-39. This article can be read on the web with an abstract in English. Link found with the address of the author: (B 134.)

Goulet, Richard, s. v. Empédocle, in: Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques, Tome III, ed. R. Goulet, Paris : C.N.R.S.-Éditions 2000, p. 66-88.

Goytisolo, Juan, Las chinelas de Empédocles, pp 354-391, in: Obras completas, I. Barcelona : Galaxia Gutenberg : Círculo de Lectores. 2005. (Opera mundi.)

Grabowski, Franz, Empedokles und Leukipp-Demokrit, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des Anaxagoras (diss.), Breslau : Hochschulverlag 1923.

Graf, Fritz, Eleusis und die orphische Dichtung Athens in vorhellenistischer Zeit, Berlin - New York 1974.

Graham, Daniel W., Symmetry in the Empedoclean Cycle, in: Classical Quarterly 38, 1988, p. 297-312.

Empedocles and Anaxagoras: Responses to Parmenides, in: The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Philosophy, ed. by A. A. Long, Cambridge University Press 1999, p. 159-80.

La lumière de la lune dans la pensée grecque archaïque, in: Qu’est-ce que la Philosophie Présocratique?, ed. A. Laks - C. Louguet, Lille, 2002, p. 351-80.

The topology and dynamics of Empedocles’ cycle, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 225-44.

Explaining the cosmos: the Ionian tradition of scientific philosophy, Princeton / Oxford : Princeton University Press, 2006. (B8, B9, B11, B 12, B 17, B 21, B 22, B 23, B 26, B 27, B 28, B 30, B 31, B 33, B 35, , B 36, B 62, B 96, B 98).

– The texts of early Greek philosophythe complete fragments and selected testimonies of the major presocratics, Part I, Cambridge : University Press, 2010.

Grammatico, GiuseppinaL'immaginario empedocleo, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo, 2007, p. 48-70.

Gregory, AndrewEmpedocles, in: Ancient Greek Cosmogony, London: Bloomsbury 2007, p. 78-101. (Chap. 5. The lava lamp is used as an analogy for what the world under total Strife would be. Interesting focus on chance in cosmogony and zoogony. “The kosmoi generated by the cycle are not identical, and the differences are down to chance”. B 8, B 12, B 13, B 14, 17, B 35, B 57, B 59, B 62, B 84, B 96, B 98, B 103, B 104, B 124, a(i) 6, a(ii) 17.)

– Empedocles, in: The Presocratics and the Supernatural: Magic, Philosophy and Science in Early Greece, London: Bloomsbury 2013. p. 167-184. (Ch. 9. Empedocles’ ontology, meteorology, cosmogony, zoogony. Love and Strife. Empedocles’ gods. Empedocles’ magic? Empedocles as a shaman? Empedocles’ claims. Metempsychosis. Empedocles and Homer. It is possible to have a view of Empedocles’ cosmic cycle where there are only natural entities and processes. The lava lamp is used as an analogy for what the world under total Strife would be. B 111. B 112.)

Grmek, M.D., La légende et la réalité de la nocivité des fèves, in: HPLS 2, 1980, p. 61-121. (B 140.)

Grilli, Alberto, Lucrezio tra poesia e filosofia, in: Annali del liceo G. Garibaldi di Palermo 14-16, 1977-1979, p. 197-216 (Lucretius was inspired mainly by Homer, Hesiod, Emp. and Ennius).

Grimal, Edmonde, A propos d’un passage du Ménon, une définition “tragique” de la couleur, in: Revue des études grecques 55, 1942, p. 1-13 (A 921).

Grottanelli, Cristiano., Healers and Saviours of the Eastern Mediterranean in Pre-Classical Times, in: La soteriologia dei culti orientali nell’Impero Romano, a cura di U. Bianchi - M. J. Vermaseren, Leiden 1982, p. 649-70.

Grotius, Hugo, Dicta poetarum quae apud Jo. Stobaeum exstant. Emendata et latino carmine reddita ab H. G. Plutarchi et Basilii Magni de usu Graecorum poetarum libelli, Parisiis : N. Buon 1623 (16252), p. 152 (B 6), 166 (B 105) and 170 (B 115.1-2).

Grünwald, Michael, Die Anfänge der abendländischen Philosophie. Fragmente der Vorsokratikern. Mit einer Einführung von M. Laura Gemelli Marciano, (Bibliothek der Antike), Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Artemis Verlag 1991, p. 121-44 (an extensive translation of B fragments and A testimonies) and 225-30 (notices).

Gruppe, Otto, Griechische Mythologie und Religionsgeschichte, Band I-II, München 1903-6, I.429 (B 6) and II.1044 (Empedocles as a magician).

Guglielmino, F[rancesco?], Empedocle, in: Tradizione 1939.

Guthrie, William Keith Chambers, The presocratic world-picture, in: The Harvard Theological Review, vol. 45, n°2, 1952 (April), p. 87-104. (Empedocles: p. 93, 98-102, some remarks on Empedocles´ theory of soul, daimones, cosmos.

 – The Greeks and their Gods, Boston : Beacon Press, 1954 (First edition : 1950). Pp. 309-325 : Orphism and Empedocles.

 Orpheus and Greek religion : a study of the orphic movement, Princeton (N.J) : Princeton University Press, 1993 (reprint with foreword of 1952²). P. 169 : B 115, B 146-147. P.175 : B 112, B 117.  P.197 : B 128, B 136, B 137. Pp. 231-232.

 –  In the Beginning: Some Greek views on the origins of life and the early state of man, London: Methuen & Co 1957. (P. 42-45, 72-73 ; B 61, B 62; B 128.)

–  A History of Greek Philosophy, Vol. II, The presocratic tradition from Parmenides to Democritus, Cambridge - London - New York: Cambridge University Press 1965, p. 122-265.

Guzzo, Augusto, Empedocle d’Agrigento, Palermo, Presso l’Accademia, 1964.


Habermehl, P[eter?], Empedokles, in: Metzler Philosophen Lexicon, hrsg. von B. Luty, Stuttgart : Metzler 1989, p. 217-9. 

Hadot, Pierre, Qu'est-ce que la philosophie antique ?, Paris: Gallimard 1995. (P. 276-277: B 129; p. 278: B 132.) 

Hahm, David E., The Origins of Stoic Cosmology, Colombus: Ohio State University Press, 1977. (B 6, B 8, B 17, B 38, B 62, B 73.)

Halbertsma, Klaas Tjalling AgnusOver den wijsgeer Empedokles, in: Hermeneus 21, 1949, p. 3-9, 22-6 and 62-8.

Halbwachs, MauriceLa représentation de l´âme chez les Grecs: le double corporel et le double spirituel, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale, 37/4, 1930, pp. 493-534. (Emp. p. 518-519.)

Hall, Alexander, E. W., Dating the Homeric Hymn to Selene: Evidence and Implications, in: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 53, 2013, p. 15-30. (Moon, B 45.)

Halleux, Robert, Le problème des métaux dans la science antique, Paris : Les Belles Lettres 1974, (Bibliothèque de la Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres de l’Université de Liège, fasc. 209), Presses universitaires de Liège & OpenEdition Books 2013. (Chapitre I. Les présocratiques : A 34, A 89, B 91, B 92.)

Hallier, Aemilius [Emil], Lucreti carmina e fragmentis Empedoclis adumbrata (diss.), Ienae : Typis Maukii 1857 (39 p.). 

Ham, Charles Tyler, Empedoclean elegy: love, strife and the four elements in Ovid’s amores, ars amatoria and fasti, Thesis in classical studies, University of Pennsylvania, 2013. 

Hamblenne, P., Au Salluste inconnu, in: Revue Belge de philologie et d’histoire 59, 1981, p. 60-70 (A 20).

Hanf, Roland, Begriffliches Denken bei Empedokles [diss., Kiel?] 2000.

Hankinson, R. J., Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1998, p. 45-9 (Empedocles: structure and emergence; B 12, B 15, B 21, B 23, B 96, B 98.).

Hardie, Alex, Empedocles and the Muse of the Agathos Logos, in: American Journal of Philology, Volume 134, Number 2, 2013, p. 209-246. (B 3, B 4, Β 23, B 110, B 131, B 133, B 134.)

Hardie, Philip Russel, The Speech of Pythagoras in Ovid Metamorphoses 15: Empedoclean Epos, in: Classical Quarterly 45, 1995, p. 204-214.

Harris, William Vernon. Dreams and Experience in Classical Antiquity, Cambridge (Mass.) - London: Harvard University Press, 2009, p. 237-240. (Empedocles and his theory of dreams, ad B 108.)

Harrison, Jane Ellen, The Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, Cambridge 1908.

Haussleiter, Johannes, Der Vegetarismus in der Antike, Berlin, Verlag von Alfred Töpelmann, 1935, p. 157-63 et passim (the passage on Empedocles is strongly dependent on Diels’ translations of fragments and Wilamowitz’s commentaries in SPAW 1929 and it is not very informative).

Heath, Thomas L.Aristarchus of Samos: the ancient Copernicus. A history of Greek astronomy to Aristarchus together with Aristarchus's treatise [...]Oxford: Clarendon Press 1913. (Empedocles:  p. 86-93, reprint in Greek in 2005 below.)

 Αρίσταρχος ο Σάμιος, ο αρχαίος Κοπέρνικος, μτφρ. Θ. Γραμμένος, Αθήνα : Κέντρο Έρευνας Επιστήμης και Εκπαίδευσης [«Κ.Ε.ΕΠ.ΕΚ.»], 2005. Pp. 82-89 («Εμπεδοκλής»).

Hedericus, Beniamin, Sphaera Empedoclis, notis, cum suis, tum Q. Septimii Florentis Christiani, illustrata, ad orationes de astronomiae instauribus... invitat B. H., Typ. J. Ridelii, Dresdae 1711 (B 161).

Heerkens, Gerardus Nicolai [Gerard Nicolaas], Empedocles sive physicorum epigrammatum libri quinque, Groningae : H. Vechner 1783 (152 p.).

Empedocles sive physicorum epigrammatum libri septem, Groningae 1788.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie [i. e. Hegel’s lectures from 1805 to 1830], in: Hegel’s Werke, hrsg. von K. L. Michelet et alii, Bände XIII-XV, Berlin 1833-7, Band XIII, 1833, p. 269-75.

Heidel, William Arthur, Qualitative Change in Pre-Socratic Philosophy, in: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 19, 1906, p. 353-79.

On certain Fragments of the Pre-Socratics, in: Proceedings of the American Academy Arts and Sciences 48, 1913, p. 725-9 (B 109, B 110, B 101).

Περι φύσεως: A Study of the Conception of Nature among the Pre-Socratics, in: Proceedings of the American Academy Arts and Sciences 45, 1910, p. 79-133. 

Heinimann, Felix, Nomos und Physis. Herkunft und Bedeutung einer Antithese im Griechischen Denken des 5. Jahrhunderts, Basel : Verlag Friedrich Reinhardt AG, 1945, p. 48-9, 84-5, 89-90, 153 (B 9), 89-90, 153 (B 8), 85 (B 17.22: νομίζεσθαι), 91-2 (B 63).

Herrero de Jáuregui, Miguel, Salvation for the Wanderer: Odysseus, the Gold Leaves, and Empedocles, in: Philosophy and Salvation in Greek Religion, ed. V. Adluri, Berlin - Boston: Walter de Gruyter 2013 (Religionsgeschichtliche Versuche und Vorarbeiten 60)(B 3, B 20, B 23, B 84, B 112, B 115, B 131, B 132, B 146, B 147.)
Hershbell, Jackson P., Empedocles’ oral Style, in: Classical Journal 63, 1968, p. 352-7.

Hesiod and Empedocles, in: Classical Journal 65, 1970, p. 145-61.

Plutarch as a Source for Empedocles Re-examined, in: American Journal of Philology 92, 1971, p. 156-84.

Hippolytus’ Elenchos as a Source for Empedocles Re-examined, in: Phronesis 18.2, p. 97-114, and 18.3 187-203, 1973.

The Idea of Strife in Early Greek Thought, in: The Personalist 55, 1974, p. 205-15.

Empedoclean Influences on the Timaeus, in: Phoenix 28, 2, 1974, p. 145-66.

Heyne, Christian Gottlob, Vorrede“, in: Dieterich Tiedemann, System der stoischen Philosophie, Erster Theil, Leipzig: Bey Weidmanns Erben und Reich 1776, p. III–XVIII. (Pages VIII-IX: B6; Nestis: Persephone; Aïdôneus: earth.)

Hild, Joseph-Antoine,  Étude sur les démons dans la littérature et la religion des Grecs, Paris: Hachette 1881. (Empedocles : p. 228-234.)

Hladký, VojtěchVítkův Empedoklés, in: Souvislosti 3–4, 53-54, 2002, p. 194-202. (A review of Tomáš Vítek's Empedocles, vol. I. 

 Empedokleův Sfairos, in: Filosofický časopis 3/54, 2006, p. 393-410. (In Czech, English summary.)

– Empedokleův Sfairos očima antických interpretů, in: Listy filologické (Folia philologica), 2008, 131, 1, p. 379-439. (Language: CZECH. See an English abstract :  . A recent English translation of the whole text by Anna Pilátová can be supplied by Vojtěch Hladký on demand - - or by empedocles.acragas.)

 Reinkarnující se duše mezi Presokratiky a Platónem, in: Reflexe 38, 2010, p. 19-34. (Empedocles : p. 22-24.)

 Empedocles’ Sphairos and its interpretations in Antiquity, I: Aristotle and the neoplatonists, in: Eirene, 50, 1-2, 2014, p. 149-164.

 Empedocles' Sphairos and its interpretations in Antiquity, II: Plato's Timaeus and Statesman, in: Eirene, 51, 2015, p. 71-98.

Hladký, Vojtěch et aliiEvoluce před Darwinem [Evolution before Darwin], Praha: Pavel Mervart, 2012, p. 71-86. (Chap. Empedocles: The cycle of life; a partly popular, partly original interpretation of E. zoology in the context of his cosmology; the text is written in Czech, summary is absent.) 

Hoessly, Fortunat, 2.4. Empedokles, in: Katharsis: Reinigung als Heilverfahren, Studien zum Ritual der archaischen und klassischen Zeit sowie zum Corpus Hippocraticum, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2001, (Hypomnemata, Bd. 135), p. 188-197.

Hoffmann-Luss, Herbert, Die Widergabe der Empedokleischen Physik durch Aristoteles (diss.), Götingen 1966.

Hollenberg, Wilhelm, Empedoclea, in: Jahresbericht über das Königliche Joachimsthalsche Gymnasium, Gedruckt in der Druckerei der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin 1853, p. 1-31 (De prooemio Empedoclis: p. 1-17, De cognoscendi facultate: p. 17-31).

Hölscher, Uvo, Weltzeiten und Lebenzyklus: eine Nachprüfung der Empedokles-Doxographie, in: Hermes 93, 1965, p. 7-33 (= reprinted in U. Hölscher, Anfängliches

Fragen: Studien zur frühen griechischen Philosophie, Göttingen: 1968, p. 173-212).

Empedokles und Hölderlin, Frankfurt am Main : Insel 1965 (the second actualized edition was published like Schriften der Hölderlin-Gesellschaft 21, Eggingen : Isele 1998).

Anfängliches Fragen. Studien zur frühen griechischen Philosophie, Göttingen 1968, p. 173-212.

Der Sinn von Sein in der älteren griechischen Philosophie, in: Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften 3/1976, Heidelberg 1976.

– Heraklit über göttliche und menschliche Weisheit, in: Aleida Assmann (ed.), Weisheit. Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation III, München: Wilhelm Fink Verlag 1991, p. 73-80, p. 77-78 (concise notices on B 3.3, B 2.9, B 113, B 112.4-5).

Holwerda, Douwe, Commentatio de vocis quae est φύσις vi atque usu praesertim in Graecitate Aristotele anteriore, Groningae 1955.

Zu Empedokles fr. 20 D-K, in: Mnemosyne 4/50, 1997, p. 320-1. (B 20.)

Hommel, Hildebrecht, Cetera mitte, zu Archilochus, Horaz, Euripides und Empedokles, in: Gymnasium 58, 1951, p. 218-27.

Hooykaas, Reijer, Het begrip element in zijn historisch-wijsgerige ontwikkeling, Diss. Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, 1933.

Horna,  Constantinus, Empedocleum, in: Wiener Studien 48, 1930, p. 3-11 (B 134, B 29, A 1, par. 77, A 2, B 160.)

Huffman, Carl A., The Pythagorean Tradition, in: A. A. Long (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, Cambridge 1999, pp. 66-87, p. 75-78 (Emp. as a Pythagorean; B 137, B 115, B 112).

– Aristoxenus’ Pythagorean Precepts: A Rational Pythagorean Ethic, in: La costruzione del discorso filosofico nell’età dei Presocratici, ed. M. M. Sassi, Pisa : Edizione della Normale 2006, pp. 103-121, p. 108, n. 4 (A 95).

Hüffmeier, F.Phronesis in den Schriften des Corpus Hippocraticum, in: Hermes 189, 1961, s. 1-84, Part III: Phronesis in der Schrift „De Victu“, p. 68-84, p. 71-74. (DK 31 B 100: the author of De victu supposes the breathing by means of skin as just Empedocles did.)

Hunger, Herbert, Palimpsest-Fragmente aus Herodians Καθολικὴ προσῳδία, in: Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinischen Gesellschaft 16, 1967, p. 1-33. (B 153b.).

Hussey, Edward, The Presocratics, London 1972.

Hyland, Drew A., The Origins of Philosophy: its Rise in Myth and the Pre-socratics, New York 1973, p. 237-43.


Ierodiakonou, Katerina, Empedocles and the ancient painters, in: Colour in the ancient mediterranean world, (eds) Liza Cleland, Karen Stears, Glanys Davies, Oxford : John and Erica Hedges, 2004, (Bar International series, 1267), pp. 91-95.

Empedocles on colour and colour vision, in: Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 29, 2005, p. 1-37 (

Basic and mixed colors in Empedocles and Plato, in: L'Antiquité en couleurs : Catégories, Pratiques, Représentations, Textes réunis par Marcello Carastro, Grenoble: Jerôme Millon 2009. 

Imbraguglia, Giorgio et alii (ed.), Index Empedocleus. Le opere e i giorni I-II, Genova : Erga 1991.

La situazione del discorso di Empedocle, in: Index Empedocleus. Le opere e i giorni I-II, ed. G. Imbraguglia et alii, Genova : Erga 1991, p. 11-35.

Immisch, OttoSprachliches zum Seelenschmetterling, in: Glotta 6, 1915, p. 193-206. (Pages 197-202: a contribution to genesis of the idea of body as an envelope of soul; ad B 126).

Indelli, Giovanni, Filodemo ed Empedocle, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo 2007, p. 277-288.

Inwood, Brad, The Poem of Empedocles. A Text and Translation with an Introduction, Phoenix Presocratics, Vol. III, Toronto : University of Toronto Press 1992 (the second revised edition, Toronto - Buffalo - London : University of Toronto Press 2001).

Empedocles Fragments, in: The Times Literary Supplement, Jul. 9, 1999, p. 17 (Pap. Strasb.).

Empedocles, in: Encyclopedia of Classical Philosophy, ed. by D. J. Zeyl - D. T. Devereux - P. T. Mitsis, Westport (Conn.) : Greenwood Press - London - Chicago (Ill.) : Fitzroy Deaborn 1997, p. 203-6.

– Review of A. Martin - O. Primavesi, Empedocles - A. Martin, O. Primavesi : L'Empédocle de Strasbourg [...] 1998, in: The Classical Review 50.1, 2000, p. 5-7.

Who do we think ‘We’ are?, in: The Virtuous Life in Greek Ethics, ed. by Burkhard Reis, Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pp. 230-243. B 112, B 115, B 129.

– Empedocles and metempsychôsis: The critique of Diogenes of Oenoanda, p. 71-86, in: Body and Soul in Ancient Philosophy, ed. Dorothea Frede - Reis Burkhard, Berlin-New York: Walter de Gruyter 2009.

Irby-Massie, Georgia L., Prometheus Bound and contemporary trends in Greek natural philosophy, in: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 48, 2008, p. 137-157. (B6.)

Iribarren, Leopoldo, Rationalisations de la croyance : La construction de la pistis comme philosophème chez Parménide et Empédocle, in: Revue de philosophie ancienne, XXIV(1), 2006, p. 63-82.

 Les peintres d‘Empédocle (DK 31 B23) : enjeux et portée d'une analogie préplatonicienne, in: Philosophie antique, 13, 2013, p. 83-115. (B 23.)


Jackson, Henry, On Empedocles apud Sextum Empiricum Adv. Math. VII.123, in: Proceedings of the Cambridge philological Society, 61, 1902, p. 4-5. (B2, B3.)

On Empedocles, fragment 17, in: Proceedings of the Cambridge philological Society, 76, 1907, p. 6. (B 17.)

Jacobson, Howard, Lucretius’ Hunting Souls (3, 726-728), in: Museum Helveticum 56, 1999, p. 33. (B 58.)

Empedocles’ Cain, in: Museum Helveticum 59, 2002, p. 12 (on parallelism between B 115 and Gen. 4.3-15).

Jacquemard, Simonne, Trois mystiques grecs: Orphée, Pythagore, Empédocle, Paris : Michel 1997.

Jaeckel, Johannes Friedrich, De poetarum Siculorum hexametro (diss.), Leipzig 1902 (an important comparative analysis of verses Emp. and the other poets; B 100.3, B 29.3; useful statistics).

Jaeger, Werner, The Theology of the Early Greek Philosophers, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1947, p. 128-54. (in German: Die Theologie der frühen griechischen Denker, 1953)

Das Pneuma im Lykeion, in: Hermes 48, 1913, p. 29-74, p. 53-4. (A 74.)

Diokles von Karystos. Die griechische Medizin und die Schule des Aristoteles, Berlin 1938. (A 34, A 742.)

 The Greek Ideas of Immortality, in: Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 52, 3, 1959, p. 135-147. (Pages 141-142: Empedoclean conception of soul - very traditionaly meant - in the contemporary context; B 117, B 119.)

Jakubanis, Geirich, Empedokl. Filosof, vrač i čarodej, dannyja dlja ego ponimanija i ocenki [Empedocles philosopher, doctor and wonder/worker, evidence for his interpretation and evaluation], in: Kijevskija universitetskaja izvestija 7 (ijul), 1905, p. 1-136 (reprinted in Kiev 1906 and in Moscow 19832; republished again under title Lukrecij, O prirode veščej II: Stati, kommentariji, fragmenty Epikura i Empedokla, ed. by F. A. Petrovskij, Moskva 1947, p. 663-95; cf. also Empédocle, fragments des poèmes De la nature et Purifications [partly translated, revisioned and commented by M. L. Gasparov], in: Lucrèce 1983, p. 275-91 and 372-6 (very general study and the translation of fragments according to Mullach’s edition).

Janko, Richard, Hesychius Θ 216 and Empedocles Fragment 21.6, in: Classical Philology 81, 1986, p. 308-9. (B 21.6.)

Empedocles, On Nature I 233-364: a New Reconstruction of P. Strasb. gr. Inv. 1165-6, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 150, 2004, p. 1-26.

Empedocles’ Physica Book 1: A New Reconstruction, in: The Empedoclean kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 93-136.

 Review of Empedokles Physika I. Eine Rekonstruktion des zentralen Gedankengangs. By Oliver Primavesi. Berlin: De Gruyter 2008in: Ancient Philosophy, volume 30, 2, Fall 2010, p. 407-411.

Jannaccone, Sylvia, Una reminiscenza dei  Καθαρμοί nel carme 64 di Catullo, in: Giornale italiano di filologia 18, 1965, p. 127-30 (B 115.10).

Janssen, Tjitte H., Νημερτής τ᾿ ἐρόεσσα μελάγκουρός τ᾿ ᾿Ασάφεια, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 104, 1987, p. 177-8 (B 122.4).

Jiráni, Otakar, Sallustiova báseň Empedoclea [Sallust’s Poem on Empedocles], in: Listy filologické 31, 1904, p. 14-21 (A 27).

Jobst, Franz Xaver, Über das Verhältnis von Lucretius und Empedokles (diss.), München : M. Steinebach 1907.

Joël, Karl, Geschichte der antiken Philosophie, Band I, Tübingen 1921, p. 488-565.

Johnstone, Henry W., Empedocles’ Περὶ Φύσεως and Καθαρμοί (Bryn Mawr Greek Commentaries), Bryn Mawr (Pennsylvania) : Bryn Mawr College 1985.

Jones, Howard, Lucretius and Nature’s Monsters, in: Helmantica 44, 1993, p. 199-203 (marginally on B 61). 

Jouanna, Jacques, Présence d’Empédocle dans la Collection Hippocratique, in: Bulletin de l’Association G. Budé 20, 1961, p. 452-63.

La théorie de l’intelligence et de l’âme dans le traité hippocratique ‘Du régime’: Ses rapports avec Empédocle et le ‘Timée’ de Platon, in: Revue des études grecques 79, 1966, p. xv-xviii.

– L´interprétation des rêves et la théorie micro-macrocosmique dans le traité hippocratique Du régime: sémiotique et mimesis, in: Klaus-Dietrich Fischer – Diethard Nickel – Paul Potter (eds.), Text and Tradition. Studies in Ancient Medicine and its Transmission Presented to Jutta Kollesch, Leiden: Brill, 1998, p. 161-174, p. 172-173. (DK 31 B 100: ad Hüffmeier and the Hippocratics.)

 La théorie de la sensation, de la pensée et de l’âme dans le traité hippocratique du Régimeses rapports avec Empédocle et le Timée de Platon, in: AION (Annali dell’Università degli Studi di Napoli “L’Orientale”), 29, 2007, p. 9–39.

 The Theory of Sensation, Thought and the Soul in the Hippocratic Treatise Regimen: Its Connections with Empedocles and Plato’s Timaeus, in: J. Jouanna, Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen. Selected Papers, translated by N. Allies, Leiden - Boston: Brill 2012, p. 195-228.

Jourdan, Fabienne, Manger Dionysos - L'interprétation du mythe du démembrement par Plutarque a-t-elle été lue par les néo-Platoniciens ?, in: Pallas, 67, 2005, p. 153-174. B 115, De esu 996 b-c.

Journée, Gérard, "Rien ne saurait naître de rien" - L'émergence du problème de l'être dans la philosophie pré-platonicienne, Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université Lille IIII, janvier 2007, p. 468-520. 8, B 11, B 12, B 15.)

– Empédocle, B6 DK : Remarques sur les deux lignées de Diels, in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. VI nº11, 2012, p. 32-62. On-line: . (B 6.)

Judet de La Combe, PierreAbstraction et récit dans le poème thébain de Stésichore, in: Poésie et lyrique antiques, ed. L. Dubois, Villeneuve d'Ascq: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion 1996, p. 11-27.  (La réplique de Jocaste. PhilotèsNeîkos.)

– L’Agamemnon d’Eschyle: Commentaire des dialogues, II, Villeneuve d'Ascq: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion 2001, p. 555-8 (B 112.6, B 115.3 and 13, B 137; on mutual influence Emp. and Aesch.).

Jurado López, Manuel, No es mal momento para recordar a Empédocles, pp. 33-35, in: Los dioses vulnerables. Sevilla: Algaida 2008. (Algaida poesía; 60.)


Kafka, GustavEmpedokles von Akragas, in : G. Kafka, Die Vorsokratiker, Geschichte der Philosophie in Einzeldarstellungen. Abt. II. Die Philosophie des Abendlandes im Altertum Band 6, München : E. Reinhadt 1921, p. 84-103 (plus notes on p. 156-159).

 Zur Physik des Empedokles, in: Philologus 78, 1923, p. 202-229.

Zu Theophrasts De sensu, in: Philologus 72, 1913, p. 65-82 (B 99).

Kahle, MadayoOF 437 and the Transformation of the Soul, in: Tracing Orpheus. Studies of Orphic Fragments in Honour of Alberto Bernabé, ed. Miguel Herrero de Jáurequi et alii, Berlin - Boston: De Gruyter 2011, p. 153-157. (P. 156: B 115.47-58, daimon; a very brief notice.)

Kahn, Charles H., Anaximander and the Origins of Greek Cosmology, New York 1960.

Religion and Natural Philosophy in Empedocles’ Doctrine of the Soul, in: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 42, 1960, s. 3-35 (Reprint in Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy, ed. J. P. Anton -  G. L. Kustas, Albany: SUNY 1971, p. 3-38, with appendix 'Empedocles among the Shamans' omitted latter. A revised version of the article was published in: The Pre-Socratics, ed. A. P. D. Mourelatos, Doubleday/Anchor Press 1974, then Princeton University Press 1993, p. 426-456).

Review of J. Bollack, Empédocle Vol. I, in: Gnomon 41, 1969, p. 439-47 (important).

Empedocles, in: MacMillan’s Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Vol. II. London 1969, p. 496-9.

Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans. A Brief History, Indianapolis–Cambridge : Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. 2001, p. 17-18 (E. appears as an inspired but idiosyncratic follower of Pythagoras), p. 24-25 (Harmonia, B 96).

Kaibel, Georg, Die Prolegomena Περὶ κωμῳδίας, in: Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, philologische - historische Klasse, Neue Folge Band 2, Nr. 4, Berlin, Weidmann 1898, p. 3-70, p. 20-1. (A 251.)

Kalderon, Mark Eli, Form without Matter: Empedocles and Aristotle on Color Perception, Oxford: Oxford University Press 2015. (B 8, B 21, B 23, B 71, B 84, B 94, B 96. The bibliography concerning Empedocles in this book does not go farther than 2009, and is quite exclusively in English. As of 2000 only four names: Baltussen 2000, Ierodiakonou 2005, Inwood 2001, Kamtekar 2009, No Greek, just translations by Inwood,)

Kalogerakos, Ioannis G., Seele und Unsterblichkeit. Untersuchungen zur Vorsokratik bis Empedokles, Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, Band 52, Stuttgart - Leipzig : Teubner 1996, p. 268-329.

Kamtekar, Rachana, Knowing by likeness in Empedocles, in: Phronesis 54 (3), 2009, p. 215-238(B 2, B 3, B 17, B 22, B 23, B 55, B 71, B 73, B 79, B 82, B 84, B 96, B 98, B 106, B 109, B 110.)

Karfík, Filip, L’âme du monde : Platon, Anaxagore, Empédocle, in: Études platoniciennes, 11, 2014, p. 1-23, [on-line in April 2015]  (B 134.)

Karsten, Simon, Empedoclis Agrigentini carminum reliquiae, de vita ejus et studiis disseruit, fragmenta explicuit, philosophiam illustravit, Amstelodami: J. Müller 1838. (In Google books.)

Katsch, Julius Ferdinand, Medizinische Quellenstudien. Entwickelungsgang des Aehnlichkeitsaximos von Empedokles bis auf Hahnermann, Stuttgart : Metzler 1891 (133 p.; the position of Emp. in the history of the medicine).

Kearns, Emily, ‘Remembering the Ancient Way of Life’: Primitivism in Greek Sacrificial Ritual, in: Greek Notions of the Past in the Archaic and Classical Eras: History without Historians, ed. by J. Marincola, L. Llewellyn-Jones and C. Maciver, Edinburgh University Press 2012, p. 301-316. (Empedocles: p. 308-310, B 128.)

Kelesidou, L., Εμπεδοκλης Ακραγαντίνος, Αθήνα 2002.

Kelly, Paul Joseph, Empedocles and Teilhard, in: The Teilhard Review 6/2, 1971-2, s. 76-83.

Kenny, Anthony, Life after Etna: The Legend of Empedocles in Literary Tradition, in: The Empedoclean kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 17-30.

From Empedocles to Wittgenstein: historical essays in philosophy, Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2008. (Life after Etna : Empedocles in prose and poetry.)

Kerényi, KárolyPythagoras und Orpheus, in: Aufsätze zur Geschichte der Antike und des Christentums, ed. F. Altheim, K. Kerenyi, H. Russel, W. Iwanow, P. Vignaux, K. Schmid, Berlin, p. 16–49 (= K. Kerényi, Humanistische Seelenforschung, Stuttgart 1996, 14–41), See also: K. Kerényi, Pythagoras und Orpheus, Amsterdam 1940. And K. Kerényi, Pythagoras und Orpheus, Dritte, erweiterte Ausgabe, Zürich: Rhein Verlag 1950.

Kerferd, George BriscoeReview of H. A. T. Reiche, 1960, Harald A. T. Reiche : Empedocles' Mixture, Eudoxan Astronomy and Aristotle's Connate Pneuma, in: Classical Review, 12 (1), 1962, p. 93-94.

– Review of J. Bollack, Empédocle. i, 1965, A new approach to Empedocles, in: Classical Review, 17 (2), 1967, p. 147-149.

– Review of D. O’Brien, ECC, 1969, D. O'Brien : Empedocles' Cosmic Cycle, in: Classical Review, 21 (2), 1971, p. 176-178.

– Review of J. Bollack, Empédocle. ii and iii, 1969, Jean Bollack : Empédocle. ii Les Origines, iii Commentaire i-ii, in: Classical Review, 22 (3), 1972, p. 325-327.

– Review of N. van der Ben, 1975, N. van der Ben, The Proem of Empedocles' Peri Physios, in: Classical Review, 28 (1), 1978, p. 167-168.
 Gorgias and Empedocles, in: Siculorum gymnasium 38, 1985, p. 595-605.

Kerkhoff, Manfred, Empédocle et Zarathustra: Sept versions de la mor libre, in: Études philosophiques 4, 1992, s. 539-54.

Kern, Otto, De Orphei Epimenidis Pherecydis theogoniis quaestiones criticae (diss.), Berolini 1888, p. 11-2 (A 501).

Empedokles und die Orphiker, in: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 1, 1888, p. 498-508 (published also separately as a Sonderabdruck aus d. AGPh, 12 p.).

Kerschensteiner, Jula, Kosmos. Quellenkritische Untersuchungen zu den Vorsokratikern, München : C. H. Beck’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 1962, s. 124-40 (B 26, B 27, B 28, B 134, B 135, A 32, A 58 etc.).

Kertsch, Manfred, Philologische Notizen zu Gregor von Nazianz, in: Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik 29, 1980, p. 1-7 (cf. A 165).

Ketterer, DavidEmpedocles in Eureka - Addenda, in: Poe Studies Dark Romanticism, Vol.18 issue 2, 1985.

Keuls, Eva C.The Water Carriers in Hades: A Study of Catharsis through Toil in Classical Antiquity, Amsterdam 1974. (p. 22 et passim.)

Kingsley, Peter, On the Teaching of Empedocles (unpublished diss.), Cambridge University 1979.

The Greek Origin of the Sixth-Century Dating of Zoroaster, in: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 53, 1990, p. 245-65.

Empedocles in Armenian, in: Revue des études arméniennes 24, 1993, p. 47-57 (A 491).

Empedocles and his interpreters: The four-element Doxography, in: Phronesis 39, 1994, s. 235-54.

Empedocles’ sun, in: Classical Quarterly 44, 1994, p. 316-24. (A 561, A 30, B 44.)

From Pythagoras to the Turba philosophorum: Egypt and Pythagorean Tradition, in: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 57, 1994, p. 1-13.

Greeks, Shamans and Magi, in: Studia Iranica 23, 1994, p. 187-98. (B 111.)

Notes on air: four questions of meaning in Empedocles and Anaxagoras, in: Classical Quarterly 45, 1995, p. 26-29. (B 38.3-4, B 78, A 49.)

Artillery and Prophecy: Sicily in the reign of Dionysus I, in: Prometheus 21, 1995, p. 15-23.

Meetings with Magi: Iranian Themes among the Greeks, from Xanthus of Lydia to Plato’s Academy, in: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 5, 1995, p. 173-209.

Empedocles’ two poems, in: Hermes 124, 1996, p. 108-11.

Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic. Empedocles and Pythagorean Tradition, Oxford : Clarendon Press 1995 (19972, 20013). This book has been translated several times: Empédocle et la tradition pythagoricienne, by Les Belles Lettres (2010), Archaia philosophia mystêria kai mageia, by Archetypo Publishing (2001), Antik Felsefe, Gizem ve Büyü, by Kabalci Yayinevi (2002), Misteri e magia nella filosofia antica, by Il Saggiatore and Mondolibri (2007), Filosofía antigua, misterios y magia, by Ediciones Atalanta (2008).

In the dark places of wisdom, Inverness (Ca.): Golden Sufi Center, 1999. (Fr. 146: pp. 231-232.)

Αρχαία φιλοσοφία, μυστήρια και μαγεία : ο Εμπεδοκλής και η πυθαγόρεια παράδοση, μτφρ. Φ. Τερζάκης, Θεσσαλονίκη : Αρχέτυπο, 2001.

 Antik Felsefe Gizem ve Büyü Pythagoras ve Empedokles Geleneği,Istanbul: Kabalcı 2002.

Empedocles for the new millennium, in: Ancient Philosophy 22, 2002, p. 333-413. Published in Greek as a book by Archetypo (Thessaloniki, 2008).

Sowers of eternity, in: Reality, Inverness (California): The Golden Sufi Center 2003, p. 309-559 (text) et 586-91 (notices). German version as Reality by Crotona Verlag. 2012.  Greek version, as Archaiohellenikê skepsê kai dytikos politismos, by Dioptra Publishing. Slovenian vesrsion as Resnicnost, by Kud Logos .

Misteri e magia nella filosofia antica: Empedocle e la tradizione pitagorica, Milano: Il Saggiatore 2007, (La Cultura).

Dans les antres de la sagesse : études parménidiennes, traduit de l’anglais par H. D. Saffrey, Paris : les Belles Lettres, 2007. (Fr. 146: p. 185).

Filosofía antigua, misterios y magia : Empedocles y la tradicion pitagorica, Girona : Atalanta 2008.

– Ο ΕΜΠΕΔΟΚΛΗΣ ΣΤΟΝ 21ο ΑΙΩΝΑ (Empedocles for the New Millennium, published in Greek as a book, translation Ζάρρας Κωνσταντίνος), Thessaloniki: Αρχέτυπο 2008.

Empédocle et la tradition pythagoricienne: Philosophie ancienne, mystère et magie, (translation by G. Lacaze of Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic), Belles Lettres, 2010, (coll. Vérité des mythes, 34).

Kirk, Geoffrey S. - Raven, John E., The Presocratic Philosophers: a critical history with a selection of texts, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1957 (reprinted with corrections: 1960, 1962, 1963), p. 320-361.

Kirk, Geoffrey S. - Raven, John E. - Schofield, Malcolm, The Presocratic Philosophers, Cambridge 1983 (second corrected edition), p. 280-321 (Chapter X).

Kirk, Geoffrey S., Heraclitus, The Cosmic Fragments, Cambridge University Press 19784.

Kissel , Myriam, Les Purifications d'Empédocle : ascèse et responsabilité, in: Travaux et DocumentsJournée de l'Antiquité 2005-2006 (tome 1), M. Kissel (éd.), n°29, janvier 2007, Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines de l'Université de la Réunion, p. 109-133. (B 112, B 115, B 124, B 128, B 131, B 134, B 136, B 137, B 139.)

Knatz, Fridericus, Empedoclea, in: Schedae philologae Hermanno Usener a sodalibus Seminarii Regii Bonnensis oblatae, Bonn : F. Cohen 1891, p. 1-9. (B 6, B 38.4, B 115.3-5, B 24, B 17.25, B 121.2.)

Kofman, Sarah, Freud et Empédocle, in: Critique 265, 1969, p. 525-50.

Kohlschitter, Silke A., Parmenides and Empedocles in Porphyry’s History of Philosophy, in: Hermathena 150, 1991, p. 43-53. (B 1172).

The Interpretation of Empedocles in the Tradition of Middle- and Neoplatonism (diss.), Dublin 1991.

Kołakowska, KatarzynaMit u Empedoklesa, Kraków: Wydawnictwo "Scriptum" - Tomasz Sekunda, 2012.

Koning, Hugo H., Hesiod: the other poet. Ancient reception of a cultural icon, Leiden - Boston: Brill 2010. (P. 166-170: B 115; p. 195: B 6; p. 210-217: Revelation Modified [Parmenides and Empedocles], B 3, B 131.)

Körner, U., Entstehung des Lebens: Moderne Auffassungen und naturwissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse in Bezug auf Ansichten des Empedokles, in: Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin 20/2, 1971, p. 225-9.

Kotwick Mirjam E., Alexander of Aphrodisias and the Text of Aristotle’s Metaphysics, Berkeley: California Classical Studies 2016. (California Classical Studies, 4).

Kouremenos Theokritos et al.The Derveni Papyrus, Firenze: Leo S. Olschki 2006, (Studi e testi per il corpus dei papiri filosofici greci e latini, 13). (B 134.)

Krafft, Fritz, Anaxagoras und Empedokles, in: Die Grossen der Weltgeschichte I, Zürich 1971, I.466-82.

Kranz, Walther, Empedokles und die Atomistik, in: Hermes 47.1, 1912, p. 18-42.

Die ältesten Farbenlehren der Griechen, in: Hermes 47, 1912, p. 126-40.

Vorsokratisches III. Die Katharmoi und die Physika des Empedokles, in: Hermes 70, 1, 1935, p. 111-9 (= W. K, Studien zur antiken Literatur und ihrem Fortwirken: Kleine Schriften, hrsg. von E. Vogt, Heidelberg : Winter 1967, p. 105-14). (B2, B 3, B 6, B 77-78, B 110, B 111, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 121, B 124, B 127, B 129, B 130, B 131, B 132, B 133, B 134, B 135, B 140, B 143, B 146.)

Gleichnis und Vergleich in der frühgriechischen Philosophie, in: Hermes 73, 1938, p. 99-122.

Kosmos und Mensch in der Vorstellung frühen Griechentums, in: Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philol. - Hist. Klasse, 1938, p. 121-61 (B 45 aj.). Reprint in Kranz W., herausgegeben von Ernst VogtStudien zur antiken Literatur und ihrem Fortwirken, Kleine Schriften (Heidelberg: Carl Winter 1967), p. 165-196.

Kosmos als philosophischer Begriff frühgriechischer Zeit, in: Philologus 93, 1938, p. 430-48, p. 443-4 (B 134.4, A 50, B 31). 

Lukrez und Empedokles, in: Philologus 96, 1943, p. 68-107.

Empedokles, Antike Gestalt und romantische Neuschöpfung, Zürich : Artemis 1949.

Vorsokratische Denker: Auswahl aus dem Überlieferten - Griechisch und Deutsch, Berlin – Frankfurt: Weidmann, 1949. (Empedocles: p. 121-153.)

Die griechische Philosophie, Stuttgardt 1955, p. 68-78.

Zwei kosmologische Fragen, in: Rheinisches Museum für Philosophie 100, 1957, p. 114-29.

Die Sonne als Titan, in: Philologus 105, 1961, p. 290-5.

Krell, David Farrell, Nietzsche Hölderlin Empedokles, in: Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 15/2, 1991, p. 31-48.

Hölderlin's Death of Empedocles : a new translation, in: Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy, 2008, 12, 2, pp. 289-311.

Krische, August Bernhard, Die theologischen Lehren der griechischen Denker, eine Prüfung der Darstellung Cicero's (= Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der alten Philosophie, vol. 1), Göttingen : Dieterich, 1840, p. 116-129. (B 6).

Krüger, J. S., Die plek van Empedokles in die metafisies-mistieke tradisie, in: Ηervormde teologiese studies Vol. 63, 2, 2007, p. 409-430.

Kulig, Katarzyna [then Kolakowska], “Dlatego ogarnięci wielką nikczemnoscią, nigdy nie uwolnicie serca od smutnego cierpienia” - Empedoklejski grzech [“And this is why, seized with great wickedness, you’ll never rid your heart of sad suffering” - Empedoclean Sin], in: Roczniky humanistyczne 52/3, 2004, p. 97-108. (B 112, B 3.1-8, B 131, B 128, B 137, B 139, B 141, B 115, B 126; an unoriginal and rather superficial sketch of daimon’s cycle.)

Kurfess, Christopher John, Restoring Parmenides’ poem: essays toward a new arrangement of the fragments based on a reassessment of the original sources, Dissertation submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Pittsburgh, 2012. (B2, B3.)

Kyriakou, Poulheria, Empedoclean Echoes in Apollonius Rhodius’ “Argonautica”, in: Hermes 122, 1994, p. 309-319 (B 272.3, B 62, B 124).


Lackenbacher, Hans, Beiträge zur antiken Optik, in: Wiener Studien 35, 1913, p. 34-61 (Emp.: p. 39-45; B 84).

La Croce, Ernesto, Empedocles’ Sphairos and Parmenidean Legacy, in: Platon 32-3, 1980-1, p. 114-22.

La Croce, Ernesto,  Empédocles de Agrigento, in: Los filósofos presocráticos, II, (Biblioteca Clásica Gredos, 24), Madrid: Gredos 1979 (reimpr. 1985), p. 127-294. (All testimonies and fragments from DK, new order with a concordance table p. 417-420 ; many footnotes.)

La Croce, Ernesto - Eggers Lan, Conrado, Los filósofos presocráticos: Empédocles de Agrigento, Anaxágoras de Clazómenas - Introducciones, traducciones y notas, Barcelona : Planeta-Agostini 1996.

Lagrange, M-J., Introduction à l’étude du nouveau testament, 4e partie, Critique historique, I, Les mystères: l’orphisme, Paris : Gabalda et Compagnie, 1937, p. 156-65.

Lahman-Kuzmić, N., Suvremenost jedne Empedoklove misli [The contemporality of Empedocles’ mind], in: Forum 1-2, 1981, p. 302-27.

Laks, AndréÀ propos d'un livre de V. der Ben : The Proem of Empedocles Peri Physios, in: Revue de Philologie, 52, 1978, p. 343-347.

À propos du nouvel Empédocle: les vers 267-290 du poème physique étayent-ils l’hypothèse d’une double zoogonie?, in: Hyperboreus, 5, fasc. 1, 1999, (Bibliotheca classica petropolitana) p. 15-21.

  Soul, Sensation and Thought, in: The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, ed. A. A. Long, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1999, p. 250-270. (B 3, B 100, B 105, B 106, B 108, B 109, B 134, B 138.) Reprint Ψυχή, Αίσθηση και Σκέψη in: Οι Προσωκρατικοί Φιλόσοφοι, Συναγωγή Συστατικών Μελετημάτων Θ. Νικολαίδης- Τ. Τυφλόπουλος (μτφρ.), Δ.Ιακώβ (επιμ.), Αθήνα: Παπαδήμα 2005, p. 361-388.

À propos de l’édition du nouvel Empédocle de Strasbourg par A. Martin et O. Primavesi, in: Méthexis 14, 2001, p. 117-25.

Reading the readings: On the first person plurals in the Strasburg Empedocles, in: Presocratic Philosophy, Essays in Honour of Alexander Mourelatos, ed. by V. Caston - D. W. Graham, Aldershot: Ashgate 2002, p. 127-37.

– Phénomènes et références : éléments pour une réflexion sur la rationalisation de l’irrationnel, in: Methodos, 3 (Figures de l'irrationnel), 2003, p. 9-33, , p. 1-21. (B 111, B 112.)

Le Vide et la haine: éléments pour une histoire archaïque de la négativité, (Collection Libelles), Paris, PUF, 2004, p. 26-49 (B 17, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 128, B 147).

Some Thoughts about Empedoclean Cosmic and Demonic Cycles, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 265-282.

 El vacío y el odio: Elementos para una historia arcaica de la negatividad, trad. Leopoldo Iribarren, Madrid: Arena Libro 2009 (later 2010). (Cf.  Le Vide et la haine.

– Hystéron protéron? Des Origines aux Purifications, in: La Philologie au présent. Pour Jean Bollack, ed. C. König - D. Thouard, Villeneuve d’Ascq: Presses Universitaires du Septentrion 2010, (Cahiers de philologie, 27), p. 19-26.

– Phenomenon and reference: revisiting Parmenides, Empedocles, and the problem of rationalization, in: Modernity's Classics, ed. S.C. Humphreys - R.G. Wagner, Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer 2013, p. 165-186. (Empedocles: p. 177-183 ; B 111.) 

– Sur quelques modalités de la raison pratique dans les cosmo-ontologies présocratiques, in: Nature and the Best Life. Exploring the Natural Bases of Practical Normativity in Ancient Philosophy, ed. G. Rossi, Hildesheim-Zürich-New York: G. Olms 2013, p. 15-41. 

– Sommeils présocratiques, in: Le Sommeil : Approches philosophiques et médicales de l’Antiquité à la Renaissance, ed. V. Leroux, N. Palmieri, C. Pigné, Paris: Honoré Champion 2015, (Sciences, techniques et civilisations du Moyen Âge à l’aube des Lumières N°16), p. 29-50. (A 85.)

Lamberton, Robert,  Homer.The Theologian : Neoplatonist allegorical reading and the growth of epic tradition, 1986 (paperpack: 1989). (In an English translation of Stobaeus: B 126.)

Lambridis, Helle, Empedocles: A Philosophical Investigation. With a Pref. Essay ‘Empedocles and T. S. Eliots” by Marshall McLuhan, Alabama : University of Alabama Press 1976.

Lambropulou, Voula, The Concept of Harmony in Greek Thought from Homer to Aristotle 3: Cosmology, in: Platon 50, 1998, p. 145-68 (on cosmology of Heraclitus and Emp.).

Lami, A., I Presocratici. Testimonianze e frammenti da Talete a Empedocle, Milano 1991.

Laminne, JacquesLes quatre éléments : le feu, l’air, l’eau, la terre. Histoire d’une hypothèse, in : Mémoires couronnés et autres mémoires publiés par l’Académie royale […] de Belgique, Tome LXV, fasc. 2, Bruxelles: Hayez 1904.

Lanata, Giuliana, 19. Empedocles, in: Poetica pre-platonica; testimonianze e frammenti, testo, traduzione e commento, Firenze: La Nuova Italia, 1963, p. 128-135. (B 3, B 17, B 112, B 24, B 35, B 23.)

Lapini, Walter, La morte di Empedocle (Emped. A 1 DK), in: W. Lapini, Studi di filologia filosofica greca, Firenze: Olschki 2003, p. 91-114. 

– Empedocle e la melanconia, in: Anthropos & Iatria, 7.1, 2003, p. 48-54.

– Empedocle B 16, 2 D.-K., in: Elenchos, 2005, 26, 1, p. 111-118. (B 16.)

– Empedocle e il tempo inestinguibile (B 16 DK), in: W. Lapini, Testi frammentari e critica del testo, Problemi di filologia filosofica greca, Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura 2013, p. 87-102. (New version, modified and extended, of Empedocle B 16.2 DK, in: Elenchos 26, 2005. B 16.)

– Empedocle e la lanterna (B 84.3 DK), in: W. Lapini, Testi frammentari e critica del testo, Problemi di filologia filosofica greca, Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura 2013, p. 103-115. (B 84.)

Lasserre, François, Trois nouvelles citations poétiques, in: Museum Helveticum 26, 1969, p. 80-3 (chap. 1: Deux vers inédits d’Empédocle = B 152 Wright = B 153b Vítek).

Last, Hugh, Empedokles and His Klepsydra Again, in: Classical Quarterly 18, 1924, p. 169-73. (B 100.)

Laurenti, Renato, Bellezza e piacere nell’opera di Empedocle, in: Studi filosofici 6, 1993, p. 7-26.

La componente aritmo-geometrica nella teologia di Empedocle, in: Il dibattito su Parmenide. Aspetti della filosofia tra V e IV secolo, Atti del convegno, Macerata-Perugia, 24-26 marzo 1994 (in 1999 forthcoming).

Le Proème à Apollon d’Empédocle dans les fragments d’Aristote, in: L’Aristote perdu, Atti del Convegno organizzato dal Collegium Academicum Universale philosophiae (Atene) - Centro Internazionale di Filosofia Greca “Antonio Jannone” (Atene-Roma), ed. A. Jannone et alii, Roma: Atene, 1995, p. 103-119. (B 134, B 142)

Empedocle, Napoli : M. D’Auria editore 1999.

Bellezza e piacere nell'opera di Empedocle, pp. 3-25, in: Scritti vari da Omero ad Arnobio. Napoli : Liguori. 2007. (Quaderni del Dipartimento di filosofia e politica, Università degli studi di Napoli L'Orientale; 32.)

Lazzeri, Massimo, Un verso di Empedocle frg. 10 Diels, in: Bollettino dei classici 3a ser. I, 1980, p. 25-8. 

Lebano, A., La sfera armillare di Empedocle, Napoli 1859.

Lebedev, A. V., Orpheus, Parmenides or Empedocles? The Aphrodite verses in the Naasene treatise of Hippolytos' s Elenchos, in: Philologus 138(1), 1994, p. 24-31 (B 66, B 98, B 153, B 154d).

Leclerc, Jean (Clericus Ioannes), Bibliothèque choisie pour servir de suite à la bibliothèque universelle, année MDCCIII [1713], Tome I, seconde édition, Amsterdam, chez Henri Schelte, 1712 [16911], p. 78-83 (a reasonable criticism of 3 Aristotle’s theses on Emp.: 1) cognition is perception; 2) soul is composed of 4 roots; 3) the first creatures were engendered by chance) and p. 103-7 (some remarks on B 8, B 11, B 15, heavily influenced by Cudworth).

Lefèvre, Eckard, E di un poeta siciliano il Prometheus desmotus, in: Orpheus 8, 1987, p. 1-13 (údajné Aischylovo drama napsal autor, který byl znalcem Empedoklea).

Le Fèvre, Tanneguy, Les Poètes grecs I, Saumur : D. de Lerpinière et J. Lesnier 1664 = J. Gronovius, Thesaurus Graecarum antiquitatum, Tomus X, Vitae Poetarum gracorum: Ubi de eorumdem patria, moribus, scriptis, etc. perspicue ac compendiose disseritur, ex Gallico idiomate in Latinum translatae, Lugduni Batavorum : apud Petrum van der Aa 1701, p. 740-96 (Emp.: p. 769-70).

Legrand, Gérard, La Pensée des Présocratiques, Paris : Bordas 1970, p. 139-51 (very general and superficial sketch of Emp. teaching).

Leone, Giuliana, Epicuro ed Empedocle, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo, 2007, pp. 221-240.

Lenoir, Raymond, La doctrine des quatre éléments et la philosophie ionienne, in: Revue des études grecques 40, 1927, p. 17-50.

Leonard, William Ellery, The Fragments of Empedocles, in: The Monist 17,  n°3, 1907, p. 451-74.

 Empedocles; the man, the philosopher, the poetin: The Monist 17,  n°4, 1907, p. 560-569.

The Fragments of Empedocles Translated into English Verse, Chicago 1908 (La Salle, Illinois 19732).

Lesher, James H., Early Interest in Knowledge, in: The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Philosophy, ed. by A. A. Long, Cambridge University Press 1999, s. 225-49 (Emp.: p. 241-5).

Lesky, Erna, Die Zeugungs- und Verebungslehren der Antike und ihr Nachwirken, in: Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz, Abhandlungen der Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaftlichen Klasse 19, 1950, p. 1255-62.

Lesky, Albin, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur, Bern 1971, p. 249-52.

Lieberg, Godo, Il ruolo del piacere nella filosofia di Empedocle, in: Sophia 26, 1958, p. 221-225 (A 86, par. 9).

Lietard, G. A., Empédocle considéré comme philosophe et comme médecin, [Paris?] 1888 (19 p.; a biography of E.).

Lincoln, Bruce, Myth, Cosmos, and Society. Indo-European Themes of Creation and Destruction, Cambridge 1986, p. 35-45 (Emp. sphairos and cosmic cycle as an Indo-European mythological theme).

 Theorizing Myth, Narrative, Ideology, and Scholarship, Chicago – London: The University of Chicago Press 1999, p. 31-32, 156-159. (B 3, B 23, B 114, B 117, B 131, B 146.)

Lioy, Paolo, Un filosofo di duemila anni fa’, in: Rivista Sicula di Scienze, Letterature ed Arti 3/6, 1871, p. 5-19. (Reprinted in Conferenze scientifiche, Torino, Unione Tipografico-Editrice, 1872.)

Lisi, Francisco, La relación entre la cosmología de Empédocles y la física de Platón a la luz de los nuevos descubrimientos papirológicos, in: Εὔνοια. Estudios de filosofía antigua. Un homenaje a María Isabel Santa Cruz, ed. Correa Motta, A. – Zamora Calvo, J.M., Bogotá (Universidad Nacional de Colombia): Primera 2009, p. 327-347.

Lloyd, Alfred H., A Study in the Logic of the Early Greek Philosophy: Pluralism, Empedocles and Democritus, in: Philosophical Review 10, 1901, p. 261-70 (general and quite ahistorical account of the alleged inner logic of Emp. system).

The Coin Types of Selinus and the Legend of Empedocles, in: Numismatic Chronicle 15, 1935, p. 73-93 (A 1, par. 70).

Lloyd, Geoffrey Ernest Richard, The Hot and the Cold, the Dry and the Wet in Greek Philosophy, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 84, 1964, p. 92-106. (B 21). Reprint in Methods and Problems 1991. 

Right and Left in Greek Philosophy, in: The Journal of Hellenic Studies 82, 1962, p. 56-66. Reprint in Methods and Problems 1991. 

Who is attacked in On Ancient Medicine?, in: Phronesis 8, 1963, p. 108-126. (A 71.) Reprint in Methods and Problems 1991. 

Polarity and Analogy: Two Types of Argumentation in Early Greek Thought, Cambridge 1966 (19872, 19923).

 Demystifying mentalities, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1990. (About metaphors: p. 21-25.) 

 Methods and Problems in Greek Science: Selected Papers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991 (19932)

– Review of B. Inwood, Brad Inwood (ed., tr.): The Poem of Empedocles, in: The Classical Review 43.1, 1993, p. 164.

Αρχαία ελληνική επιστήμη. Από τον Θαλή ώς τον Αριστοτέλη, μτφρ. Π. Καρλέτσα, Ηράκλειο : Πανεπιστημιακές εκδόσεις Κρήτης, 2005. Pp. 46-53 (Εμπεδοκλής).

Lobeck, Christian AugustPhrynichi Eclogae nominum et verborum Atticorum cum notis P. J. Nunnesii, D. Hoeschelii, J. Scaligeri et Cornelii de Pauw edidit, explicuit Ch. A. L., In libraria Weidmannia, Lipsiae 1820, p. 609 (B 125: ἀλλογνῶτι) and 732 (B 115.4: ἁμαρτήσας).

 Aglaophamus sive de theologiae mysticae graecorum causis I-II, Regimontii 1829.

Pathologiae sermonis Graeci, Lipsiae 1843 (some emendations: B 19, B 78, B 100.23).

 Ῥηματικόν sive verborum Graecorum et nominum verbalium technologia, Sumtu Fratrum Borntraeger, Regimontii 1846, p. 201 and 355, n. 6 (the emendations of B 90.2 and B 137.2-3).

Loeffler, Annette, Ancrage énonciatif, mise en discours et pragmatique - Cosmos et situation de communication dans les fragments d’Empédocle, in: Sémiotiques, 10, juin 1996, p. 123-136. 

Loew, Emanuel, Empedokles, Anaxagoras und Demokrit, in: Wiener Studien 55, 1937, p. 33-48 (B 2, B 3, B 106, B 108, B 110, B 17, B 21).

Lommatzsch, Bernhard Heinrich Carl, Die Weisheit des Empedokles nach ihren Quellen [...], Berlin: G. Reimer 1830 (speculative account of the principal Empedoclean theses plus the translation of fragments).

Lombardo, Stanley, Parmenides and Empedocles. The Fragments in Verse Translation, San Francisco 1982.

Long, Anthony A., Thinking and sense-perception in Empedocles: mysticism or materialism?, in: Classical Quarterly 16, 1966, p. 256-76.

– Review of D. O’Brien, ECC, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 90, 1970, p. 238-9 (unimportant).

Empedocles’ Cosmic Cycle in the Sixties, in: The Pre-Socratics, ed. A. P. D. Mourelatos, New York 19932 (19741), p. 397-425.

Long, Herbert S., A Study of the Doctrine of Metempsychosis in Greece from Pythagoras to Plato (diss.), Princeton 1948 (19421).

The Unity of Empedocles’ Thought, in: American Journal of Philology 70, 1949, p. 142-58.

Longo, AngelaEmpedocle e l'allegoria nella Confutazione di tutte le eresie attribuita a Ippolito di Roma, in: Des évêques, des écoles et des hérétiques. Actes du colloque international sur la Réfutation de toutes les hérésiesGenève, 13-14 juin 2008, ed. G. Aragione - E. Norelli, Lausanne: Éditions du Zèbre 2011, p. 119-133.

Longo, Oddone, Simbiogenesi Empedoclea, in: Quaderni urbinati di cultura classica 1999, p. 129-52 (B 57 - B 62, B 97 etc.).

Longrigg, James, Galen on Empedocles (fragment 67), in: Philologus 108, 1964, p. 297-300. (B 67.)

Empedocles’s fiery fish, in: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. 28, 1965, p. 314-5. (Respiration, heat, vital heat, cooling water, A 73.)

Κρυσταλλοειδῶς, in: Classical Quarterly, vol. 15, n°2, 1965, p. 249-51. (Empedocles' similes, vault of the outer heaven, salt, A 30, A 51, A 54, A 66, B 56.)      

Roots, in: The Classical Review, vol. 17, n° 1, 1967, p. 1-4. (Elements, particles, mixture, sun, fire, Sphaîros, A 41, A 43, B 27.)

Ice of Bronze (Lucretius I.493), in: The Classical Review 20, 1970, p. 8-9. (Metaphors, similes, fire in a solidifying role, A 69.)

Zeno’s Cosmology, in: The Classical Review 22, 1972, p. 170-1.

Empedocles’ Fertile Fish (B 74), in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 94, 1974, p. 173-4. (B 74.)

Empedocles, Juno, and De Natura Deorum ii. 66, in: The Classical Review 24, 1974, p. 173. (B 6.)

Two Notes on Theophrastus De sensibus, in: Philologus 119, 1975, p. 163-9. (A 86, par. 1 a 9.).

The “Roots of All Things”, in: Isis 67, 1976, p. 420-38. (B 6.)

– A seminal 'debate' in the fifth century B.C.?, in: Aristotle on nature and living things: Philosophical and Historical Studies presented to David M. Balme on His Seventieth Birthdayed. A. Gotthelf, Pittsburgh - Bristol: Mathesis publications, Bristol Classical Press 1985, p. 277-287. (A 68, A 77, A 78, A 79, A 82, A 84, B 68, B 70, B 92, B 98, B 105, B 150.) 

– Presocratic Philosophy and Hippocratic Medicine, in: History of Science, 27, 1, 1989, p. 1-39. (A 74, B 6, B 21, B 23, B 111.) 

– Empedocles and the plague of Selinus: a cock and bull story?, in: Tria Lustra: A Festschrift in Honour of John Pinsent, ed. H.D.Jocelyn - H. HurtLiverpool, Liverpool Classical Monthly, 1993, p. 37-42.

 Greek rational medicine: philosophy and medicine from Alcmaeon to the Alexandrians, Routledge, London 1993. (A 77, A 78, A 79, A 85, A 86, B 6, B 21, B 65, B 96, B 98, B 100, B 105, B 111.)

Lonie, Ian M., Medical Theory in Heraclides of Pontus, in: Mnemosyne 4/18, 1965, p. 126-143 (A 1, par. 60-1, ad B 1152).

On the Botanical Excursus in De natura pueri, in: Hermes 97, 1969, p. 391-411.

López Eire, A., Sobre los orígines de la oratoria I, in: Minerva 1, 1987, p. 13-31.

Lo Presti, Roberto, Empedocle su percezione e cognizione, pp. 30-39, in: In forma di senso : l'encefalocentrismo del trattato ippocratico Sulla malattia sacra nel suo contesto epistemologico. Roma : Carocci. 2008. (Studi e ricerche. Sezione greca / Aglaia, Dipartimento di studi greci, latini e musicali, Università di Palermo; 10.)

Lortzing, FranzBericht über die griechischen Philosophen vor Sokrates für die Jahre 1876-1897: Empedokles. 1. Zur Kritik uud Erklärung der Fragmente. 2. Zur Lehre und zum Leben des Empedokles, in: Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 116, 1904, p. 31-60. (Reinach, Diels, Blass, Bergk, Knatz, Gomperz, Platt, Ward, Radloff, Wieck.)

– Review of C. E. Millerd, Empedocles, in: Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift 31/22, 1911, col. 665-73.

Lorusso, AM., Dal semplice al complesso : valenza strutturale e didattica della tecnica dell'eco in Empedoclein: Quaderni del Dipartimento di filologia linguistica e tradizione classica Augusto Rostagni, N.S. 4, 2005 Bologna Pàtron, 2006, p. 109-124.

Lovejoy, Arthur O., The Meaning of Φυσις in the Greek Physiologers, in: The philosophical Review, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1909, p. 369-383. (B 8, B 17, B 63, B 110.)

Luchte, James, Early Greek thought: before the dawn, London - New York: Continuum 2011. 

Luciani, Sabine, Philosophie et esthétique du mouvement dans le “De rerum natura, in: Présence de Lucrèce: Actes du colloque tenu à Tours 3-5 Décembre 1998, ed. Rémy Poignault, Université de Tours 1999, p. 65-76 (a comparison of Lucretius with Democritus and Emp.).

Ludwich, Arthur, Aristarchs homerische Textkritik nach den Fragmenten des Didymos, II, Leipzig: Teubner 1885. (P. 308-311 and 321-322. Useful for a count of 455 verses with spondees [S] and/or dactyls [D], and a comparaison with Homer, Hesiod and other authors writing in hexameters.)

Lüth, Johann Christoph, Die Struktur des Wirklichen im empedokleischen System “Über die Natur, Meisenheim am Glan : Hain 1970.


Maass, Ernst, Orpheus. Untersuchungen zur griechischen römischen altchristlichen Jenseitsdichtung und Religion, München 1895, p. 270 (B 115.1-2), 113, n. 150 (B 121.3) etc.

Maas, Paul, Zu Abdankungsgedicht des Nikolaos Muzalon: I. Literarisches, in: Byzantinische Zeitschrift 35, 1935, p. 2-7 (B 121.2 and 4).

– in: Byzantinische Zeitschrift 36, 1936, p. 456-7 (B 143).

Greek Metre, Oxford 1962.

Macauley, David Mark, Be-wildering Order: Toward an Ecology of the Elements in Ancient Greek Philosophy and Beyond (diss.), State University of New York - Stony Brook 1998. 

The Flowering of Environmental Roots and the Four Elements in Presocratic Philosophy: From Empedocles to Deleuze and Guattari, in: World Views: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology, Volume 9, Number 3, 2005, p. 281-314. (B 6).

 Elemental Philosophy: Earth, Air, Fire, and Water as Environmental Ideas, Albany (NY): SUNY Press, 2010. (P. 103-136: The Flowering of Ecological Roots: Empedocles elemental thought. See on-line: Gruen, Lori (2012) "Review of "Elemental Philosophy: Earth, Air, Fire, and Water as Environmental Ideas",in: Essays in Philosophy: Vol. 13: Iss. 1, Article 22: B 6.)

Mace, Sarah T., The Strasbourg Empedocles, in: Classical World 95, 2002, p. 195-7 (review of M-P, 1999).

Macris, Constantinos, Pythagore, un maître de sagesse charismatique de la fin de la période archaïque, in: Carisma profetico. Fattore di innovazione religiosa, ed. Giovanni Filoramo, Brescia 2003, p. 249-289 (pp. 255-7: B 129).

Macris, Constantinos - Skarsouli, PénélopeLa sagesse et les pouvoirs du mystérieux τις du fragment 129 d’Empédocle, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale2012/3, p. 357-377. (B 129) -

Madvig, Johan Nicolas, Adversaria critica ad scriptores graecos et latinos I: De arte conjecturali. Emendationes graecae, Hauniae : Sumptibus Librariae Gyldendalianae (F. Hegel), 1871, p. 656 (B 5).

Maggi, Paolo, La “Clessidra” di Empedocle ed un vasetto della Ca’ Morta, in: Rivista archeologica dell’antica provincia e diocesi di como 170, 1988, p. 5-10 (B 100.9).

Maignanus, Emanuel, Cursus philosophicus, Tolosae 1652 (I assume an uncompleted reference from Sturz, 1805, s. iii, as I was not able to find this book).

Malengreau, P., De la pensée d’Empédocle à la mythologie freudienne, in: Revue de psychologie et des sciences de l’éducation 6, 1971, p. 330-54.

Manetti, D[aniela?], Valore semantico e risonanze culturali della parola fύsij, in: La Parola del Passato 41, 1973, p. 426-44 (A 732).

Mansfeld, Jaap, Die Offenbarung des Parmenides und die menschliche Welt, Assen 1964.

– Heraclitus on the Psychology and Physiology of Sleep and on Rivers, in: Mnemosyne 20, 1967, p. 1-29 (p. 23: B 105)

Ambiguity in Empedocles B 17.3-5, in: Phronesis 17, 1972, p. 17-39.

Bad World and Demiurge: A ‘Gnostic’ Motif from Parmenides and Empedocles to Lucretius and Philo, in: Studies in Gnosticism and Hellenistic Religions presented to Gilles Quispel on the Occasion of his 65-th Birthday, ed. R. van der Broek - M. J. Vermaseren, Leiden 1981, p. 261-314 (Emp.: p. 278-90).

Die Vorsokratiker II: Zenon, Empedokles, Anaxagoras, Demokrit. Griechisch/Deutsch. Auswähl der Fragmente, Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun. 1986 (Universal-Bibliothek, Nr. 7966). 7. Kapitel Empedokles, p. 56-155.

Heraclitus, Empedocles, and Others in a Middle Platonist Cento in Philo of Alexandria, in: Vigiliae Christianae 39, 1985, p. 131-155 (B 115, B 16, B 117, B 121).

Heresiography in Contexts: Hippolytus’ Elenchos as a Source for Greek Philosophy, Leyden - New York - Cologne : Brill 1992 (B 6, B 16, B 30, B 21, B 109, B 110, B 115, B 117, B 118, B 119).

– Review of J. Bollack, Empédocle. Part 2: Les Origines, in: Mnemosyne 31, 1978, p. 207-9.

A Lost Manuscript of Empedocles’ Katharmoi, in: Mnemosyne 4/47, 1994, p. 79-82.

Insight by Hindsight. Intentional Unclarity in Presocratic Proems, in: Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies of the University of London 40, 1995, p. 225-32 (p. 227: B 6).

Critical Note: Empedocles and his ιnterpreters, in: Phronesis 40, 1995, p. 109-115 (a refutation of P. Kingsley’s article in: Phronesis 39, 1994, p. 235-54; A 33, B 6). Reprinted with light modifications in Critical note: Empedocles and his interpreters, in: Mansfeld J., Runia D.T. Aëtiana : vol. III, studies in the doxographical traditions of ancient philosophy, Leiden-Boston: Brill 2010, (Philosophia antiqua, vol. 118), p. 333-340.

Aristote et la structure du De sensibus de Théophraste, in: Phronesis 41/2, 1996, s. 158-88 (mainly for Empedocles: p. 161-3 and 175-7; B 106, B 108, B 63, B 109, B 107, B 105, A 86).

Parménide et Héraclite avaient-ils une théorie de la perception?, in: Phronesis 44/4, 1999, p. 326-46 (mainly for Empedocles: p. 334-5, 344).

 Aristotle on Anaxagoras in relation to Empedocles in Metaphysics A, in: Philologus, 155/2, 2011, p. 361-366.

Mansfeld, Jaap - Algra, Keimpe, Interpretative Thêtas in the Strasbourg Empedocles, pp. 317-328, in: Empsychoi logoi – Religious innovations in Antiquity: Studies in honour of Pieter Willem van der Horst, ed. Houtman A. - De Jong A. and Misset-van de Weg M., Leiden - Boston: Brill 2008.

Mansfeld Jaap - Primavesi Oliver, Die Vorsokratiker: Griechisch / Deutsch, ausgewählt, übersetzt und erläutert von J. Mansfeld und O. Primavesi, Philipp Reclam jun., Stuttgart 2011.

Manso, Johann Caspar Friedrich, Der Traum des Empedokles [oder] über die Erkennbarkeit der Natur (Somnium Empedoclis), in: Erscheinungen und Traüme, übersetzt und herausgegeben von Georg Schatz, Band II, Leipzig 1791 (= J. C. F. Manso, Vermischte Schriften, Leipzig : Dyk 1801, II.160-173).

Manuli, Paola – Vegetti, Mario, Cuore, sangue e cervello. Biologia e antropologia nel pensiero antico, Episteme, Milano 1977 (being reprinted by Petite Plaisance, Pistoia, 2009?). Pp. 55-71.

Marcinkowska-Rosół, Maria, Diogenes Laertios: Epigramy o Empedoklesie (VIII 75), in: Meander 1-4, 2008.

– Empedocles B 105 and the definition of human mind, in: Eranos 105, 2008-2009, p. 118-123. (B 105.)

Marcovich, Miroslav, Heraclitus, Mérida 1967. 

Marin, Mauritio, Empedocle, il Pitagorico di Afrodite, in: Salesianum 60, 1998, p. 65-80.

Marioti, I., Tradurre i poeti greci, in: La traduzione dei classici greci e latini in Italia oggi: problemi, prospettive, iniziative editoriali, a cura di P. Ianni - I. Mazzini, Macerata 1992, p. 87-98.

Markovic, DanielVergil’s Empedoclean Universe, in: Lucida intervalla 43, 2014, p 67-90. (B 128.)

Marmodoro, AnnaEmpedocles's metaphysics, in: Rhizomata, 4, 1, 2016, p. 1-4. On-line:

Marshall, Hallie, Rebecca, Plutarch as a source for Empedocles, Thesis for the degree of Master of Arts, Memorial University of Newfoundland (Canada), 2002.

Marsoner, Agostino, Sul fr. 128 di Empedocle, in: Annali della facoltà di lettere e filosofia dell’ Università di Napoli 15, n. s. III, 1972-3, p. 5-10. (B 128.)

A proposito di una recente edizione di Empedocle, in: Annali della facoltà di lettere e filosofie dell’ Università di Napoli 17, 1974-5, p. 43-8.

Studi Empedoclei, in: La Parola del Passato 38/209, 1983, p. 150-60.

Forma et pensiero nella filosofia greca arcaica, Galatina : Congedo 1992, p. 117-46 (chap. VI: B 3, B 6, B 17, B 21, B 22, B 26, B 30, B 35, B 131, B 133, B 134).

Martano, Giuseppe, Bagliori della chimica moderna in Empedocle d’ Agrigento, in: Kokalos 9, 1963, p. 3-18. Reprinted in Martano, G., Studi di storia del pensiero antico, Napoli-Firenze, 1968, pp. 53-81.

Il senso del concreto nei contributi sicelioti alla storia del pensiero greco, in: Kokalos 14-5, 1968-9, p. 280-94.

Suggestioni Empedoclee nella poesia di Hölderlin, in Discorsi 2/2, 1982, p. 197-211.

Physis, arete, dike nella cultura greca dell’età arcaica, in: Elenchos 8, 1987, p. 25-41 (A 732).

Martin, Alain, Un papyrus inédit d’Empédocle dans la collection de Strasbourg, in: Gnomon 67, 1995, p. 734-5.

D’Achmîm à Strasbourg, sur les traces d’Empédocle, in: Bulletin de la classe des lettres de l’Académie royale de belgique 6/8, 1997, p. 121-37.

L’Empedocle di Strasburgo: aspetti papirologici, in: Elenchos 19/2, 1998, p. 65-80. (Elenchos 19/2 = Empedocle e la cultura della Sicilia antica: Illustrazione di un frammento inedito della sua opera. Atti del Convegno tenuto ad Agrigento dal 4 al 6 settembre 1997, p. 217-411.)

– Le papyrus de Strasbourg, in: Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques, III, ed. R. Goulet, Paris : C.N.R.S.-Éditions 2000, s. v. Empédocle, p. 68-72.

Empédocle, Fr. 142 D.-K. Nouveau regard sur un papyrus d’Herculanum, in: Cronache Ercolanesi 33, 2003, p. 43-52.

Empedocle poeta. Alcune considerazioni sul fr. B 152 DK, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo, 2007, pp. 15-29. 

Martin, Alain - Primavesi, Oliver, L’Empédocle de Strasbourg: (P. Strasb. gr. Inv. 1665–1666) Introduction, édition et commentaire, with an English summary, Strasbourg - Berlin - New York: Bibliothèque Nationale et Universitaire de Strasbourg - W. de Gruyter 1999.

Martin, Hubert, Jr., Plutarch’s Citation of Empedocles at Amatorius 756 D, in: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 10, 1969, p. 57-70. (B 17.)

Martin, Thomas-Henri, Mémoire sur les hypothèses astronomiques des plus anciens philosophes de la Grèce étrangers à la notion de la sphéricité de la terre, in: Mémoires de l'Institut national de France, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 29, 2ème partie, 1879, p. 29-252 (Emp.: p. 211-35).

Martínez Nieto, Roxana, Beatriz, Particularidades morfológico-semánticas del léxico de Empédocles, in: Actas del XXXVII Simposio Internacional de la Sociedad Española de Lingüística, ed. Inés Olza Moreno - Manuel Casado Velarde - Ramón González Ruiz, Pamplona: Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra, 2008, p. 561-566.  (B 5, B 12, 24, B 25, B 35, B 49, B 51, B 56, B 61, B 122, B 129, B 134, B 148.)

Mastrofili, M., Il sistema fisiologico di Empedocle di Agrigento, Napoli : Giannini 1914.

Matsumoto, A., A Study on the Fragments of Gorgias, in: The Hiroshima University Studies 26, 1966, p. 29-50.

Mauduit, Christine, Les miracles d’Empédocle ou la naissance d'un thaumaturge, in: Bulletin de l’Association G. Budé 4, 1998 (février 1999), p. 289-309 (B 111).

Mauduit, Christine & Saetta Cottone, RossellaVoir ou entendre : faut-il choisir ? Une analyse de la réception théâtrale dans le prologue des Thesmophories, in: Cahiers des études anciennes, 51, 2014, p. 45-73. (Empedocles: p. 61- 68; A 56, B 84,)

McClelland, Norman C., Encyclopedia of reincarnation and karma, Jefferson - London: McFarland & Company 2010. (P. 87: Empedocles.)

McDiarmid, John B., Theophrastus on the Presocratic Causes, in: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology  61, 1953, p. 85-156 (Emp.: p. 106-9).

McEvilley, Thomas, The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophy, New York: Allworth Press 2002. (Emp.: p. 67-71 :  Emp. cosmic cycle; p. 106-7: Emp. and Orphism, p. 304-7: Emp. and elements).

McGonagill, Gary LanceA history of allegorical interpretation from Homer through Lucretius, Thesis in classical philosophy, Harvard University (Cambridge Ma.), 2001. (Empedocles: p. 69-78. A patchwork of several selected readings. Influenced by Kingsley.)

McIntosh Snyder, Jane, Lucretius' Empedoclean Sicily, in: The Classical World, 65, 7, 1972, p. 217-218.

McKirahan, Richard D., Jr., Philosophy before Socrates: an Introduction with Texts and Commentary, Hackett : Indianapolis - Cambridge 1994, p. 232-91 (fragments and commentaries).

Assertion and Argument in Empedocles’ Cosmology or, what did Empedocles learn from Parmenides?, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 163-89 (B 12, B 13, B 14, B 17.30-3).

– Philosophy before Socrates: an introduction with texts and commentary, (Second Edition), Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company, 2010, (Empedocles: p. 230-292).

Megino Rodríguez, Carlos, Orfeo y el Orfismo en la poesía de Empédocles: influencias y paralelismos, Colección de Estudios, Madrid : UAM Ediciones 2005 (104 p.). See review by J.-C. Picot:

 Aportación del papiro de Estrasburgo (P. Strasb. Gr. Inv. 1665-1666) a la comprensión de la demonología de Empédocles, in: Actas del XI Congreso Español de Estudios Clásicos, Antonio Alvar Ezquerra (ed.), Vol. 2, Madrid, 2005, p. 423-434.

La concepción empedoclea de la miseria humana: entre psicología, religión y moralidad, p. 55-63, in: La dignità e la miseria dell'uomo nel pensiero europeo. Atti del convegno internazionale di Madrid, 20-22 maggio 2004, ed. Guido M. Cappelli, Roma : Salerno, 2006. (Studi e saggi ; 40.) (B 2, B3, B 4, B 5,  B 11, B 15, B 110, B 112, B 114, B 115, B 124, B 129, B 131, B 132, B 146, B 147.)

Empédocles y el orfismo, in: Orfeo y la tradición órfica: un reencuentro, eds. A. Bernabé – F. Casadesús, Madrid: Akal 2008, vol. 2, p. 1105-1140.

 La transmigración en la poesía de Empédocles, in: Reencarnación: La transmigración de las almas entre Oriente y Occidente, A. Bernabé - M. Kahle - M. A. Santamaría Álvarez (eds.), Madrid, Abada 2011, p. 269-282.  

Mele, Alfonso, Empedocle e Agrigento, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo, 2007, pp.179-188.

Meriani, Angelo, 'Anaίsimoj: da Plutarco ad Empedocle (Emp. fr. 27 a D.- K. = Plut., Mor. 777 C), in: Contributi di filologia greca, ed. I. Gallo, Napoli 1990, p. 121-5.

Merker, Anne, La vision chez Platon et Aristote, International Plato Studies, Vol. 16, Saint Augustin : Academia Verlag 2003 , p. 26-30 (B 84) and 48-9 (A 92).

Merzdorf, Reinhold, Quaestiunculae Empedoclae, in: Commentationes philologae, scripserunt Seminarii Philologi Regii Lipsiensis... sodales, Lipsiae : G. Curtio dicatae 1874, p. 41-56.

Messina, Gaetano, Il lessico di Empedocle, in: Index Empedocleus, Genova 1991, I.81-97.

Empedocle “rivisatato”: testo, traduzione e commento dei frammenti di Strasburgo (P. Strasb. Gr. Inv. 1665-1666), in: Giornale di metafisica 24, 2002, p. 5-69. (B 17, Pap. Strasb.).

 Una nuova lettura di Empedocle 100 DK, in: Giornale di Metafisica, Nuova Serie, 27, 2005, p. 777-788. (B 100.)

Dalla fisica di Senofane all'Empedocle di Strasburgo: studi di filosofia presocratica, Bari: Levante editori 2007, (Le Rane 48). (P. 101-165: Empedocle “rivisatato”already published  in: Giornale di metafisica 24, 2002; p. 167-176: Una nuova lettura di Empedocle 100 DK, which is a favourable reading of Rossetti's article Empedocle scienziato, and already published in Giornale di Metafisica, Nuova Serie, 27, 2005.)

Mesturini, Anna Maria, L’eclissi di sole in Empedocle e Lucrezio, in: Studi italiani in filologia classica 80, 1987, p. 173-80.

Per una nuova interpretazione del fr. 93 D.-K. di Empedocle, in: Bolletino dei classici 13, 1992, p. 107-116.

Metropoulos, K., Ιατρική προσωκρατικων φιλοσόφων, in: Platon 15, 1963, p. 196-217 (Emp.: p. 212-4).

Métral A., Compte rendu de Memorie sulla vita d'Empedocle Gergentino di Domenico Scinà (1813), Bulletin  des sciences historiques, Antiquité, Philologie, IV, 1825, p. 313-314.

Michelini, Ann N., The Dance of the Elements: Fragment B 17 of Empedocles, in: Power and Spirit, ed. J. Siegfried, Annales Universitatis Turkuensis Ser. B No 199 Turku : Turun Yliopisto, 1993, p. 27-41.

Mikalson, Jon D., Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, Oxford University Press 2010. (Empedocles: p. 69-70, B 128.)

Miller, Patrick LeeBecoming God: pure reason in early Greek philosophy, London - New York: Continuum 2011. (Several quotations through the book.  Some pages dedicated to Empedocles: p. 72-74.)

Millerd (Smertenko), Clara Elizabeth, On the Interpretation of Empedocles (diss.), Chicago 1908 (New York 19802).

Minar, Edwin L., Cosmic periods in the philosophy of Empedocles, in: Phronesis 8, 1963, p. 127-145. (Reprint in Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy, ed. J. P. Anton -  G. L. Kustas, Albany: SUNY 1971, p. 39-58.)

 Pre-Socratic Studies, 1953-1966, in: Classical World 60.4,1966, p.143-163. (Empedocles: p. 160.)

Minz, Hubert, Anfänge des Naturrechts bei Empedokles (diss.), Bonn 1960.

Anfänge des Naturrechts bei Empedokles und ein Vergleich mit dem Naturrecht des Sophisten Antiphon, Inaugural - Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Hohen Rechtswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Köln, Bonn: G. Menden 1960. (B 9, B 135.)

Misener,GenevaLoxus, Physician and Physiognomist, in: Classical Philology 18/1, 1923, pp. 1-22 (A 97; a role of blood in Emp. theory of soul and thinking; not very informative and decisive for Emp. studies, but with interesting parallels in medicinal and philosophic speculations in 5th and 4th B. C.)

Mondolfo, Rodolpho, Imitazioni e polemiche, in: Marcovich, Miroslav – Mondolfo, Rodolpho – Tarán, Leonard, Eraclito. Testimonianze, imitazioni e frammenti. Introduzione di G. Reale, Milano 2007, pp. 194-198 (B 3.9-14, B 16, B 17.1-2 and 16-17, B 17.3-5, B 106, B 110.3-5, B 135).

Mongitore, Antonio, Bibliotheca sicula sive de scriptoribus siculis, Panormi 1707 (tomus I) a 1714 (tomus II), I.174-9 (a solid biography of Emp. accompanied with plenty of references to primary sources and contemporary scholars).

Montano, Aniello, Senso e ragione nella gnoseologia di Empedocle di Agrigentino, in: Montano, A, Methodos: Aspetti dei metodi e dei processi cognitivi nella Grecia Antica, Napoli: Loffredo 2014, (σκέψις, 25), p. 25-65 (chapter 3).

Montevecchi, Federica, Sulla complessità di Empedocle. Per un bilancio storiografico, in: Hortus Musicus, Anno VI, n° 21, 2005, p. 128-131.

 review of Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocleeds. L. Rossetti, C. Santaniello , in Hypnos, 17, 2006, p. 139-142. Review in: Hypnos

 L'eterno movimento della physis. Alcune riflessioni su Empedocle di Agrigento, in: La società degli individui, 28, 2007, p. 9-21.

 Empedocle fra mythos e logos, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo 2007, p. 71-82. (B 6, B 42,  B 134

Empedocle d'Agrigentino, Napoli : Liguori 2010. : "Empedocle: il discorso dell'antichità su amicizia e contesa." 12 November 2011."Amore e odio: Empedocle e Freud", Secondo incontro della terza edizione del corso base di formazione filosofica "Pensare la vita". 7 March 2013. 

Montuori, M., Chi sono i σοφισταί in Aristoph. Nub. vv. 332-338, in: Atti della accademia di scienze morali e politiche de la sozieta nazionale di scienze 97, 1986, p. 7-15.

Morana Cyril, Oudin Eric, Découvrir la philosophie antique, Paris, Eyrolles, 2009. (Empedocles: p. 25-7.)

Morchio, Renzo, La “fisica” di Empedocle tra cosmologie e genetica, in: Index Empedocleus I, Genova 1991, p. 49-68.

Moreno, Inmaculada RodríguezΔΑΙΜΟΝΕΣ, ΗΡΩΕΣ Υ ΑΓΓΕΛΟΙ en la filosofía presocrática, in: Habis 26, 1995, p. 29-46. (Empedocles: p. 37-40. B 21, B 23, B 59, B 112, B 115, B 126, B 134.)

Morgan, Kathryn A.Myth and philosophy from the pre-Socratics to Plato, Cambridge University Press, 2000. Empedocles: pp. 59-62.

Morgan Michael L, Review of Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic- Empedocles and Pythagorean Tradition by P. Kingsley, in: The American Historical Review Vol. 102 issue 4, 1997, p. 1129-1131.

Mori, Luca, Empedocle alla luce della complessità, in: Quaderni del ramo d'oro on-line, n° 4, 2011, p. 121-133 (but read as p. 1-13).

Moriani, Fausto, Materia comune e generazione degli elementi in Aristotele, in: Elenchos 9, 1988, p. 329-51 (on the beginning of De gen. et corr. Aristotle criticized Emp. conception of 4 elements).

Morley, John, Empedocles and Diderot, in: Fortnightly Review 1, 1875, p. 786.

Moriss, S. P.Daidalos and the Origins of Greek Art, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992, p. 221. (B 62.)

Morrison, J. S., Parmenides and Er, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 75, 1955, p. 59-68.

Mortley, R. J., The Bond of the Cosmos: A Significant Metaphor (Tim. 31c ff.), in: Hermes 97, 1969, p. 372-3.

Most, Glenn W., The poetics of early Greek Philosophy, in: The Cambridge Companion to Early Greek Philosophy, ed. by A. A. Long, Cambridge University Press 1999, p. 332-62.

The Stillbirth of a Tragedy: Nietzsche and Empedocles, in: The Empedoclean kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 31-44.

 ἄλλος δ’ ἐξ ἄλλου δέχεται. Presocratic Philosophy and Traditional Greek Epic, in: Literatur und Religion, 1,1, Wege zu einer mythisch-rituellen Poetik bei den Griechen, ed. Bierl, A.- Lämmle, R.- Wesselmann, K., Berlin-New York: W. De Gruyter 2007, (MythosEikonPoiesis 1/1), p. 271–302. (B 115.)

Motte, André, Prairies et jardins de la Grèce antique: de la religion à la philosophie, Bruxelles, Palais des Académies, 1973 (B 17, B 21, B 27, B 35, B 66, B 98, B 112, B 134, B 146).

– Aspects du prophétisme grec, in: Prophéties et oracles, II, en Égypte et en Grèce, Supplément Cahiers Évangile n° 89, Paris: Éd. du Cerf 1994, p. 41-78(B 110, B 111, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 121, B 122, B 123, B 128, B 129 B 131, B 132, B 146, B 147.)

Mourelatos, Alexander P. D., The Route of Parmenides, Yale University Press 1970.

Empedocles, in: Dictionary of Scientific Biography I-XI, ed. by C. C. Gillispie, New York : Scribner 1971, IV.367-9.

Pre-Socratic Origins of the Principle that there are no Origins from Nothing, in: Journal of Philosophy 78/11, 1981, p. 649-65 (mainly par. 4 is devoted to Emp., i. e. p. 658-664: B 11, B 12, B 17.30-3).

Quality, Structure, and Emergence in later Pre-Socratic Philosophy, in: Proceedings of the Boston area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy 2, 1987, p. 127-94. (Par. 4, p. 138-143: B 96, B 71, B 23; par. 8-12, p. 163-93: A 78, A 86-87-89-92, A 94, B 8, B 9, B 17, B 21, B 22, B 27, B 31, B 33, B 34, B 76, B 87, B 89, B 91, B 96, B 98.).

 The Concept of the Universal in some later Pre-Platonic Cosmologistsin: A Companion to Ancient Philosophyed. M. L Gill - P. Pellegrin, Malden - Oxford - Victoria: Blackwell Publishing 2006, (Blackwell companions to philosophy), p. 56-76. (A section about Empedocles: p. 64-65. Title: Empedocles: Formulae for Compounds; Biological Forms; Type-Identities Across Cycles)

 Review of Mansfeld J. - Primavesi O., Die Vorsokratiker, Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun. 2011, in: Classical Journal-Online, 2014.06.08, p. 1-5. Mourelatos on Mansfield and Primavesi.pdf

Moutsopoulos, Évanghélos, Le modèle empédocléen de pureté élémentaire et ses fonctions, in: Giornale di metafisica 21, 1999, p. 127-32 (according B. Šijaković an article with the same title was also published in Un secolo di ricerche in Magna Grecia, Atti del ventottesimo Convegno di studi sulla Magna Grecia, Taranto, 7-12 ottobre 1988, Taranto 1989, p. 119-25). 

 To what extent are Empedocles' elements pure?, in: Diotima 43, 2015, p. 131-133.

Mpozónés, Geórgios A., Ατοπα της φιλοσοφίας του Εμπεδοκλέους, 1974 (???).

Mugler, Charles, Sur quelques fragments d’Empédocle, in: Revue de Philologie, de littérature et d'histoire anciennes 25, 1951, p. 33-65 (B 84, B 17.3-5, B 85, A 92, B 22).

Deux thèmes de la cosmologie grecque, devenir cyclique et pluralité des mondes, Paris : Klincksieck 1953, p. 30-58.

 Pluralisme matériel et pluralisme dynamique dans la physique grecque d'Anaximandre à Epicure, in: Revue de philologie, de littérature et d'histoire anciennes 35, 1961, p. 67-86.

  Les Origines de la science grecque chez Homère : l'homme et l'univers physique, Paris : C. Klincksieck 1963, (Etudes et Commentaires XLVI). (P. 141 : B 84.)

Le Vide des atomistes et les pores d’Empédocle: à propos d'un passage d'Aristote, in: Revue de philologie 3/41, 1967, p. 217-24.

Kosmologische Formeln, in: Hermes 96, 4, 1968, p. 515-26 (p. 525-6: in B 26.5 it is necessary to read εἰς ἓν ἅπαντα from B 17.7 instead of the traditional version εἰς ἕνα κόσμον).

Mühl, Max, Über die Missgeschöpfe bei Empedokles, in: Rheinisches Museum 114, 1971, p. 289-96. (B 57.)

Mullach, Friedrich Wilhelm August, Disputatio de Empedoclis Proemio (Germaniae philologos Berolinum congressos Societatis Gymnasiorum Berolinensium sodales salvere iubent, interprete Frid. Guil. Augusto Mullachio), typis A. G. Schadii, Berolini 1850 (22 p.; reprinted in 1860, I.xiii-xxvi).

Quaestionum Empedoclearum specimen secundum, in: Programme d’invitation à l'examen public du Collège Royal Français, fixé au 30 Septembre 1853, Berlin : Starcke 1853 (47 p.; reprinted mostly in 1860, I.1-80).

Fragmenta Philosophorum Graecorum, Paris 1860, I.xii-xxvii and 1-80 (edition, translation and commentary of B fragments =

Müller, Carl Werner, Gleiches zu Gleichem. Ein Princip frühgriechischen Denkens (diss.), Bonn 1965, p. 26-64.

Müller, DietramHandwerk und Sprache: Die sprachlichen Bilder aus dem Bereich des Handwerks in der griechischen Literatur bis 400 v. Chr.Meisenheim am Glan: Anton Hain 1974, (Beiträge zur klassischen Philologie, Heft 51). (B 33, B 34, B 73, B 96.)

Munding, Heinz, Zur Beweisführung des Empedokles, in: Hermes 82.2, 1954, p. 129-44.

Naturwissenschaftliches aus Altsprachlicher Sicht, in: Der Altsprachliche Unterricht 27/5, 1984, p. 69-77 (B 17.2).

Muñoz Valle, Isidoro, Le problème des homoeméries dans le système d’Anaxagoras, in: L’Antiquité classique 45, 1976, p. 587-92 (on Aristotle’s conception of Anaxagoras’ homoemeries and Empedocles’ roots; A 46).

Mureddu, Patrizia, La “incomunicabilità” gorgiana in una parodia di Aristofane? Nota a Thesm. 5-21, in: Lexis 9-10, 1992, p. 115-20 (Thesm. 5-21 allegedly alludes to Gorgias and Emp., A 49, A 90, B 70, B 84, B 117.).

Mutschmann, H[ermann?], Über Parmenides B 1 Diels und Empedokles B 137.3, in: Zeitschrift für Gymnasialwissenschaft 66, 1912, p. 800.


Nagy, Albino, Di alcuni scritti attribuiti a Empedocle, in: Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei 10, 1901, p. 307-20 and 325-47 (on presence of Emp. in Arabian and Hebrew literature and philosophy; outdated by de Smet, 1999).

Nagy, Gregory, Hymnic elements in Empedocles (B 35 DK = 201 Bollack), in: Revue de philosophie ancienne, XXIV(1), 2006, p. 51-62.

Naiden F.S.Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods, Oxford - New York: Oxford University Press 2013. (Empedocles: p. 281-282; B 128.)

Nauck, August, Euripideische Studien I-II, St. Petersbourg : Eggers et comp. - Samuel Schmidt (Riga) - Leopold Voss (Leipzig) 1859, 1862, I.32-3, n. 1 (B 67.1-2: some textual suggestions).

Nelis, Damien, Patrick, Vergil's Aeneid and the Argonautica of Apollonius Rhodius, Leeds: Francis Cairns Publications, 2001. (Love and Strife; p. 98-111, 346-355.) 

– Georgics 2.458-542, Virgil, Aratus and Empedocles, in: Dictynna, 1, 2004, p. 1-21. (B 128).

– Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.416-51: noua monstra and the foedera naturae, in: Paradox and the marvellous in Augustan literature and culture, ed. by Philip R. Hardie, Oxford University Press, 2009,  p. 248-267 (Chap. 13). (Empedocles and Apollonius Rh. p. 254-256.)

– Empedoclean epic: how far can you go?, in: Dictynna  [], 11, 2014.

Nélod, Gilles, Empédocle d’Agrigente, Bruxelles : Office de Publicité 1959, 105 p. (19612, 164 p.; a popular work).

Nestle, Wilhelm, Der Dualismus des Empedokles, in: Philologus 65, 1906, p. 545-57. 

Bemerkungen zu den Vorsokratikern und Sophisten, in: Philologus 67, 1908, p. 531-84 (Emp.: p. 538-43).

Die Vorsokratiker in Auswahl übersetz und herausgegeben, von Wilhelm. Nestle, Iena: E. Diederichs 1908, p. 41-45,135-151, p. 243. Ed. 1922: p. 42-46; p. 138-155, p. 263.

Nicolai, Walter, Der Mythos von Sündenfall der Seele (bei Empedokles und Platon), in: Gymnasium 88, 1981, p. 512-24.

Nilles, J. Cl., Le fragment 8 d’Empédocle selon la perspective de Plutarque et d’Aristote, in: Mnemosyne 42, 1989, p. 365-79.

Nonvel Pieri, Stefania, Empedocle: una struttura di duplicità, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo 2007, pp. 157-178.

Norden, Eduard, Agnostos Theos. Untersuchungen zur Formengeschichte religiöser Rede, Leipzig 1913, p. 100, 130-3 and 198.

Die antike Kuntstprosa I, Leipzig - Berlin 19153, p. 15-9.

Ennius und Vergilius. Kriegsbilder aus Rom grosser Zeit, Leipzig - Berlin: Teubner 1915, p. 10-8 (chap: “Ennius Empedocleus”).

Notopoulos, James, A, The Symbolism of the Sun and Light in the Republic of Plato. I , in: Classical Philology, 39, 3, 1944, p. 163-172. (P. 170-171: Empedocles; A 56, B 132, sun as a reflection; moon and reflection of light.)

Nucci, Matteo, L’Empedocle di Strasburgo. La questione delle tre Theta, in: Elenchos, XXVI (2), 2005, p. 379-401.

– Chaos e kosmos nel “nuovo” Empedocle, in: Chaos e Kosmos, VI, 2005, p. 1-14 (on line)

La morte dell'Amicizia in Empedocle, in: Amicizia e concordia, ed. Spinelli, E., Roma 2006, pp. 45-74.

Nünlist, RenéPoetologische Bildersprache in der frühgriechischen Dichtung, Stuttgart - Leipzig: B. G. Teubener, 1998, (Beiträge zur Altertumskunde, 101).

 Poetological Imagery in Empedocles, in: The Empedoclean kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research 2005, p. 73-92.

Nutton, Vivian, Ancient Medicine, London - New York: Routledge 2004.


Obbink, Dirk, Hermachus, Against Empedocles, in: Classical Quarterly 38, 1988, p. 428-35.

The Addressees of Empedocles, in: Materiali e discussioni per l'analisi dei testi classici 31, 1993, p. 51-98 (B 112).

A Quotation of the Derveni Papyrus in Philodemus’ On piety, in: Bollettino del centro internazionale per lo studio dei papyri ercolanesi 24, 1994, p. 111-35 (p. 119-21: A 334).

Obeyesekere GananathImagining Karma: ethical transformation in Amerindian, Buddhist, and Greek rebirth, Berkeley - Los Angeles - London: University of California Press, 2002. (Ethicization and Soteriology in Empedocles: p. 214-232; B 29, B 62, B 113, B 115, B 119, B 127, B 128, B 135, B 136, B 137, B 146, B 147.)  

O’Brien, Denis, Empedocles fr. 35.14-15, in: The Classical Review 15, 1965, p. 1-4. (B 35.)

Empedocles’ Cosmic Cycle, in: Classical Quarterly 17, 1967, p. 29-40.

The Relation of Anaxagoras and Empedocles, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 88, 1968, p. 93-113 (A 6).

 Derived Light and Eclipses in the Fifth Century, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 88, 1968, p. 114-127. (A 30, A 60, A 61.)

Empedocles’ Cosmic Cycle: A Reconstruction from the Fragments and Secondary Sources, Cambridge : University Press 1969.

The Effect of a Simile: Empedocles’ Theories of Seeing and Breathing, in: Journal of Hellenic Studies 90, 1970, p. 140-179.

– Review of G. Zuntz, Persephone, in: The Times Literary Supplement, 25 August 1972, p. 992.

– Review of H. Lambridis, Empedocles, in: The Times Literary Supplement, 8 April 1977, p. 439.

– Temps et intemporalité chez Parménide, in: Les Études philosophiques, 3, 1980, p. 257-272. (p. 268-269: Empédocle, B 17.32.)

Pour interpréter Empédocle, Paris : Les Belles Lettres - Leiden : Brill 1981.

– Review of Lynne Ballew: Straight and circular, a study of imagery in Greek philosophy, in: Les études philosophiques,1982, p. 354-356.

– Review of C. Gallavotti, Empedocle, poema fisico e lustrale, in: Gnomon 54, 1982, p. 225-234. 

Héraclite et l’unité des opposés, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale 95, 1990, p. 147-71.

Comment écrire l'histoire de la philosophie? Héraclite et Empédocle sur l’un et le multiple, in: Rue Descartes, Collège international de philosophie 1-2, 1991, p. 121-38.

Empedocles Revisited, in: Ancient Philosophy 15, 1995, p. 403-70.

– Empédocle, in: Le Savoir grec, Dictionnaire critique, ed. J Brunschwig, G.E.R. Lloyd, Paris: Flammarion 1996, p. 632-645.

L’Empédocle de Platon, in: Revue des Études Grecques 110, 1997, p. 381-98.

– Review of P. Kingsley, Ancient Philosophy, in: Isis 89, 1998, p. 122-4.

Plato and Empedocles on Evil, in: Traditions of Platonism. Essays in Honour of John Dillon, ed. by J. J. Cleary, Aldershot (Hampshire) - Brookfield (Vt.) : Ashgate 1999, p. 3-27.

Hermann Diels on the Presocratics: Empedocles’ double destruction of the cosmos (Aetius II 4.8), in: Phronesis 45, 2000, p. 1-18 (A 521).

Empedocles: The Wandering Daimon and the Two Poems, in: Aevum antiquum, N.S. 1, 2001, p. 79-179 (B 115).

Die Aristophanes-Rede im Symposion: der Empedokleische Hintergrund und seine philosophische Bedeutung, in: Platon als Mythologe, Neue Interpretationen zu den Mythen in Platons Dialogen, ed. M. Janke, C. Schäfer, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 2002, p. 179-193.

Space and Movement: Two Anomalies in the text of the Timaeus, in: Plato Physicus. Cosmologia e antropologia nel ‘Timeo’, ed. C. Natali - S. Maso, Amsterdam 2003, p. 121-48 (on presence of Emp. in Plato’s Timaeus).

Empedocles: A Synopsis, in: Frühgriechisches Denken, ed. Georg Rechenauer, Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2005, p. 316-42. 

Empédocle: Vie et après-vie, in: Humanities - Christianity and Culture 36, 2005, p. 1-18.

Le Parménide historique et le Parménide de Platon, in: Plato’s Parmenides: Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium Platonicum Pragense, ed. Aleš Havlíček - Filip Karfík, Prague : OIKOUMENH 2005, p. 234-56. Reprint in Platon, ed. Dixsaut M. et al., Paris: Ellipses 2013, p. 89- 106, (Collection Lectures de...). (Empedocles: p. 244-50 in 2005, p. 97-102 in 2013; τὸ πᾶν ; B 13, B 17.32).

Aristophanes’ speech in Plato’s ‘Symposium’: The Empedoclean background and its philosophical significance, in: Plato’s Symposium. Proceedings of the Fifth Symposium Platonicum Pragense, 12. - 15. October, 2005, ed. Aleš Havlíček - Martin Cajthaml, Prague: OIKOUMENH 2007, p. 59-85.

– Life beyond the stars: Aristotle, Plato and Empedocles, in: Common to body and soul, philosophical approaches to explaining living behaviour in Greco-Roman antiquity, ed. R.A.H. King, Berlin/New York: W. de Gruyter 2006, pp. 49-102. (B 17, B 21, B 22, B 35, B 96, B 98, B 115.)

 'Immortel' et 'Impérissable' dans le Phédon de Platon, in: The international journal of the platonic tradition, I, 2007, p.109-262. (Empedocles: p. 207-211 ; B 35.14.)

Annette Rosenfeld-Löffler: La poétique d’Empédocle. Cosmologie et métaphore. Thèse de doctorat présentée à la Faculté des Lettres de l’Université de Lausanne, in: Gnomon, Vol. 81(2), 2009, pp. 97-107.

– Μονίηι in Empedocles: Slings' "iron rule", in: Mnemosyne, 63(2), 2010, p. 268-271. (B 27.)

– Themselves alone: Empedocles' description of the elements, in: λόγον διδόναι. La filosofia come esercizio del render ragione. Studi in onore di Giovanni Casertano, ed. Lidia Palumbo, Napoli : Loffredo 2011, p. 221-232.

– Empedocles' "mountain path" (Fr. 24), in: Elenchos, 33 (2), 2012, p. 301-333. (B 24.)

O’Brien, Denis, – Rashed, Marwan, Empédocle, fragment 32 Diels, in: Revue des études grecques 114/2, 2001, p. 349-58.

O'Neill, Agnes, Thomas Aquinas, Sister, The Pre-Socratic use of ψυχή as a term for the principle of motion, (diss.), Washington D. C: National Capital Press 1915, p. 36-38.

Oehler, R., Friedrich Nietzsche und die Vorsokratiker, Leipzig 1904, p. 89-98.

Ogle, M. B., Laurel in Ancient Religion and Folk-lore, in: American Journal of Philology 31, 1910, p. 287-311 (p. 297-8: B 140).

O’Keefe, M. D., The Search for Control. A Study of the Origins of the Thought of Empedocles and Heraclitus (diss.), Michigan State University, East Lansing 1969.

Olerud, Anders, L’idée de macrocosmos et de microcosmos dans le Timée de Platon, Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri 1951. P. 43-4: chap. II.1.1: Le dieu cosmique de Platon et le Sphairos d’Empédocle. P. 77-87 : chap. II.2: La doctrine des quatre éléments chez Platon et Empédocle. P. 209 : chap. III.12: La doctrine grecque du pneuma et de l’éther. Le Sphairos d’Empédocle. (B 6, B 17, B 23, B 29, B 96, B 115,) 

O'Meara, DominicEmpédocle Fragment 143 : Un nouveau témoignage chez Jean Italos, in: REG 123, 2010/2, pp. 877-879. (B 143.)

Onians, Richard Broxton, The Origins of European Thought, Cambridge 1991 (19511), p. 25-30 (B 5: φρήν : p. 28 n.6), 51-2, 194 (B 111.9: μένος), p. 54, 71 (B 105), p. 141 (B 134), p. 202-3 (B 6.3), p. 341 (B 17.15).

Opsopaus, John, Ancient Greek Esoteric Doctrine of the Elements, 1998-9 (based on a series of articles published in Circle Network News, Issues 68-71), (general mystical meditations on four elements and Empedocles, strongly dependent on P. Kingsley).

O’Rourke, Donncha,  Lovers in Arms: Empedoclean Love and Strife in Lucretius and the Elegists, in: Dictynna  [], 11, 2014.

Osborne, Catherine (see also Rowett), Empedocles Recycled, in: Classical Quarterly 37, 1987, p. 24-50.

Rethinking Early Greek Philosophy. Hippolytus of Rome and the Presocratics, London : Duckworth 1987.

Was Verse the Default Form for Presocratic Philosophy?, in: Form and Content in Didactic Poetry, ed. Catherine Atherton, Bari: Levante Editori 1998, (Nottingham Classical Literature Studies, vol. 5, 1997), p. 23-35.

Empedocles Scholarship, in: Times Literary Supplement, June 4, 1999, p. 17.

Rummaging in the Recycling Bins of Upper Egypt: A discussion of A. Martin and O. Primavesi, ‘L’Empédocle de Strasbourg’, in: Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 18, 2000, p. 329-56.

Presocratic Philosophy: A very short Introduction, (Very short Introductions, Nr. 103), Oxford : Oxford University Press 2004.

Sin and Moral Responsibility in Empedocles’s Cosmic Cycle, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. by A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research 2005, p. 283-308.

– Empedocles, in: Dumb beasts and dead philosophers: humanity and the humane in ancient philosophy and literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007, p. 50-54. (In Chapter 3: On the Transmigration of Souls: Reincarnation Into Animal Bodies in Pythagoras, Empedocles, and Plato. B 137.)

Osborne, H.Colour Concepts of the Ancient Greeks, in: British Journal of Aesthetics 8.3, p. 269-283.

Ouvrard, Florence, Les poètes philosophes présocratiques et l'épopée homérique : Quelques aspects de leur pensée religieuse et morale, Diss. Université Paris Sorbonne - UFR de Grec, Dir. Paul Demont, 2010. (P. 103-146 : Partie III: L'Epique chez Empédocle [à partir du fr. 17 DK et du papyrus de Strasbourg a(i) et a (ii)].)

Owens, Joseph, Aristotle on Empedocle Fr. 8, in: Essays on Plato and the Pre-Socratics (= Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Suppl. 2), ed. by R. A. Shiner - J. King-Farlow, Edmonton (Alberta) : Humanities Centre of the University of Alberta 1976, p. 87-100.


Padel, Ruth, In and out of the mind : Greek images of the tragic self, Princeton : Princeton University Press 1992 (pp. 41-42 : B 3 ; p. 42-43 : B 105 ; p. 43 : B 98 ; p. 60 : B 84 ; p. 89 : B 100). 

Padró, J., Deux possibles mentions des quatre éléments dans la littérature égyptienne classique, in: Faventia 2/2, 1980, p. 5-17 (B 6 and 4 elements in the ancient Egypt).

Palmer, John, Parmenides and Presocratic Philosophy, Oxford: 2009. (Empedocles' Element theory and Parmenides: p. 260-312. (B 2, B 3, B 8, B 9, B 11, B 12, B 13, B 15, B 17, B 21, B 22, B 23, B 26, B 27, B 28, B 29, B 31, B 35, B 62, B 96, B 100, B 112, B 129, B 133, B 134, a(i), a(ii), b, c, d, e, f.)

– Revelation and Reasoning in Kalliopeia’s Address to Empedocles, in: Rhizomata, 2013, 1(2), p. 308-329. (Kalliopeia is addressing Empedocles in B 2, B 23, B 111. Empedocles will re-present, as his generic models Hesiod and Parmenides re-presented before him, the revelation he initially received from a divine source. B 2, B 3, B 4, B 17, B 23, B 112, B 111, B 115, B 131, B 146.)

– Elemental Change in Empedoclesin: Rhizomata, 4, 1, 2016, p. 30-54. On-line:

Palumbo, Lidia, Empedocle e il linguaggio poetico, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo 2007, p. 83-107. (B2, B 3, B 6, B 8, B 17, B 20, B 23, B 99, B111, B 129, B 132.)

–  Poesia e filosofia in Empedocle di Agrigento, in: Il pensiero politico meridionale, Atti del Convegno “Il pensiero politico meridionale” Avellino 1-2 dicembre 2006, a cura di Giuliano Minichiello e Clementina Gily, Avellino, Elio Sellino Editore (Edizioni del Centro Dorso) 2008, p. 131-146.

Panagiotou, S., Empedocles on his own Divinity, in: Mnemosyne 36, 1983, p. 276-85.

Pancamo, E., Empedocle e Pirandello. La continuità dello spirito classico nella terra Agrigentina. Discorso, Agrigento-Dima : Liceo classico Empedocle 1955, 26 p. (an inaugural discourse starting academical year of Lyceum ‘Empédocle’ in Agrigento).

Panzerbieter, Friedrich, Beiträge zur Kritik und Erklärung des Empedokles (diss.), in: Einladungs-Programm des Gymnasium Bernhardinum in Meiningen, Meiningen 1844.

Zu Empedokles, in: Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft 3, 1845, col. 883-7 and 889-93.

Paolucci, P., Zoogonia lucreziana: Una versione scientifica, De rerum natura 5, 783-825, in: Lingue tecniche del greco e del latino 2, Atti del Ii seminario internazionale sulla letteratura scientifica e tecnica greca e latina, Trieste, 4-5 ottobre 1993, a cura di S. Sconocchia - L. Toneatto, Bologna : Pàtron 1997, p. 93-103.

Papabasileiou, G. A., Κριτικαι παρατηρήσεις εις Πλουτάρχου Τα Ηθικά, in: Αθηνα 10, 1898, p. 167-242 (A 72 etc.).

Parker, Robert, Miasma, Oxford 1983, p. 301 (B 140).

–  Early orphism in: A. Powell (ed.), The Greek world, London/New York : Routledge, 1995, p. 498-499. B 115.

Pascal, CarloL'imitazione di Empedocle nelle Metamorfosi di Ovidio, in: Rendiconti della R accademia di archeologia, lettero e belle-arti di Napoli : Tipografia della R. Università 1902, p. 59-85. (Stab. Tip. della R. Università A. Tessitore e Figlio, 1902 - 29 pages, reprint in: C. Pascal, Graecia Capta, Florence, Le Monnier 1905, p. 129-151. Facsimile Publisher, Delhi 110052, India, distributed by Gyan Books.) (B 22, B 35, B 38, B 73, B 124, B 128, B 129, B 130, B 136, B 137.)

Patočka, Jan, Předsokratovská filosofie [The Presocratic Philosophy], (skriptum FF), Praha 1968, p. 126-143.

Pearson, Alfred Chilton, Review of the first edition of FVS, in: The Classical Review 23, 1909, p. 48-50.

Peithmann, Ernst Christian Heinrich, Empedocles (series: “Biographia Antique oder ein Bericht über das Leben und die Schriften der ältern und neueren Magier, Kabbalisten und Philosophen, sowie einiges über die Grundsätze und Lehren der ersten Urheber und Stifter der magischen und okkulten Wissenschaften”, Zweite Serie: Ältere griechische Philosophen, Berichte über deren Leben, Lehren und Schriften, Heft 3), Bitterfeld - Leipzig : F. E. Baumann 1901 (19 p.). – Die Naturphilosophie vor Sokrates, in: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 8/1, 1901, p. 214-63 and 308-42, Empedocles: p. 231-45 (very general and little substantial outline of basic theses of E. Physics with regard to Parmenides’ philosophy; worthless). 

Peixoto, Miriam Campolina DinizReview of Livio Rossetti e Carlo Santaniello, Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, in: Síntese, Revista de filosofia, vol. 32, no 102, 2005, p. 131-135.

Pelikan, Christina, Empedokles, Leben, Lehre und Rezeption durch Hölderlin, Universitat Koblenz-Landau. 2008-2009/ Magister Philosophie und Germanistik.

Pellati, Francesco, La dottrina degli elementi nella fisica di Vitruvio, in: Rinascimento 2, 1951, p. 241-59 (about possible influence of Emp. theory of 4 roots on Vitruvius).

Pender, Elizabeth.E., ‘Perforated right through’ - why Plato borrows Empedocles’ klepsydra, in: Leeds International Classical Studies 11.2, 2013.  (B 8, B 9, B 23, B 26, B 33, B 34, B 35, B 38, B 52, B 62, B 71, B 84, B 87, B 90, B 96, B 100, B 110, B 112, B 115, B 129, B 146.)

Pepple, John, A Lost Fragment of Empedocles, in: Journal of Value Inquiry 18, 1996, p. 169-186.

Peppmüller, Rudolf Heinrich (ed), Kleine philologische Schriften von Theodor Bergk, II, zur griechischen Literatur, Halle 1886, (Opuscula philologica Bergkiana, Volume II). Empedocles: p. 3-66.

Pereira, Ivanete, Considerações sobre Empédocles e a orden órfico-pitagórica, in: Hypnos, 11, 2003(2), p. 98-111.

– Aspectos sagrados do mito e do lógos: poesia hesiódica e filosofia de Empédocles, São Paulo: EDUC (PUC-SP Editora) 2006. (Diss. de Mestrado em Filosofia - PUC-SP, 2003)

Périllié, Jean-LucLa métaphore du sentier (atrapos) chez Aristophane et Empédocle. Le ridicule d'un profanateur de la philosophiein: Revue de Philosophie Ancienne, XXVII (2), 2009, p. 63-97. (B 112, B 129.)

Perilli, LorenzoEmpedocle, Platone ed il clinamen epicureo, in: Museum criticum 25-8, 1990-3, p. 281-9 (B 35).

La teoria del vortice nel pensiero antico: dalle origini a Lucretio, Pisa : Pacini 1996, p. 55-64 (B 35, B 115).

– Empedocle, in: La Filosofia antica: Itinerario storico e testuale, ed. Lorenzo Perilli - Daniela P. Taormina, Torino: Utet Università 2012, p. 129-138.

Perrot, M., Empédocle, in: Dictionnaire des philosophes 1, 1984, p. 841-6.

Pessanha, José Américo MottaEmpédocles e a democracia, thesis, Rio de Janeiro, 1965, in: Kleos, 7-8, 2003-2004, p. 109-182.

Pesenti, Giovanni B., Un epigramma attribuito ad Empedocle e la version di F. Filelfo, in: Athenaeum 2 1914, p. 325-9 (B 161).

– Ancora dell’epigramma ps.-Empedocleo, in: Athenaeum 4 1916, p. 339-40 (B 161).

Petersen, Christian, Review of Brandis, Geschichte, in: Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 97, 1837, col. 161-8.

Pettazzoni Raffaele, La religione nella Grecia antica fino ad Alessandro, Bologna: Nicola. Zanichelli 1921. (Empedocles: p. 192-194.)
Petrucci, Federico MariaTeone di Smirne. Expositio rerum mathematicarum ad legendum Platonem utilium. Introduzione, traduzione, commento, Academia Verlag, Sankt Augustin 2012. (B 143.) 

Peyron, Amadeo Vittorio, Empedoclis et Parmenidis fragmenta ex codice Taurinensis Bibliothecae restituta et illustrata ab A. P. Simul agitur de genuino Graeco textu Commentarii Simplicii in Aristotelem De coelo et mundo, Leipzig 1810, p. 27-55. (In Google Books.)

Pfannmüller, GustavTod, Jenseits und Unsterblichkeit in der Religion, Literatur und Philosophie der Griechen und Römer, München – Basel: E. Reinhardt Verlag 1953. (Pages 171-172: some interesting remarks on daimon: everybody is originally a daimon but in consequence of a pollution becomes a soul which is not composed of 4 roots and mixed with a body; and pages 184-188: translation of E. fragments and testimonies concerning soul and underworld.)

Pfligersdorffer, Georg, Studien zu Poseidonios, in: Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Klasse 232/5, 1959, p. 100-31 = G. P., Itinera Salisburgensia: gesammelte Aufsätze zur Antike und ihrem Nachwirken, hrsg. von M. Glusl, Salzburg : Abakus 1999 (B 27, B 28, B 35.3-4 etc.).

Ovidius Empedocleus. Zu Ovids Ianus-Deutung, in: Grazer Beiträge 1, 1973, p. 177-209 = G. P., Itinera Salisburgensia: gesammelte Aufsätze zur Antike und ihrem Nachwirken, hrsg. von M. Glusl, Salzburg : Abakus 1999  (the cosmogony in Fast. I.89-144 is allegedly Empedoclean one).

Piatek, J., Nietzsches Empedokles-Fragmente, Progr. Gymn. Stryj 1910.

Piazzi, Lisa, I motivi dell’ammirazione per Empedocle, pp. 42-46, in: Lucrezio e i Presocratici : un commento a De rerum natura 1, 635-920, Pisa : Scuola normale superiore, 2005. (Testi e commenti ; 1). 

La conferma dell’integrazione tra etica e fisica nell’« Empedocle di Strasburgo », pp. 49-52, in: Lucrezio e i Presocratici : un commento a De rerum natura 1, 635-920, Pisa : Scuola normale superiore, 2005. (Testi e commenti ; 1.)   

Picot, Jean-Claude, À propos du: The Poem of Empedocles, de B. Inwood, in: Revue de philosophie ancienne, XIII(1), 1995, p. 81-104.

Sur un emprunt d’Empédocle au “Bouclier” hésiodique, in: Revue des études grecques, 111, 1998(1), p. 42-60. (B 99, A 93, B 29.1, B 134.2.)

L’Empédocle magique de P. Kingsley, in: Revue de philosophie ancienne XVIII(1), 2000, p. 25-86. (B 6, B 149, B 148, B 19, B 128.1-3.)

Les cinq sources dont parle Empédocle, in: Revue des études grecques, 117, 2004(2), p. 393-446. (B 143, B 138, B 62.3, B 89, B 110.2, B 24, B 35.1, B 99, B 4.2, B 21.2, B 71; corrigenda in: REG 118/1, 2005, p. 322-5.) See the article

Aristote, Poétique 1457 b 13-14 : la métaphore d'espèce à espèce, in: Revue des études grecques 119, 2006(2), p. 532-551. (B 138, B 143.)

– Review of Carlos Megino Rodríguez, Orfeo y el orfismo en la poesía de Empédocles: influencias y paralelismos. Colección de Estudios, 98. Madrid:  Ediciones de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM Ediciones), 2005, on line: Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2007.11.02.

Empedocles, fragment 115.3:  Can one of the Blessed pollute his limbs with blood?, in: Reading ancient texts. Volume I: Presocratics and Plato - Essays in honour of Denis O’Brien, edited by Suzanne Stern-Gillet and Kevin Corrigan, Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2007, (Brill’s studies in intellectual history, 161.), p. 41-56. (B 115.)

La brillance de Nestis (Empédocle, fr. 96), in: Revue de philosophie ancienne, XXVI(1), 2008, pp. 75-100. (B 96, B6, B 111).

Empédocle pouvait-il faire de la lune le séjour des Bienheureux ?, in: Organon (Warszawa), 37(40), 2008, pp. 9-37. (B 115 De exilio, B 146, B 147.) Online:

Water and bronze in the hands of Empedocles' Muse, in: Organon, 41, 2009, pp. 59-84. (B 100, B 143.)

 Les dieux du fr. 128 et le mythe des races, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale2012/3, p. 339-356. (B 128, B 115.)

– Sagesse face à Parole de Zeus : une nouvelle lecture du fr. 123.3 DK d’Empédocle, in: Revue de Philosophie Ancienne, XXX - 1, 2012, p. 23-57. (B 122, B 123, B 128.)

– L’image du πνιγεύς dans les Nuées. Un Empédocle au charbon, in: Comédie et Philosophie: Socrate et les "Présocratiques" dans les Nuées d'Aristophane, ed. A. Laks – R. Saetta Cottone, Paris: Editions Rue d'Ulm 2013, p. 113-129. (B 6, B 115, B 120, B 121.)

– Apollon et la φρὴν ἱερὴ καὶ ἀθέσφατος (Empédocle, fr. 134 DK), in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. VI nº11, 2012, p. 1-31. On-line:  . (B 6, B 29, B 47, B 84, B 133, B 134.)

– Un nom énigmatique de l'air chez Empédocle (fr. 21.4 DK)in: Les Etudes philosophiques, 2014, n°3, p. 343-373. (B 6, B 21, B 84, B 149.)

Picot, Jean-Claude - Berg, William, Along a mountain path with Empedocles, in: Elenchos, XXXIII, 2012(1), p. 5-20. (B 24.)

– Empedocles vs Xenophanes: differing notions of the divine, in: Organon, 45, 2013, p. 5-19. (B 3, B 6, B 27, B 84, B 98, B 134.)

– Cleombrotus cites Empedocles in Plutarch’s De defectu: a question of method in interpreting fr. 24 DK, in: Elenchos, XXXV, 2014(1), p. 127-148. (B 24.)  

– Lions and promoi: final phase of exile for Empedocles' daimones, in: Phronesis 60(4), 2015, p. 380-409. See the article (you can download) at the bottom of the page

Pierris, Apostolos L. (ed.), The Empedoclean Κόσμος: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research 2005.

ΟΜΟΙΟΝ ΟΜΟΙῼ and ΔΙΝΗ: Nature and Function of Love and Strife in the Empedoclean System, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research 2005, p. 189-224. (B 91, B 22, B 17.18-20, B 35.3-5, Pap. Strasb. aII.10-9, B 21.9-14, B 134.).

Reconstruction of Empedocles’ Poem, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research 2005, p. i-xcvi (Appendix).

The Emergence of Reason from the Spirit of Mystery, Volume II: Mystery and Philosophy, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research 2007, p. 155-8, 173, 203-4. (B 6: Hera = earth.)

Pizzagalli, Angelo Maria, Il filosofo di Agrigente, in: Atene e Roma 20, 1917, p. 155-60 (superficial summary of Emp. teaching plus eulogies of E. Bignone’s study from 1916).

Platt, Arthur, Notes on Empedocles, in: The Journal of Philology 24, 1896, p. 246-7 (mostly redundant emendations B 9.3, B 21.13-4, B 100.8 a 25, B 112.9, B 125 and B 128).

Pokorný, Jindřich, Empedoklés z Akragantu. O podstatě světa. Očistná píseň [Empedocles of Acragas. On the substance of the world. The purgative song], Praha : Supraphon 1944 (general sketch of Emp. teaching plus the poetic translation of fragments and several testimonies).

Pohlenz, Max, Nomos und Physis, in: Hermes 81, 1953, p. 418-438, p. 426 (B 9.5). 

Polito, Roberto, Asclepiades of Bithynia and Heraclides Ponticus: medical Platonism?, in: Aristotle, Plato and Pythagoreanism in the First Century BC: New directions for philosophy, ed. M. Schofield, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2013, p. 118-138. (A1.61 On the woman whose breathing had stopped, A 43 On the smallest things.)

Pötscher, Walter, Die Bedeutung des Wortes ΓΛΑΥΚϹΠΙΣ, in: Philologus 141.1, 1997, p. 3-20. (B 42.) 

Portale, Elisa Chiara, Le nymphai e l'acqua in Sicilia: contesti rituali e morfologia dei votivi, in: Cultura e religione delle acque, ed. A. Calderone, Roma: Giorgio Bretschneider, 2012, p 169-191, plus Tav. XVI-XIX. (p. 186-187: B 6.)

Porter, James, The Origins of aesthetic thought in ancient Greece: matter, sensation, and experience, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2010. (Empedocles: p. 152-164 mainly.)

Pozzoni, IvanL'aristocrazia moderata di Empedocle d'Agrigento, in: Per la filosofia, filosofia e insegnamento, XXIX, 84/1, 2012, p. 53-70.

– L’ontologia civica di Empedocle d’Agrigento, in: Información Filosófica, vol. IX, fasc.18, 2012, p. 18-44.

Powell, John Undershell, The Simile of the Clepsydra in Empedocles, in: Classical Quarterly 17, 1923, p. 172-4 (B 100).

Pralon, Didier, Review of D. O'Brien Pour interpréter Empédocle, 1981, in: Revue de philologie, de littérature et d'histoire anciennes 62, 1988, p. 139-142.

Préaux, Claire, La lune dans la pensée grecque, Bruxelles : Palais des académies 1970. (Pages 50-52, 173-175, 183, 186-187. A 30, A 59, A 60, A, 61, A 62, B 42, B 43, B 45, B 46, B 62, B 65, B 67, B 100, B 109.)

Préaux, Jean-G., Un fragment retrouvé du De rerum natura de Varron, in: Homages à J. Bayet (Collection Latomus 70), Paris 1964, p. 587-98 (B 109).

Preus, Anthony, Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy, (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements, No. 78), Lanham - Toronto – Plymouth: Scarecrow Press 2007.

Preller, Ludwig, Zur Kritik der Fragmente des Empedokles, in: Zeitschrift für die Alterthumswissenschaft 18, 1837, col. 153-8 (analysis and emendation of B 2.1-2, B 6, B 17, B 21, B 40, B 96).

Prier, Raymond Adolph, Empedocles 17. 1-13. A suggested Reconstruction and Interpretation, in: Platon 28, 1976, p. 214-23.

Archaic Logic: Symbol and Structure in Heraclitus, Parmenides, and Empedocles (De proprietatibus litterarum ser. pract. XI.), The Hague - Paris : Mouton 1976, p. 120-48.

Primavesi, OliverZur Geschichte des Deutschen Papyruskartells, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 114, 1996, p. 173-187.

– Der Strassburger Empedoklespapyrus, in: Der Neue Pauly, herausgegeben von H. Cancik und H. Schneider, Stuttgart-Weimar 1997, Band III, p. 1015.

– Empedoklesstudien: Ein unveröffentlichter Papyrus und die indirekte Überlieferung, Habilitationsschrift, Frankfurt 1997.

– Editing Empedocles. Some longstanding Problems Reconsidered in the Light of the Strasburg Papyrus, in: Fragmentsammlungen philosophischer Texte in der Antike. Le raccolte dei frammenti di filosofi antichi. Atti del Seminario internazionale Ascona, Centro Stefano Franscini, 22-27 Settembre 1996, hrsg. von W. Burkert, L. Gemelli Marciano, E. Matelli, L. Orelli (Aporemata, 3), Göttingen 1998, p. 62-88.

Neues zur aristotelischen Vorsokratiker-Doxographie, in: Antike Naturwissenschaft und ihre Rezeption 8, 1998, s. 25-41 (Pap. Strasb. aI.6-aII.3 versus Arist. Met. 1000 a 18 - b 19).

Empedocle: il problema del ciclo cosmico e il Papiro di Strasburgo, in: Elenchos 19/2, 1998, p. 241-88. (Elenchos 19/2 = Empedocle e la cultura della Sicilia antica: Illustrazione di un frammento inedito della sua opera. Atti del Convegno tenuto ad Agrigento dal 4 al 6 settembre 1997, p. 217-411.)

  Empedokles von Akragas, in: Große Gestalten der griechischen Antike, ed. K. Brodersen, München: 1999, p. 216–223.

La Daimonologia della fisica empedoclea, in: Aevum Antiquum, N.S. 1, 2001, p. 3-68. (Scholia, B 115.)

 Lecteurs antiques et byzantins d’Empédocle. De Zénon à Tzétzès, in: Qu’est-ce que la Philosophie Présocratique? What is Presocratic philosophy?, ed. by A. Laks - C. Louguet, Lille: Presses universitaires du Septentrion 2002, p. 183-204.

Die Häuser von Zeus und Hades: zu Text und Deutung von Empedokles B 142 D.-K, in: Cronache Ercolanesi 33, 2003, p. 53-68.

The Structure of Empedocles’ Cosmic Cycle: Aristotle and the Byzantine Anonymous, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research 2005, p. 245-65.

Theologische Allegorie: Zur philosophischen Funktion einer poetischen Form bei Parmenides und Empedokles, in: Wissensvermittlung in dichterischer Gestalt, ed. Marietta Horster - Christiane Reitz, Palingenesia Band 85, Stuttgart: Franz Steiner 2005, p. 69-93. (B 6, B 21.9-12, B 27, B 29, B 30, B 31, B 115, B 134.)

Empedokles in Florentiner Aristoteles-Scholien, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 157, 2006, p. 27-40.

 Die Suda über die Werke des Empedokles, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, 158, 2006, p. 61-75.

Apollo and Other Gods in Empedocles, in: La costruzione del discorso filosofico nell’età dei Presocratici / The Construction of Philosophical Discourse in the Age of the Presocratics, ed. M. M. Sassi, Pisa : Edizioni della Normale 2006, p. 51-77. (B 1152, B 1151, B 134.)

Teologia fisica, mitica e civile in Empedocle, in: Empedocle : tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo 2007, (Skepsis, 19), p. 30-47. (Scholia, B 35, B 21.12, B 6, B 115, B 147, fr. 9 Hunger, B 142, B 139.)

Zur Überlieferung und Bedeutung des Empedokleischen Titels ”Καθαρμο, in: Katharsiskonzeptionen vor Aristoteles. Zum kulturellen Hintergrund des Tragödiensatzes. Herausgegeben von M. Vöhler und B. Seidensticker, Berlin / New York : 2007, p. 183-225.

Empédocle : divinité physique et mythe allégorique, in: Philosophie antique 7, 2007, p. 51-89. (Scholia, A 72, B 6, B 21, B 29, B 31, B 35, B 59, B 115, B 134, B 142, B 147, a(ii) 2.)

– Empedocles: physical and mythical divinity , p. 250-283 (Chapter 8), in: The Oxford Handbook to Presocratic Philosophy, ed. P. Curd - D. W. Graham, Oxford: Oxford University Press 2008. (Translation into English of the previous title in French, but with a change of interpretation of B 59 – Scholia, A 72, B 6, B 21, B 29, B 31, B 35, B 59, B 115, B 134, B 142, B 147, a(ii) 2.). That contribution can be read in full on:    . Or:,%20Presocratics/Primavesi,%20Empedocles,%20Physical%20and%20Mythical%20Divinity.pdf

Empedokles Physika I : Eine Rekonstruktion des zentralen Gedankengangs, Berlin - New York: Walter de Gruyter 2008, (Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete, 22). (B 17, a(i), a (ii), c, B 20, B 21, B 76, b, B 23, B 26, B 35, B 27a, B 28, B 27, B 29, B 30, B 31, d, B 139, f - Intermezzo: B 115, B 59.) See review by R. Janko, 2010.

 Medicine Between Natural Philosophy and Physician’s Practice: A Debate Around 400 BC, in: Quo Vadis Medical Healing: Past Concepts and New Approaches, (= International Library of Ethics, Law, and the New Medicine 44), ed. S. Elm - St. N. Willich, Springer Science + Business Media B. V. 2009, p. 29–40. (Empedocles as a Doctor: p. 30-32. Empedocles' Physics: p. 32-34. Empedocles' Theory of the Elements as a Medical Axiom in Philistion: p. 34-35.)

– Aristoteles oder Empedokles? Charles Darwin und Eduard Zeller über einen antiken Ansatz zur Evolutionstheorie, p 25–65, in: Eduard Zeller. Philosophie- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte im 19. Jahrhundert, Gerald Hartung (ed.), Berlin / New York, Walter de Gruyter, 2010.

– Zu Brechts Empedokles, in: Der Philosoph Bertolt Brecht, ed. M. Mayer, Würzburg: 2011, p. 25-37.

7. Kapitel: Empedokles, in: Die Vorsokratiker: Griechisch / Deutsch, ausgewählt, übersetzt und erläutert von J. Mansfeld und O. Primavesi, Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun. 2011, (Reclam Bibliothek, Hard cover, Bd. 10730), p. 392-563. Reprint with minor addenda and corrigenda in 2012, Reclams Universal-Bibliothek, Bd. 18971.

– Empedokleisches im Tod des Empedokles: Ein neuentdeckter Text des Vorsokratikers und Hölderlins Trauerspiel, in: Hölderlin in der Moderne. Kolloquium für Dieter Henrich zum 85. Geburtstag, hrsg. von Friedrich Vollhardt, Berlin 2014, 13–41.

– § 13: Empedokles, in: Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie. Die Philosophie der Antike, I, Frühgriechische Philosophie, ed. D. Bremer - H. Flashar - G. Rechenauer, Basel: Schwabe 2013, p. 667-739. (Short review by J. Mansfeld in Mnemosyne 68, 2015, p. 331-343, at p. 340-341.) 

– Empedokleisches im Tod des Empedokles: Ein neuentdeckter Text des Vorsokratikers und Hölderlins Trauerspiel, in: Hölderlin in der Moderne. Kolloquium für Dieter Henrich zum 85. Geburtstag, ed. von Friedrich Vollhardt, Berlin 2014, p. .13–41.

– Die Zerstörungskraft der göttlichen Liebe: Empedokles im XII. Gesang von Dantes Inferno, in: Deutsches Dante-Jahrbuch, 90, 2015, p. 36-74.

– Empedocles’ Cosmic Cycle and the Pythagorean Tetractys, in: Rhizomata, 4, 1, 2016, p. 5-29. On-line:

Primavesi, Oliver, - Patzer, Andreas, Die übertiefe Tiefe (Empedokles B 35, 3-5 und “Physika” I, 288-290, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 135, 2001, p. 1-10.

Primavesi, Oliver - Alpers, Klaus, Empedokles im Wiener Herodian-Palimpsest, in: Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 156, 2006, p. 27-37 (a new edition of B 153b).

Lecteurs antiques et byzantins d’Empédocle de Zénon à Tzétzès, in: Qu’est-ce que la Philosophie Présocratique?, ed. A. Laks - C. Louguet, Lille 2002, p. 183-204.

Przyluski, Jean, Les mages et les Medes, in: Revue de l’histoire des religions 121, 1940, p. 128-140 (A 146).

Les sept puissances divines en Grèce, in: Revue d’histoire et de philosophie religieuses 18, 1938, p. 255-62 (a sketch of Emp. cosmology and its comparison with alleged Zoroastrian pattern).

Puglia, Enzo, Demetrio Lacone e Empedocle, in: Atti del XVII Congresso internazionale di papirologia (Napoli 19-26 Maggio 1983), Napoli 1984, II.437-46 (B 100.1-2, B 142).

Demetrio Lacone ed Empedocle, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo, 2007, p. 270-276. (B 100.1-2, B 142, with a discussion of the articles by A. Martin and O. Primavesi on B 142.)

 Empedocle e gli epicurei, la testimonianza dei papiri ercolanesi, in: Quaderni di Atene e Roma. Cinque incontri sulla cultura classica, ed. M. Caposso, Lecce: Pensa Multimedia 2015, p. 71-81.


Radif, Ludovica, Il logos eracliteo/empedocleo e la potenza ancestrale del filosofo sciamano, in: Giornale di metafisica 23, 2001, p. 257-80 (B 111).

Radlov, Ernest Lvovič, Empedokl, in: Žurnal ministerstva narodnago prosveščenija, otdel klassičeskoj filologii, 1889, sixth decade, parts 261-3, part 261 (February), p. 81-96, part 261 (March), p. 97-100, part 262 (April), p. 1-32, and part 263 (May), p. 33-51 (study and translation of some testimonies and fragments).

Ragot, P., Une construction archaïque chez Empédocle,  in: Études classiques, 72(3), 2004, p.195-216. 

Rambaldi, Simone. Empedocle e la bonifica di Selinunte: un breve riesame - in: Selinunte si racconta : Cam 5 maggio 2010, CAMCANTIERE/3, 2010, p. 12-17.

Ramnoux, Clémence, Vocabulaire et structures de la pensée archaïque chez Héraclite, diss., Paris: Société d’Édition “Les Belles Lettres” 1959, p. 140-207 et p. 427-47 (commentaries of B 3, B 106-9, B 112, B 110, B 129, B 115, B 21, B 57, B 22, B 62, B 6, B 16, B 27, B 31, B 35, B 119, B 121, B 124, B 20, B 26, B 17).

– L'amour du lointain, in: Revue de la Méditerranée, 1960. (in Ramnoux, Études présocratiques, Paris : Klincksieck 1970 – B 106, B 110, B 129.)

Les fragments d’un Empédocle de Fr. Nietzsche, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale 2/70, 1965, p. 199-212. (In Ramnoux., Études présocratiques, Paris: Klincksieck 1970).

Études présocratiques III: Hippolyte, « Contre les hérésies » VII, 383 à 399, in: Revue philosophique de la France et de l’étranger 92/157, 1967, p. 31-41, (Translation in French of Hippolytus. B 6, B 29, B 110, B 115, B 131, B 17.)

– Études présocratiques, III: Hippolyte, « Contre les hérésies » VII, 383 à 399 (suite), in: Revue philosophique de la France et de l’étranger 94/159, 1969, p. 187-209. (Commentary. B 29, B 109, B 110, B 115, B 128, B 131, B 134.)

– Pourquoi les Présocratiques ?, in: Revue philosophique de Louvain, tome 66, n° 91, 1968, p. 397-419. (in Ramnoux, Études présocratiques, Paris : Klincksieck 1970 – B6, B 128.)

Héraclite ou l’homme entre les choses et les mots, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1968 (B 2, B 3, B 6, B 15, B 16, B 17, B 20, B 21, B 22, B 24, B 26, B 27, B 29, B 31, B 35, B 38, B 59, B 62, B 71, B 96, B 98, B 105, B 110, B 111, B 122, B 123, B 131, B 137, B 115, etc.).

– Empédocle, in: Histoire de la philosophie, Tome I, Orient – Antiquité – Moyen Âge, ed. B. Parain, Paris: Gallimard 1969, (Encyclopédie de la Pléiade, n° 26), p. 439-442.

– Études présocratiques, Paris: Klincksieck 1970, (Publications de la Faculté des Lettres et Sciences humaines de Paris-Nanterre, essais n° 4). (Four previous articles regarding Empedocles are taken up: (1) Études présocratiques III: Hippolyte, « Contre les hérésies »  VII, 383 à 399, p. 94-121; (2) Tradition et cosmologie chez Empédocle d'Agrigente which is actually Pourquoi les Présocratiques ? with a new title, p. 123-141; (3) Les fragments d’un Empédocle de Fr. Nietzsche, p. 143-156; L'amour du lointain, p. 157-173).

Tradition et cosmologie chez Empédocle d’Agrigente, in: Études présocratiques II, Paris: Klincksieck 1983, p. 154-72 (which is actually Pourquoi les Présocratiques ? with a new title).

La Nuit et les enfants de la Nuit dans la tradition grecque, Paris : Flammarion 1986 (B 115, B 121, B 128).

Rangos, Spyros,  On Empedocles’ death (= “« Κύκλου δ’ ἐξέπταν βαθυπενθέος ἀργαλέοιο »: Περί της Εμπεδοκλέους τελευτής”), in: Hypomnema (= Υπόμνημα στη Φιλοσοφία) 9, 2010, p. 53-84. -

– Empedocles on divine nature, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale2012/3, p. 315-338.  (B 6, B 21, B 23, B 27, B 28, B 29, , B 59, B 115, B 122, B 128, B 133, B 134, B 146, B 147)

Rappe, Guido, Animismus, Hylozoismus und Sphairos des Empedokles, in: Rehabilitierung des subjektiven: Festschrift für Hermann Schmitz, hrsg. von M. Grossheim - H.-J. Waschkies, Bonn : Bouvier 1993, p. 387-412.

Wiedergeburt als Mnemotechnik - Zur Anthropologie bei Empedokles und Platon, in: Wiedergeburt und kulturelles Erbe / Reincarnation and Cultural Heritage / Ergebnisse und Beträge des Internationalen Symposiums der Hermann-und-Marianne-Strantik-Stiftung, ed. W. Schweidler, Weingarten 1999, Sankt Augustin : Academia Verlag 2001, p. 61-85.

Rashed, MarwanReview of D. de Smet, Empedocles Arabus. Une lecture néoplatonicienne tardive, in:Elenchos 22, 2001, p. 440-444.

– La chronographie du système d’Empédocle: documents byzantins inédits, in: Aevum Antiquum, N.S. 1, 2001, p. 237-59 (Scholia, B 115, B 128).

– reimpr. in: Rashed, Marwan, L'Héritage aristotélicien : textes inédits de l'Antiquité, Paris : Les Belles Lettres, 2007, pp. 543-565.

The structure of the eye and its cosmological function in Empedocles: Reconstruction of fragment 84 D.-K., in: Reading ancient texts. Volume I: Presocratics and Plato - Essays in honour of Denis O’Brien, edited by Suzanne Stern-Gillet and Kevin Corrigan, Leiden / Boston: Brill, 2007, (Brill’s studies in intellectual history, 161.), pp. 21-39.

– Le proème des Catharmes d’Empédocle. Reconstitution et commentaire, in: Elenchos, 29, fasc. 1, 2008, pp. 7-37. (B 112, B 114, B 115, B 113, B 119, B 121.)

– De qui la clepsydre est-elle le nom ? Une interprétation du fragment 100 d'Empédocle, in: Revue des études grecques, tome 121, 2008(2), pp. 443-468. (B 100.)

– La zoogonie de la Haine selon Empédocle : retour sur l'ensemble 'd' du papyrus d'Akhmim, in: Phronesis 56, 2011, pp. 33-57.

– La chronographie du système d'Empédocle : addenda et corrigenda, in: Les Etudes philosophiques, 2014, n°3, p. 315-342. (Byzantine scholia, B 30, B 35, B 96, B 115, B 129, B 143.)

Rathmann, Wilhelm Walter, Quaestiones Pythagorae Orphicae Empedocleae, Halle 1933. (B 115, B 129, B 133, B 134.)

Raynaud, J.-P., De Empedocle (diss.), Ex typis Silbermann, Argentorati 1849 (28 p.).

Reale, GiovanniIntroduzione 3: Il confronto (di Heraclito) con Empedocle: La „coincidentia oppositorum“ e il ciclo cosmico, in: Marcovich, Miroslav – Mondolfo, Rodolpho – Tarán, Leonard, Eraclito. Testimonianze, imitazioni e frammenti. Introduzione di G. Reale, Milano 2007, p. cxxix-xxxix.

Regenbogen, Otto, Eine Forschungsmethode antiker Naturwissenschaft, in: Quellen und Studien für Geschichte der Mathematik, Astronomie und Physik, Abteilung B 1, 1930, p. 131-182.

Reiche, Harald Anton, Empedocles’ Mixture, Eudoxan Astronomy and Aristotle’s “connate pneuma”, Adolf M. Hakkert - Publisher, Amsterdam 1960, p. 9-100 (148 p.). (B 27, B 28, B 134)

Reinach, Salomon, Le texte d’Empédocle, étude critique, in: L’instruction publique, revue des lettres, sciences et arts 1-4, 1876, p. I.165-7, II.183-4, III.247-9 and IV.277-9.

Reinhardt, KarlParmenides und die Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie, Bonn 1916.

Kosmos und Sympathie: neue Untersuchungen über Poseidonios, München: C.H. Beck 1926.

 Empedokles, Orphiker und Physiker, in: Classical Philology 45, 1950, p. 170-9 (= in: Um die Begriffswelt der Vorsokratiker, hrsg. von H.-G. Gadamer, Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 19681, 19832, 19893).

Renehan, Robert F., On the Greek Origins of the Concepts Incorporeality and Immateriality, in: Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 21, 2, 1980, p. 105-138. (B 17, B 100, B 134.)

Renius, C., Three Views of a Candle, in: Journal of Philosophy 40, 1943, p. 633-4 (Emp., Heracl., Pyth.). 

Renouvier, Charles , Manuel de philosophie ancienne, Tome I, Paris: Paulin 1844. (Empédocle:  p. 163-182.)

Rhee Kee-BackEmpedocles’ Influence on Hippocratic Medicine, in: Korean J Med Hist 22, p. 879-914, 2013. (Korean language, abstarct in English.)

Rider, Zackary P., Empedocles, Epicurus, and the Failure of Sacrifice in Lucretius, Thesis in classics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2011.

Riedel, Manfred, Empedokles und die Entmachtung der Physis, in: Synthesis Philosophica (Zagreb) 5/10, 1990, p. 367-77 (= Empedoklo i razmoćenje prirode, in: Filozofskaja Istraživanja (Zagreb) 10/37, 1990, p. 913-22).

Riedweg, Christoph, Orphisches bei Empedokles, in: Antike und Abendland 41, 1995, p. 34-59.

– Orfismo en Empédocles, in: Taula, 27-28, 1997, pp. 33-59. (A Spanish traduction of Ophisches bei Empedokles, 1995).

–  'Sphaira', o la magia della rotondità perfetta nel pensiero dei Greci, 'Sphaira' or the Magic Perfect Roundedness in Greek Thought, in: Esprit sphérique, ed. Marisa Bertoldini M., Lugano - Milano : (Fondazione Galleria Gottardo, Lugano) Charta 2006, p. 309-319, 392-396. (B 27, B 29, B 134.)

Rispoli, Gioia Maria, Empedocle nelle testimonianze ermarchee, in: Empedocle tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo, 2007, pp. 241-269.

Ritter, August Heinrich., Über die philosophische Lehre des Empedokles, in: Litterarische Analekten, vorzüglich für alte Litteratur und Kunst, deren Geschichte und Methodik, ed. F.A. Wolf, Vol. II, part 4, Berlin: G.C. Nauck 1818, reprint in 1820, p. 411-460. (In

Geschichte der Philosophie, Vol. I, Hamburg: F. Perthes 1829, p. 506-539. (18362: p. 532-572 ).

– Histoire de la philosophie, Tome I, Première partie, trad. C.-J. Tissot, Paris: Ladrange 1835, p. 429-457. (In Google books.)

– The history of ancient philosophy, Vol. I, trans. A. J. W. Morrison, Oxford – Londres : D. A. Talboys, 1838, p. 487-524. 

Ritter, August Heinrich - Preller, Ludwig, Historia philosophiae graeco-romanae, Hamburg: F. Perthes 1838(p. 108- 127 = § 168-181), Gotha: F.A. Perthes 1857² (p. 124-152 = § 167-180), 18643, Gotha: F.A. Perthes 18694 (p. 105-129 = § 167-180), 18755Gotha: F.A. Perthes 18786 (p. 87-111 = § 129-142), Gotha: F.A. Perthes 18867 (p. 124-153 = § 129-142 B), Gotha: 18887 (p. 124-153 = § 129-142 B)18988, 19139Gotha: L. Klotz 193410 (p. 126-155 = § 162-184). 

Rives, James B., The Theology of Animal Sacrifice in the ancient Greek World: origins and developments, in: Ancient Mediterranean Sacrifice, ed. J.W. Knust and Z. Várhelyi, Oxford University Press 2011, p. 187–202. (Empedocles: p. 189-194, B 137.)

Robin, Léon, La Pensée Grecque et les origines de l’esprit scientifique, (L’évolution de l’humanité), Paris : La Renaissance du Livre 1923 (Paris : La Renaissance du Livre 19322, Paris : A. Michel 19483, 19634, 19733p. 123-136), p. 119-134. (B 6, B 8, B 17, B 21, B 27, B 31, B 35, B 57, B 62, B 84, B 96, B 100, B 111, B 112, B 114, B 115, B 134.)

Rodríguez Moreno, Inmaculada, ΔΑΙΜΟΝΕΣ, ΗΡΩΕΣ Υ ΑΓΓΕΛΟΙ en la filosofía presocrática, in: HABIS, 26,1995, p. 29-46.

Roecklein, Robert, J., Parmenides' influence on Empedocles and Anaxagoras, in: Plato versus Parmenides: the Debate over Coming-into-being in Greek Philosophy, Lanham (Maryland): Lexington Books 2011, p. 57-81. (B 2, B 3, B 6, B 8, B 9, B 11, B 12, B 17, B 21, B 28, B 29, B 23, B 35, B 62.)

Roeper, Gottlieb, Emendationsversuche zu Hippolyti Philosophumena, in: Philologus 7, 1857, p. 511-54 and 606-31, p. 606 (ad B 117 = A 31).

Rohde, Erwin, Psyche: Seelencult und Unsterblichkeitsglaube der Griechen, Freiburg i. B. - Leipzig: J. C. B. Mohr 1894, § 6, p. 465-480. Same title in Tübingen 19218, p. 171-187.

Rolland, Romain, Empédocle d’Agrigente et l’Âge de la Haine, Paris : La maison française d’art et d’édition 1918 (= R. Rolland, Empédocle d’Agrigente suivi de l’Éclair de Spinoza, Paris : Éditions du Sablier 1931, p. 17-104).

Roloff, DietrichGottänhlichkeit, Vergöttlichung und Erhöhung zu seligen Leben. Untersuchungen zur Herkunft der platonischen Angleichung an Gott, Berlin: De Gruyter, 1970. (Pages 192-197: the text is devoted to Katharmoi, ie. daimon and its pollution, earth as an underworld and especially to attitude god – man.)

Roos, Carl, Nietzsches Empedokles-Fragmenter: Introduktion og fortolking, København 1937.

Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich, Die Hebdomadenlehren der griechischen Philosophen und Ärzte. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der griechische Philosophie und Medizin, Der Abhandlungen der philologisch-historischen Klasse der königlich Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 24/6, Leipzig : Teubner 1906, p. 35-36 (the role of the number seven in Empedoclean embryology (B 153a, A 82) was influenced by teaching of old-Pythagorean school)

Rosenfeld-Löffler, Annette, see first publication under Loeffler, Annette.

 La Poétique d’Empédocle. La signification cosmologique de l’expression poétique de l’oeuvre d’Empédocle (diss.), Université de Lausanne 2001.

La poétique d’Empédocle. Cosmologie et métaphore, Bern : Peter Lang 2006 (gently modified version of previous title). 

Rösler, Wolfgang, Reflexe vorsokratischen Denkens bei Aischylos, Meisenheim 1970.

Lukrez und die Vorsokratiker. Doxographische Probleme im 1. Buch von De rerum natura, in: Hermes 101, 1973, p. 48-64 (A 21).

Der Anfang der Katharmoi des Empedokles, in: Hermes 111.2, 1983, p. 170-9.

Ross Hernández, José Alberto, Respuesta a las teorías de Empédocles y Anaxágoras, pp. 53-56, In: Dios, eternidad y movimiento en Aristóteles. Pamplona : EUNSA, 2007. (Filosófica; 198.)

Rossetti, Livio, Empedocle scienziato, in: Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, ed. L. Rossetti - C. Santaniello, (‘Le Rane’, Collana di studi e testi, Studi 37), Bari: Levante editori 2004, p. 95-198 (A 34, A 68, B 84, A 67, B 100, B 134).

 Empedocle, in: Dizionario delle Scienze e delle Tecniche di Grecia e Roma, ed. Paola Radici Colace, Pisa - Roma: F. Serra 2010, p. 431-432.

Rostagni, Augusto, Il poema sacro di Empedocle, in: Rivista di filologia e di istruzione classica 51, 1923, p. 7-39. 

Il verbo di Pitagora, Torino 1924. Reimpr. 2001, 2005 Victrix (Forli). (Chap. VIII: Il poema pitagorico di Empedocle e la storia dell'anima, p. 119-153. It is a reprint of l poema sacro di Empedocle 1923.)

Autonomia e svolgimento della letteratura greca di Sicilia, in: Kokalos 3, 1957, p. 3-17 (Emp.: p. 13-4). 

Roux, Suzanne. Empedocles to Darwin, in: E. Close, M. Tsianikas and G. Frazis (eds.), Greek Research in Australia: Proceedings of the Biennial International Conference of Greek Studies, Flinders University April 2003,

 Adelaide: Flinders University Department of Languages - Modern Greek 2005, p.1-16.

Rowett (previously Osborne), Catherine, A Portable Presocratics Primer?, in: British Journal for the History of Philosophy, Vol. 21(4), 2013, p. 

791-797.  (A critical and interesting review of Graham, D., The texts of Early Greek Philosophy.  Can be downloaded on page

– Literary genres and judgements of taste: some remarks on Aristotle’s remarks about the poetry of Empedocles, in: Literarische Form und Argument in antiker Philosophie, ed. Michael Erler, Berlin: De Gruyter, 2013.

– Is Agathon’s Speech in Plato’s Symposium recycling the views of Empedocles?in: X Symposium Platonicum - The Symposium, Pisa: 2013, p. 169-175. (B 23, B 111.)

– Love, Sex and the Gods: Why things have divine names in Empedocles’ poem, and why they come in pairsin: Rhizomata, 4, 1, 2016, p. 80-110. On-line:

Rudberg, Gunnar, Empedokles und Evolution, in: Eranos 50, 1952, p. 23-30.

Ruiz, Nicolas, Leon, Review of Reality (2003) by Peter Kingsley, in: The Agonist, Vol. III, issue 2, 2008,  p. 26-38.

Rundin, John Scott, The Vegetarianism of Empedocles in its Historical Context, in: The Ancient World, vol. 29, n°1, 1998, p. 19-36. (Published by Ares Publishers Inc., A 1, B 17, B 137, democracy / aristocracy.)

Ruocco, Ernesto, Daimon, Sphairos, Ananke. Psicologia e teologia in Empedocle, in: Forme del sapere nei presocratici, ed. A. Capizzi - G. Casertano, Roma: Edizioni dell’ Ateneo 1987, p. 187-221. (P. 194-5: B 115, p. 195-6: B 117, p. 196-8: B 146, p. 198-9: B 112.4-6, p. 199-200: B 128, p. 201-3 et passim: daimon, p. 207-8 et passim: B 134, p. 208-10 et passim: sfairos, p. 217-20: ananke etc.)

Rupprecht, Karl, Empedocles fr. 133, in: Philologus 79/33, 1924, p. 112. (B 133.)

Rusten, Jeffrey Stuart, Ovid, Empedocles and the Minotaur, in: American Journal of Philology 103, 1982, p. 332-3 (B 61.2-3).


Saetta Cottone, Rossella, Nuvole e demoni. Empedocle e Socrate nelle Nuvole di Aristofane, in: La storia sulla scena, ed. A. Beltrametti, Roma, Carocci, 2011, p. 315-335. (Muse, Nêstis, Persephone, Zeus, B 149, B 38, B 21 2-6, B 44, B 84, B 73, B 23, B 71, B 146, A 56, A 60.)

– Aristophane et le théâtre du soleil. Le dieu d'Empédocle dans le chœur des Nuées, in: Comédie et Philosophie: Socrate et les "Présocratiques" dans les Nuées d'Aristophane, ed. A. Laks – R. Saetta Cottone, Paris: Editions Rue d'Ulm 2013, p. 61-85. (A 30, A 56, B 29, B 44, B 131, B 134, B 146.)

– Jean Bollack et Empédocle : une histoire de philotès, in: Anais de Filosofia Clássica, vol. 6 nº12, 2012, p. 1-5. Released in October 2014.

Saffrey, Henri Dominique, Nouveaux oracles chaldaïques dans les scholies du Paris. gr. 1853, in: Revue de philologie, de littérature et d'histoire anciennes 43, 1969, p. 59-72. (p. 64-7: B 121.3). Reimpr. in: Saffrey, H. D., Recherches sur le néoplatonisme après Plotin, Paris:  J. Vrin 1990, (Histoire des doctrines de l'Antiquité classique, 24),  p. 81-94.

Saint-Pierre, B., La physique de la vision dans l’antiquité, in: Cahiers des études anciennes 5, 1976, p. 97-117.

Samson, A., Aristote et les théories présocratiques sur la connaissance, in: Laval théologique et philosophique 22, 1966, p. 22-44. (On Aristotle’s and Empedocles’ theory of cognition: different and common points.)

Sandywell, Barry, Presocratic reflexivity: The construction of philosophical discourse c. 600-450 BC. – Logological Investigations, Vol 3, London - New York: Routledge 1996. Chapter 8, pp. 354-363: Empedocles.

Sänger, Edouard, Empedokles, in: Wiener Blätter für die Freunde der Antike 8, 1932, p. 106-10 (general and unoriginal attempt at a total portrait of Emp. personality and teaching).

Empedocles von Agrigent - Fragmente. In der Nachdichtung von Eduard Saenger. Mit orig. Radierungen von Bernard Schultze, Tiessen 1993.

Sangermano, B. Luigi, Empedocle, vita e frammenti dei poemi, Girgenti 1911 (this contains Scinà’s translation from 1813).

Sansone, David, Socrates’ “tragic” Definition of Color (Pl. Meno 76 D-E), in: Classical Philology 91.4, 1996, p. 339-45. (A 49, A 86, A 921, B 84, B 89, B 96, B 100.)

Santaniello, Carlo, Ricordo di Renato Laurenti con bibliografia dei suoi scritti, in: Studi filosofici 17, 1994, p. 51-68.

Faults commited beyond this Life: Pindar and Empedocles in Plutarch’s Demonology, in: Estudios sobre Plutarco: Misticismo y religiones mistéricas en la obra de Plutarco, Actas del VII Simposio Español sobre Plutarco, Palma de Mallorca, 2-4 de noviembre de 2000, Ediciones Clásicas & Charta Antiqua, Madrid, ed. A. Pérez Jiménez  - F. Casadesús, Madrid-Málaga : Distribución editorial 2001, p. 255-67 (on status of Emp. daimon, B 115, B 15).

Empedocle: uno o due cosmi, una o due zoogonie?, in: Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, a cura di L. Rossetti - C. Santaniello, ‘Le Rane’, Collana di studi e testi, Studi 37,  Bari: Levante editori, p. 23-81. (B 17.1-5, ad B 271, A 37, B 26.3-7, Pap. Strasb. a(i)8-a(ii)2 = B 21.7-12, Pap. Strasb. c2-8 = B 20.).

Plutarco e i presocratici, in: La biblioteca di Plutarco, Atti del IX Convegno Plutarcheo, (Pavia, 13-15 giugno 2002), ed. I. Gallo, Napoli 2004, pp. 107-133.

Working on Empedocles in Plutarch's Days (Fac. lun. 926D ff.), in: Plutarc a la seva època: Paideia i Societat, Actas del' VIII Simposi internacional de la Societat Española de Plutarquistas, Barcelona 6-8. nov. 2003, ed. M. Jufresa-F. Mestre, P. Gomez-P. Gilabert, Barcelona, 2005, pp. 445-452.

Il demone in Empedocle, in: G. Gnoli, G. Sfameni Gasparro, ed., Potere e religione nel mondo indo-mediterraneo tra ellenismo e tarda antichità, Incontro di studio della Società Italiana di Storia delle Religioni (Roma, 28-29 ottobre 2004), Roma: Isiao 2009, (Il Nuovo Ramusio, 9), p. 329-361. (B 115, B 146, B 147, B 30, B 31, B 59, B 112.)

– Due frammenti e l'analogia in Empedocle: B115 D.-K. e il fr. 110 Bollack, in: Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft 13 (2010) 17-50.,gfa,013,2010,a,02.pdf

– ΘεόςΔαίμωνΦρὴν Ἱερή: Empedocles and the Divine, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale2012/3, p. 301-313. (B 21, B 59, B 115, B 134.)

– An Akkadian myth and the daimon's fault in Empedocles fr. 115, in: Religion in the History of European Culture, ed. G. Sfameni Gasparro - A. Cosentino - M. Monaca, Palermo: Officina di Studi Medievali  2013, p. 133-145. (B 115.)

Santillana, Giorgio de S., The origins of scientific thought: from Anaximander to Proclus, 600 B.C to 300 A.D., Chicago: University Press, 1961. (p. 108-128: Love, Strife, and Necessity; several fragments are quoted).

Santori, C. - Gilardoni, Giovanni, Empedocle: Tutti i frammenti, trad. di. C. Santori, introduzione e commento di G. Gilardoni, Cortona : Calosci 1987.

Sartorius, Maximilian Alexander, Die Entwicklung der Astronomie bei den Griechen bis Anaxagoras und Empedokles, in besonderen Anschluss an Theophrast (diss.), in: Zeitschrift für Philosophie und philosophische Kritik 82-3, 1883, p. 197-231 and 1-28; also published separately, Heynemann’sche Buchdruckerei, Halle 1883, 39 p. (Emp.: 83, p. 23-6: an usuless and uncomplete enumeration of disiecta membra of Empedoclean astronomy, no interpretation). 

Sassi, Maria Michela, Gli inizi della filosofia: in Grecia, Torino: Bollati Boringhieri 2009. (Empedocle e il suo dèmone : pp. 189-198, plus pp 216-218, 228-241, B 3, B 105, B 107, B 109, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 118, B 129, B 138, B 146.)

– Entre corps et lumière: réflexions antiques sur la nature de la couleur, in: L'Antiquité en couleurs. Textes réunis par Marcello Carastro, Grenoble : Jerôme Millon 2009. (Feu et eau, blanc et noir: d’Empédocle à Aristote; B 71.2-3 B 21.3.)

– Where Epistemology and Religion Meet - What do(es) the god(s) look like?, in: Rhizomata 2013 1(2), p. 283-307. (B 133, B 134.)

 Parmenides and Empedocles on Krasis and Knowledge, in: Apeiron, 5 (Published Online: 10/21/2015), 2015.

Scaliger, Josephus, M. Manilii Astronomicon libri quinque, Iosephus Scaliger Iul. Caes. F. recensuit ac pristino ordini suo restituit. Eiusdem Ios. Scaligeri commentarius in eosdem libros et castigationum explicationes, Lutetiae : apud Mamertum Patissonium Typographum regium, in officina Roberti Stephani 1579, p. 17 (B 13, B 28) and 247 (B 44).

Scarpat, Giuseppe, Salomone astronomo come Empedocle: la vis ventorum nel Libro della Sapienza, in: Studia classica Johanni tarditi oblata, a cura di L. Belloni - G. Milanese - A. Porro, Milano : Vita e pensiero 1995, p. 739-48.

Scarpi, Paolo, Empedocle mago, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo, 2007, pp. 143-156.

Schiefsky, Mark John, Hippocrates On Ancient Medicine: translated with introduction and commentary, Leiden - Boston: Brill, 2005. (P. 302-305; A 70, B 23, B 84, B 100.)

Schläger, RichardEmpedocles Agrigentinus quatenus Heraclitum Ephesium in philosophia secutus sit scripsit R. S (diss.), in: Jahresbericht über das Karl-Friedrichs-Gymnasium zu Eisenach von Ostern 1877 bis Ostern 1878, Eisenach : Hofbuchdruckerei 1878 (24 p.).

Schefer, Christina, Platon und Apollon, Sankt Augustin : Akademia Verlag, 1996, p. 41-6. (B 3.3-5, B 131, A 23, B 134, B 29, B 134.)

Schibli, Hermann Sadun, Review of P. Kingsley, Ancient Philosophy, in: Ancient Philosophy XVI.2, 1996, p. 455-62 (a detailed reproduction of contents, but almost worthless for Empedoclean studies).

Schiren, T., The Strasbourg Empedocles, in: Zeitschrift für philologische Forschung 56, 2002, p. 472-6 (Review of Martin - Primavesi, Empédocle de Strasbourg, 1999).

Schmitz, HermannDer Ursprung des Gegenstandes, Bonn 1988, p. 299-350.

Schneider, Johann GottlobGriechisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch, Lipsiae 1819-213. (B 3.11, B 20.7.)

Schneidewin, Friedrich WilhelmNeue Verse des Empedokles, in: Philologus 6, 1851, p. 155-67. (B 6, B 36, B 17, B 16, B 29, B 28, B 115, B 110, B 31, B 3.1-2.)

Schnarnagl, TheobaldDer Philosoph Empedokles in seiner Eigenschaft als Dichter, in: Programm des Kommunal-Ober-Gymnasiums in Komotau, Komotau : Spania 1907-1908, p. 3-16, 1908-1909, p. 3-19.

Schofield, Malcolm, s. v. Empedocles, in: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, New York 1998, III.293-8.

– Review of S. Trépanier, Empedocles, Trépanier (S.) Empedocles. An Interpretation, in: The Classical Review 56.1, 2006, p. 12-14.

– Review of M. M. Sassi, The Presocratics, La costruzione del discorso filosofico nell' età dei Presocratici, in: The Classical Review 58.1, 2008, p. 4-6.

Schöne, AlfredDie Empedoclea des Sallustius, in: Jahrbücher für klassischen Philologie 12, 1866, p. 751-2 (A 27; printed also separately in Leipzig 1866).

Schottlaender, RudolfDrei vorsokratische Topoi, in: Hermes 62, 1927, p. 435-46.

– Apollon und Pythagoras, in: Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 10, 1956, p. 333-351.

Schreckenberg, HeinzAnanke. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Wortgebrauchs, München 1964, p. 111-3 et passim (B 115, B 30).

Schumacher, JosephDer Physis-Begriff bei Empedokles, in: Sudhoffs Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften 34, 1941, p. 179-96. (B 8, B 62.).

Schwabl, HansEmpedokles, fr. B 110, in: Wiener Studien 69, 1956, p. 49-56.

– Zur ‘Theogonie’ bei Parmenides und Empedokles, in: Wiener Studien 70, 1957, p. 278-89 (B 122, B 123, B 128).

– Hesiod und Parmenides, in: Rheinisches Museum 106, 1963, p. 134-42.

Sciavicco, G., Gorgia di Leontini nella letteratura greca di Sicilia: Fonti e sviluppo della sua attività sofistico-retorica, Messina : Scuola Tipografica Antoniana 1939.

Scinà, Domenico, Memorie sulla vita e filosofia d’Empedocle Gergentino I-II, Palermo : Stamperia Reale 1813 (Milano : G. Silvestri 18382; Milano 18583; Palermo 18594, Sangermano 19115; Bologna 19576; Bologna : Capelli 19877).

Sciortino, Calogero, Empedocle: un enigma tra intuizioni e aporie. 2011.

Scoon, Robert Maxwell, Greek Philosophy before Plato, Princeton University Press 1928, p. 82-94.

Seaford, Richard, Immortality, Salvation, and the Elements, in: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 90, 1986, s. 1-26 (B 115).

Sedley, David, Empedocles’ Theory of Vision and Theophrastus’ De sensibus, in: Theophrastus: His Psychological, Doxographical, and Scientific Writings, ed. by W. W. Fortenbaugh - D. Gulas, New Brunswick 1991, p. 20-31 (A 86, par. 8-9). (B 84)

The Proems of Empedocles and Lucretius, in: Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 30, 1989, p. 269-96.

Lucretius and the Transformation of Greek Wisdom, Cambridge University Press 1998 (Emp.: Chapter I-II).

Lucretius and the New Empedocles, in: Leeds International Classical Studies 2/4, 2003, p. 1-12 (=

Empedocles’ Life Cycles, in: The Empedoclean Κόσμος: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003,  ed. A. L. Pierris, Patras: Institute for Philosophical Research 2005, p. 331-371 (first presentation of the revised cycle with 60 oscillations of Love's and Strife's dominance: Sphaîros/60 alternating phases of Love followed by Strife/Sphaîros etc.).

– The Empedoclean opening, in: Lucretius, ed. Monica R. Gale, Oxford 2007 (Oxford Readings in Classical Studies), p. 48-87. (A repetition of Chap. 1 of Lucretius and the Transformation of Greek Wisdom.)

– Creationism and its critics in antiquity, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008 (Sather Classical Lectures, 66). (Chap. 2 : Empedocles, p. 31-74; larger parts of this chapter are drawn from Sedley 2005 ; A 70, A 72, B 8, B 17, B 21, B 23, B 26, B 35, B 59, B 61, B 62, B 71, B 76, B 84, B 86, B 87, B 95, B 96, B 98, B 115, B 124, B 128, B 129, a(ii), d, scholies Aristotle; important contribution.)

– Empedoclean Superorganismsin: Rhizomata, 4, 1, 2016, p. 111-125. On-line:

Seeck, Gustav Adolf, Empedokles B 17. 9-13, B 8, B 100 bei Aristoteles, in: Hermes 95.1, 1967, p. 28-53.

Seligman, Paul, Soul and Cosmos in Presocratic Philosophy, in: Dionysius Halifax, II, 1978, pp. 5-17. (The author supposes that evolution of conceptions of souls corresponds to evolution of a model of inner existence and inner cosmos: Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Emp.).

Semuškin, Anton Vasiljevič, Empedokl, Moskva : Mysl 1985 (19942; p. 191; an enthusiastic and mystic interpretation of Emp. life and main theses of his teaching à la R. Rolland. Not very original, but fairly interesting. In the end of book the poetic translation of Katharmoi is appended).

Zagadka Empedokla [The Mystery of Empedocles], in: Istoriko-filosofskij ježegodnik [History of Philosophy Yearbook] 88, 1988, p. 22-37 (author’s psychologic attempt to explain Emp. life and philosophy is based on a presumption of existence two quite different poems expressing two different parts of Emp. personality).

Senis, B., Πείρατος ἐν δεσμοῖσιν. Ἐν πείρασι δεσμῶν, in: Σύγκτισις γ, 1987, p. 66-83 (the meaning of concept moira, B 17 etc.).

Sfameni Gasparro, Giulia, Critica del sacrificio cruento e antropologia in Grecia: Da Pitagora a Porfirio, I. La tradizione pitagorica, Empedocle e l'orfismo, in: Sangue e antropologia I, ed. Francesco Vattioni, Roma: Edizioni pia unione preziosissimo sangue 1987, p. 107-155. (Empedocles: pp. 135-140.)

Sharpe, Charles Henry, The Shoes of Empedocles, in: Proceedings of the Classical Association 27, 1930, p. 9-10.

Shaw, Gregory, Review of P. Kingsley, Reality, in: Brin Mawr Classical Review 2004.07.43 (

Shaw, Michael M.Aither and the Four Roots in Empedocles, in: Research in Phenomenology, 2014, Vol. 44, Issue 2, p. 170-93. (B 6, B 9, B 17, B 21, B 38, B 54, B 71, B 78, B 100, B 96, B 98, B 111, B 115.)

Sheppard, Anne, Review of Kingsley, Empedoclea, P. Kingsley: Ancient Philosophy, Mystery and Magic, in: The Classical Review 46.2, 1996, p. 269-71.

Sherman, P., s. v. Empedocles, in: The Encyclopedia Americana, New York - Chicago, 1932, Volume X, p. 299-300 (useless).

Sider, David, Empedocles’ Persika, in: Ancient Philosophy 2, 1982, p. 76-8. (B 34.)

Empedocles B 96 (462 Bollack) and the Poetry of Adhesion, in: Mnemosyne 37, 1984, p. 14-24. (B 96.)

– review of Empedocles: The Extant Fragments, by M.R. Wright, 1981, in: Ancient Philosophy, 5, 1985, p. 314-317. (B3, B4, B 12, B 17, B 22, B 38,  B 57, B 129, B 133, B 146.)

Siegel, Rudolf E., Theories of Vision and Colour Perception of Empedocles and Democritus: some Similarities to the modern Approach, in: Bulletin of the History of Medicine 33, 1959, p. 145-59 (A 86, par. 7-9, A 912) [read in abbreviated form at the thirty-first annual meeting of the American Association for the History of Medicine, New York, May 22, 1958].

Simondon, Michèle, La Muse d’Empédocle: Patronage mythique des formes du savoir, in: Formation et survie des mythes, travaux et mémoires, Actes du Ier colloque du Centre d’études mythologiques de l’Université Paris X, Nanterre, 19-20 avril 1974, Paris : Les Belles Lettres, 1977, p. 21-9 (B 3, B 4, B 131).

La Mémoire et l’oubli dans la pensée grecque jusqu’à la fin du Ve siècle avant J.-C: psychologie archaïque, mythes et doctrines, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 1982 (B 3, B 105, B 117, B 115, B 128, B 129).

Singer, CharlesThe strange histories of some anatomical terms, in; Medical History, 3(1), 1959, p. 1-7. (B 70.)

Sinnige, Theo, Gerard, Matter and infinity in the Presocratic schools and Plato, Assen: Van Gorcum & Co. 1968, (Wijsgerige teksten en studies, 17). (Chapter V: Empedocles, p. 111-118. P. 198-201, and several other pages. B 2, B 3, B 6, B 11, B 12, B 13, B 14, B 17, B 27, B 29, B 129, B 134, B 135.)

Sisko, John E.Anaxagoras and Empedocles in the Shadow of Elea, in: The Routledge Companion to Ancient Philosophy, ed. J. Warren - F. Sheffield, New York-London: Routledge 2014, p. 57-63.

Sitzler, Jakob, Jahresbericht über die griechischen Lyriker ... für 1888-1891: Empedokles, in: Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 75, 1893, p. 246-7 (B 156: some textual suggestions and the defension of authenticity of verses).

Skarsouli, Pénélope, Compte rendu de l’ouvrage de Simon Trépanier, Empedocles. An Interpretation (2004), in: Revue philosophique de Louvain 103/1-2, 2005, s. 194-9.

Calliope, a Muse Apart: Some Remarks on the Tradition of Memory as a Vehicle of Oral Justice, in: Oral Tradition 21/1, 2006, p. 210-228 (B 131: s. 220-23 =

– La paroimia en tant que forme discursive chez les Présocratiques. Réflexions sur Empédocle et Héraclite, in: Revue de philosophie ancienne, XXIII(2), 2005, pp. 39-54. (B 24, B 25.)

Review of Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, in: Revue philosophique de Louvain, 105(1-2), 2007, pp. 162-168.

S'interroger sur la relation entre couleurs et mots. Le terme Phármakon chez Empédocle in: L'Antiquité en couleurs : catégories, pratiques, représentations, M. Carastro (éd.), Grenoble : J. Millon, 2009, pp. 165-177. (B 23, B 21, B 96, B 3.) 

– ‘Confiner le monde par des mots’. Réflexions sur la cosmologie (et la) poétique d'Empédocle : le terme πεῖραρ, in: Texte du monde - Monde du texte, ed. I. Milliat-Pilot, Grenoble: J. Millon, 2010, (coll. Horos), pp. 231-244. (B 17.15, B 17.25-26, B 17.12-13, B 24.)

–  Des papyri grecs en contexte funéraire. L'exemple de "l'Empédocle de Strasbourg", in: Mètis N.S. 8, 2010, pp. 167-187.

Skarsouli, Penelope - Lalou, Aggeliki, Εμπεδοκλης. Περι φύσεως, Αθήνα : Εκδ. του Εικοστού πρώτου 1999, 345 p. (introduction, translation, and short commentary on Peri physeos).

Skemp, Joseph Bright, The Theory of Motion in Plato’s Later Dialogues, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1942, p. 52-64 (chap. 4: “Antecedents of the κίνησις-doctrine of the ‘Timaeus’ in the System of Empedocles”). Reprint in 2013.

Slings, Simon R., Monίh in Empedocles and a Rule of Greek Word Formation, in: Mnemosyne 44, 1991, p. 413-15 (B 28, B 29).

Smith, Martin Ferguson, Fragments of Diogenes of Oenoanda Discovered, in: American Journal of Archaelogy 74, 1970, p. 51-74 (Emp.: p. 58-60: A 99).

New Readings in the Text of Diogenes of Oenoanda, in: Classical Quarterly 22, 1972, p. 162 (A 99).

Diogenes of Oinoanda: The Epicurean Inscription, Napoli 1993 (A 99).

Snell, Bruno, Hera als Erdgöttin, in: Philologus 50, 1943, p. 159-60 (B 6).

Die Entdeckung des Geistes. Studies zur Entstehung des europäischen Denkens bei den Griechen, Hamburg 19553, p. 284-98.

Snyder, Jane McIntosh, Lucretius Empedoclean Sicily, in: The Classical World 65, 1972, p. 217-8 (A 21).

Solmsen, Felix, Zur griechischen Wortforschung, in: Indogermanische Forschungen 31, 1912-3, p. 448-506.

Solmsen, Friedrich, Tissues and the Soul, in: Philosophical Review 59, 1950, p. 435-41.

Aristotle and Presocratic Cosmogony, in: Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 63, 1958, p. 265-82.

Greek philosophy and the discovery of the nerves, in: Museum Helveticum, 18.3, 1961, p. 150-167. (B 98, B 105.) 

Nature as Craftsman in Greek Thought, in: Journal of the History of Ideas 24, 1963, p. 473-96. (Emp.: p. 476-9).

A Review of Reiche, in: American Journal of Philology 84, 1963, p. 91-4.

Love and Strife in Empedocles’ Cosmogony, in: Phronesis 10, 1965, p. 109-48.

ζωρός in Empedocles, in: The Classical Review 17, 1967, p. 245-6. (B 35.15.)

Eternal and temporary beings in Empedocles’ physical poem, in: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 57, 1975, p. 123-45. 

Empedocles’ Hymn to Apollo, in: Phronesis 25(3), 1980, p. 219-27. (B 131, B 132, B 133, B 134, B 135.)

 Reincarnation in Ancient and Early Christian Thought, in: F. Solmsen, Kleine Schriften III, Hidelsheim - Zürich - New York: G. Olms 1982, p. 465-494.  (B 117, B 129.)

Söring, Jürgen, Nietzsches Empedokles-Plan, in: Nietzsche Studien 19, 1990, p. 176-211.

Souilhé, Joseph, L’énigme d´Empédocle, in: Archives de Philosophie 9/3, 1932, p. 337-59.

Sprague, Rosamond K., Empedocles, Hera, and Cratylus 404 C, in: The Classical Review 22, 1972, p. 169. (B 6.)

Spoerri, Walter, “Crescebant uteri terram radicibus apti”: à propos de la zoogonie de Lucrèce (De rerum natura 5, 791 sqq.), in: Nomen latinum: Mélanges de langue, de littérature et de civilisation latine offerts au professeur André Schneider, ed. Denis Knoepfler, Faculté des lettres de Neuchâtel, Genève 1997, p. 55-82 (a comparison between Lucretius and Emp. is appended in appendix).

Sprengel, Kurt Polycarp Joachim, Empedoclis commenta de Protogaea illustraturus iuvenis ornatissimi Bernhardi Casimiri Iosephi Góra, Poloni, disputationem inauguralem die XVII. ian. MDCCCXXV. habendam eiusque promotionem celebrandam indicit, Halae : Typis F. A. Grunerti patris filiique 1825.

Staab, Gregor, Pythagoras in der Spätantike, München – Leipzig : K. G. Saur 2002, pp. 56-7 (Emp. as a Pythagoras’ pupil).

Stamatellos, Giannis, Plotinus and the Presocratics: A Philosophical Study of Presocratic Influences in Plotinus' Enneads, Albany (New York) : Sunypress, 2007. B 115 (pp. 166-168), (B 120 (p. 167), B 134 (p. 38).

 Introduction to Presocratics: a thematic approach to early Greek philosophy with key readings, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell 2012. (Mostly influenced by M.R. Wright.)

Staugaard, K. E., Empedokles, “Physiolog eller poet?”, in: Museum Tusculanum 40, 1980, p. 23-38.  

Stehle, Eva, The Adressees of Empedokles, Katharmoi Fr. B 112: Performance and Moral Implications, in: Ancient Philosophy 25/2, 2005, p. 247-72 (B 112.1-5, B 132, B 128, B 146, B 147).

Steiger, Kornél, The Cosmology of Parmenides and Empedocles, in: Homonoia 2, 1980, p. 159-165 (summary of PhD thesis). (p. 15-16?? instead of 159-165?)

– Parmenidész és Empedoklész töredékei. Parmenidész és Empedoklész kozmológiája. (2. kiadás: Áron Kiadó 1998., Parmenidész és Empedoklész kozmológiája címen.), Budapest : Gondolat, 1985.

Die Kosmologie des Parmenides und Empedocles, in: Oikumene 5, 1986, p. 173-236.

Stein, Heinrich, Empedoclis Agrigentini Fragmenta disposuit recensuit adnotavit, Bonn: Adolph Marcus 1852. (In Google books.)

Zu Empedokles, in: Philologus 15, 1860, p. 143-6 (B 160).

Stein, PaulusTERAS, diss. Marpurgi Cattorum, 1909, p. 16, n. 1: Plut. Mor. 1123 B = DK 31 ad B 60: in the text a rare form τεράσμασιν should be read, a parallel is Aesch. Agam. 125: τερᾴζω.

Steiner, Deborah TarnStatues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, Princeton – Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2001, p. 140-141. (It is necessary to read in B 62.8 enopen, „voice“.)

Steinhart, Karl Heinz August, Meletemata Plotiniana etc. Epimetron, loci duo Parmenidei, tres Empedoclei emendati, Numburgi 1840, p. 59-60 (B 3.9-13, B 90, B 111.8). 

– s. v. Empedokles, in: Allgemeine Encyklopädie der Wissenschaften und Künste, hrsg. von J. S. Ersch - J. G. Gruber, Leipzig : F. Brockhaus 1840, Band 34, p. 83-105.

Stengel, Paul, Spondὰj tέmnein, in: Berliner philologisch Wochenschrift 39, 1907, p. 1247-8 (B 143).

Stephanus, Henricus (= Estienne, Henri), Poesis Philosophica, Geneva 1573, p. 16-31.

Stern, Samuel Miklos, s. v. Anbaduklís, in: Encyclopédie de l’Islam, Leiden - Londres : Brill 19602 (19863), I.498 (I.483-4).

Ibn Masarra, Follower of Pseudo-Empedocles: An Illusion, in: Actas do 4. Congresso de Estudos Árabes e Islâmicos, Coimbra-Lisboa 1968, Leiden 1971, p. 325- 37.

Stettner, Walter, Die Seelenwanderung bei Griechen und Römern, (Tübinger Beiträge zur Altertumswissenschaft, XXII. Heft), Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stutthart - Berlin 1934, p. 19-31 et passim (on Emp. daimonology: B 115, B 117, B 118 etc.).

Stevens, Annick, La physique d’Empédocle selon Simplicius, in: Revue Belge de philologie et d’histoire 67, 1989, p. 65-74 (an instructive article on the logic of Simplicius’ interpretation of Empedocle. No doubt, the views of Simplicius are biased with his neoplatonic position, but the author believes they are coherent, interesting and relatively near to the real doctrine of Empedocles. S. was more precise and informative than Aristotle).

Stokes, Michael C., One and Many in Presocratic Philosophy, Washington : Harvard University Press 1971, p. 153-174 (Chap. 6: Empedocles: B 17, B 62, B 26, B 22, etc.).

Stratton, George, Malcom, Theophrastus and the Greek Physiological Psychology before Aristotle, London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1917, New York: MacMillan, 1917.

Stroumsa Guy G, review of Ancient Philosophy, Mystery, and Magic- Empedocles and Pythagorean Tradition by Peter Kingsley, in: Numen Vol. 44 issue 2, 1997

Stroumsa, Sarah I., review of D. de Smet, Empedocles Arabus, in: Journal of the American Oriental Society 122, January 2002, p. 94-7.

Struve, Karl Ludwig, De elementis Empedoclis dissertatio pro veni legendi, Dorpati : Literis Michaelis Gerhardi Grenzii, typographi academici 1805.

Sturz, Friedrich Wilhelm, Animadversionum in Empedoclis carmina specimen I-II, in: Commentarii societatis philologicae Lipsiensis 1, 1801, p. 24-34 a 262-74 (B 25, B 28, B 63, B 65, B 78, B 93, B 101 etc.).

Empedocles Agrigentinus. De vita et philosophia eius exposuit, carminum reliquias ex antiquis scriptoribus collegit, recensuit, illustravit, praefationem et indices adiecit M. Frider. Guil. Sturz, Leipzig: Göschen 1805. (In Google books.)

Sulzberger, Max-Raymond, La Physique d’Empédocle, in: Mélanges Bidez (= Annuaire de l’Institut de philologie et d’histoire orientales 2), Brouxelles 1934, p. 913-5.

Susemihl, Franz, Über das Verhältnis des Gorgias zum Empedokles, in: Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie und Pädagogik 26/73, 1856, p. 40-2.

Beiträge zur griechischen Litteratugeschichte 5: Gorgias und die attische Prosa, in: Neue Jahrbücher für Philologie und Pädagogik 115, 1877, p. 793-9.

Suzuki, M., Preface to Empedocles, in: Journal of Classical Studies 25, 1977, p. 20-31 (B 17.8, B 20.2-5; japanic, résumé in English).

Svenbro, Jesper, Voir en voyant. La perception visuelle chez Empédocle, in: Métis N. S. 2, 2004, p. 47-70 (B 84, B 88, B 17.21).S

Sweeney, Leo, s. j., Infinity in the Presocratics: a bibliographical and philosophical study, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff 1972. (Empedocles: p. 137-144.)

Świercz, Piotr, Problematyka arche/archai w kosmogoniach orfickich w świetle filozofii Heraklita z Efezu, Empedoklesa z Akragas i nurtu pitagorejskiego, in: Littera Antiqua, 1, 2010, p. 106-121. On-line 

Symonds, John, Addington, Studies of the Greek Poets, 1873 (First edition, several reprints). (P. 37-64; 2nd edition : p. 38 ss. ; 3rd edition 1893: p. 191-219.)

Szabó, A., Le scienze in Magna Grecia, in: Megale Hellas, a cura di G. Pugliese Carratelli, Milano : Scheiwiller 1983, p. 555-84.


Taeger, Fritz, Isokrates und die Anfänge des Hellenistischen Herrscherkultes, in: Hermes 72, 1937, p. 355-60 (on Emp. as a god, B 112.4).

Taillardat, Jean, Le sens d’ “amorgos” (Empédocle, fr. 84 Diels) et les lanternes dans l’antiquité, in: Revue des études grecques 72, 1959, p. xi-xii.

Tamagnone, Carlo, Empedocle, pp. 108-117, in: Ateismo filosofico nel mondo antico : religione, naturalismo, materialismo, atomismo, scienza : la nascita della filosofia atea, Firenze : Clinamen. 2005. (Il diforàno ; 13.)

Tannery, Paul, La cosmogonie d´Empédocle, in: Revue philosophique de la France et de l’étranger 24, 1887/2, p. 285-300 (=

Pour l’Histoire de la science hellène. De Thalès à Empédocle, Paris 1887, p. 313-47 (Paris : Gauthier-Villars 19302).

Fragments des médecins grecs, in: P. Tannery, Mémoires scientifiques IX: Philologie, 1880-1928, Toulouse : Privat - Paris : Gauthier-Villars 1929, p. 299-309 (p. 306-7: B 100).

Tarán, Leonardo, Parmenides, Princeton University Press 1965.

The Text of Simplicius’ Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics, in: Simplicius. Sa vie, son oeuvre, sa survie. Actes du colloque international de Paris (28 sept. - 1 er oct. 1985), ed. J. Hadots, Berlin - New York 1987, p. 246-66.

Tarrant, Harold, Salvation from God in the De mundo and Numenius, in: The Idea of Salvation: Papers from the Conference on the Idea of Salvation, Sacred and Secular, held at St. Paul’s College, University of Sydney, 22-25 August, 1986, Auckland : University of Auckland 1988, p. 24-30 (= Prudentia 20, 1988, Suppl.).

Tate, J., Empedocles as animist, Jean Zafiropulo: Empédocle d'Agrigente, in: The Classical Review 5.1, 1955, p. 48-50.

Tatum, W. Jeffrey, The Presocratics in Book One of Lucretius’ De rerum natura, in: Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 114, 1984, p. 177-89 (on Lucretius’ handling with Presocratics, especially with Emp.).

Taylor, Alfred Edward, A Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus, Oxford 1928.

Ten Brink, Bernard, Empedoclea, in: Philologus 6, 1851, p. 730-4 (B 6).

Tennemann, Wilhelm Gottlieb - Wendt, Amadeus, Grundriss der Geschichte des Philosophie für den akademischen Unterricht, 5e ed. (1825), Leipzig 1829, (Empedocles: pp. 91-93). French traduction of the 5th ed. by Cousin, Victor, Manuel de l’histoire de la philosophie, Tome I, Paris 1829, (Empedocles, pp. 112-125).

- Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie bis auf Sokrates, Leipzig 1829. (Empedocles: pp. 275-318).

Therme, Anne-Laure, Est-ce par un tourbillon que l'amour empédocléen joint ? L'hypothèse de l'aimantation, in: Philosophie antique 7, 2007, 91-119. A 50, A 87, A 89, B 17, B 27, B 35, B 75, B 89, B 109.

Les principes du devenir cosmique chez Empédocle d'Agrigente et Anaxagore de Clazomène à partir de leur critique aristotélicienne, thesis, Université Paris I, 2008 (nov.), Dir. Annick Jaulin.

– Une tragédie cosmique : l’exil amnésique des daimones d’Empédocle, in: Rationalité tragique, S. Alexandre et O. Renaut (ed.), Zetesis - Actes des colloques de l’association [on line], n°1, 2010, p. 1-29, URL:, 5 septembre 2010. PDF téléchargeable :  - B 115, B 117.

– Empédoclein: Lire les présocratiques, ed. L. Brisson – A. Mace – A.L. Therme, Paris: PUF 2012, p. 167-181 (= chap. VII). (B 8, B 17, B 21, B 22, B 23, B 26, B 27, B 27a, B 34, B 35, B 73, B 84, B 86, B 91, B 96.)

– Une relecture de la double zoogonie empédocléenne : que sont les oulophueis tupoi du fragment 62 ?, in: La Sagesse « présocratique ». Communication des savoirs en Grèce archaïque : des lieux et des hommesed. M.-L. Desclos – F. Fronterotta, Paris: Armand Colin 2013, p. 149-165. (See abstract on page home or archives.)

– Des racines empédocléennes chez Platon ? Échos critiques à Empédocle dans l’élaboration platonicienne de l’âme, in: Études platoniciennes, 11, 2014, p. 1-33, [on-line in April 2015]
Thiele, Georg, Zu den vier Elementen des Empedokles, in: Hermes 32, 1897, p. 68-78 (B 6).

Thivel, Antoine, Eryximaque et le principe des contraires, in: Cuadernos de Filología Clásica, Estudios griegos e indoeuropeos, 2004, 14, p. 35-44. Influence of Empedocles on Eryximaque. Like to like and opposites (Heraclitus).

Thomas, Hellmuth Paul Fritz, Sprachliche Untersuchungen zu Empedokles (diss.), Leipzig 1924.

Thomas, Hans Werner, EPEKEINA: Untersuchungen über das Überlieferungsgut in den Jenseitsmythen Platons (diss.), München 1938.

Tiedemann, Dietrich, Geist der spekulativen Philosophie von Thales bis Sokrates, Marburg 1791, p. 242-62.

Tigner, Steven S., Empedocles’ Twirled Ladle and the Vortex-Supported Earth, in: Isis 65, 1974, p. 433-47. (A 671, B 26, B 35, B 115.)

 Some LSJ Addenda and Corrigendain: Glotta, 52, 3/4, 1974, p. 192-206. (A 51, A 56, B 6.1, B 8.3, B 17.10,17,21,26,30, B 20.6, B 21.4,6, B 26.9, B 27.4, B 28.2, B 35.12,15, B 48, B 62.4.)

Timotin, AndreiLa démonologie platonicienne, Histoire de la notion de daimôn de Platon aux derniers néoplatoniciens, Leiden / Boston : Brill 2012. (Philosophia Antiqua 128). (B 59, B 112, B 115, B 122, B 126, B 146.)

Timpanaro Cardini, Maria, Respirazione e clessidra, in: La Parola del Passato 12, 1957, p. 250-70 (B 100).

La clessidra di Empedocle e l’esperienza di Torricelli, in: Convegno di studi Torricelliani in occasione del 350. anniversario della nascita di evangelista Torricelli 1958, Faenza 1959, p. 151-6. (B 100.).

La zoogonia di Empedocle e la critica aristotlelica, in: Physis 2, 1960, p. 5-13. (B 60.).

Pseudo-Aristotle De lineis inscecabilibus, Varese 1970.

Problemi attuali di scienza e di cultura, in: Rendiconti della classe di Scienze morali, storiche e filologiche dell’Accademia dei Lincei 154, 1973, p. 65-70.

Tiraqueau, André (Tiraquellus Andrea), Commentarii de nobilitate et jure primigeniorum, apud Iacobum Kerver, Parisiis 1549, p. 104-5, 107 and 123, Caput 31, Num. 34, 56 and 212 (a short biography of Emp. life.; meaningless).

Tischer, Hermann, Quaestionum Empedoclearum specimen scripsit Dr. H. T., in: Programm, durch welches zu den am Schlusse des Schuljahrs Ostern 1842 bis Ostern 1843 den 6. und 7. April 1843 bei dem Gymnasium zu Luckau Statt findenden Schulfeyerlichkeiten im Namen seiner Amtsgenossen ehrerbietigst einladet G. Kreyenberg, Gymnasii Director, Luckau : J. Entleutner 1843, p. 1-28 (p. 3-17: Empedoclis carmina ad quam usque aetatem servata vel potius lectitata esse integra videantur; p. 17-28: De locis quibusdam Empedoclis primariis).

Tkatsch, Jaroslaus, Die arabische Übersetzung der Poetik des Aristoteles, und die Grundlage der Kritik des griechischen Texten [von A. Gudeman - Th. Seif aus dem Nachlass herausgegeben], Wien - Leipzig 1932, II.128a - 131a (B 35.15).

Todoua, Maïa, Empédocle: empêche-vents ou dompteur des mauvais génies? Réflexions autour du fr. 111 Diels-Kranz, in: Bulletin de l’Association Guillaume Budé 1, 2005, p. 49-81.

–  La conception de la Genèse dans la philosophie présocratique : Parménide et Empédocle, Diss. dec. 2005, Université Paris IV - Sorbonne, Dir. Jacques Jouanna. B 8, B 9, B 11, B 12, B 15, B 17, B 35, B 57, B 58, B 59, B 60, B 61, B 62, B 115.

Tonelli, Angelo, Empedocle di Agrigento. Frammenti e testimonianze, Origini, Purificazioni, con i frammenti del Papiro di Strasburgo, Milano : Bompiani 2002.

Cosmogony is Psychogony is Ethics: Some Thoughts about Empedocles’ Fragments 17; 110; 115; 134 DK, and P. Strasb. Gr. Inv. 1665 - 1666D, VV. 1-9, in: The Empedoclean Kosmos: S[t]ructure, Process and the Question of Cyclicity. Proceedings of the Symposium Philosophiae Antiquae Tertium Myconense, July 6th - July 13th, 2003, Patras, ed. A. L. Pierris, Institute for Philosophical Research, 2005, p. 309-330.

Tonnelat, Ernest, L’oeuvre poétique et la pensée religieuse de Hölderlin, Paris : Didier 1950, p. 309-62.

Tortorelli, Marisa: see Ghidini - Tortorelli, Marisa,

Tourney, Garfield, Empedocles and Freud, Heraclitus and Jung, in: Bulletin of the History of Medicine 30, 1956, p. 109-23 (this study is quite useless for Empedoclean studies).

Trabattoni, Franco, Empedocle - I frammenti: sulla natura, purificazioni, con testo greco a fronte, trad. di F. T., Marcos y Marcos, Milano 1987.

Traglia, Antonio, Riflessi omerici nei frammenti di Empedocle, Arte della Stampa, Pescara : Arte della Stampa di L. Stracca 1931 (p. 85-96: B 6).

Studi sulla lingua di Empedocle, Mousikai dialektoi, serie V-3, Bari : Adriatica Editrice 1952.

Breve rassegna di studi Empedoclei, in: Atene e Roma 1 (ser. 4.2), 1952, p. 151-4.

Reminiscenze empedoclee nei ‘Fenomeni’ di Arato, in: Miscellanea di studi alessandrini in memoria di A. Rostagni, Torino : Bottega d’Erasmo 1963, p. 382-93.

Empedoclea, in: Cultura e scuola 17/65, 1978, p. 47-54.

Trépanier, Simon, The Structure of Empedocles' Fragment 17, in: Essays in Philosophy 1/1, 2000, p. 2-16 ( - B 17).

– Empedocles: An Interpretation, Thesis in Philosophy and Classics, University of Toronto, 2001.

“We” and Empedocles Cosmic Lottery: P. Strasb. Gr. Inv. 1165 - 1666, in: Mnemosyne 56, 4/2003, p. 385-419.

Empedocles on the Ultimate Symmetry of the World, in: Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 25, 2003, p. 1-57. (a (i), a (ii), d, B 17, B 21, B 22, B 23, B 26, B 35, B 98, B 109, B 124)

Empedocles: An Interpretation, New York - London: Routledge 2004 (Studies in classics, 2).

– The didactic plot of Lucretius' De rerum natura and its Empedoclean model, p. 243-282, in: Richard Sorabji, Robert W. Sharples (ed.), Greek and Roman Philosophy 100 BC-200 AD. Vol. I, Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Supplement 94,  London:  Institute of Classical Studies, University of London, 2007. Influence of Lucretius on “the New Empedocles” (i. e. Pap. Strasb.)

– Review of L. Rossetti – C. Santaniello, Sotto contesa, Rossetti (L.), Santaniello (C.), Studi sul pensiero e sulla lingua di Empedocle, in: The Classical Review 58.1, 2008, p. 6-7.

– Review of Rosenfeld-Löffler, Annette, La poétique d'Empédocle: cosmologie et métaphore, Bern / Oxford: P. Lang, 2006, in: The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 2009, 129, p. 228-229.

– Early Greek Theology: God as Nature and Natural Gods, p. 273-317, in: Jan N. Bremmer, Andrew Erskine (ed), The Gods of Ancient Greece: Identities and Transformations, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh Leventis Studies, 2010.

– From wandering limbs to limbless gods:  δαίμων as substance in Empedocles, in ApeironVolume 47, Issue 2, 2014, p. 172–210. (B 29, B 59, B 115, B 134, c MP.) 

Trindade Santos, José Gabriel, Vita e morte, amore e contesa in Empedocle, in: Empedocle: tra poesia, medicina, filosofia e politica, ed. G. Casertano, Napoli: Loffredo, 2007, pp. 108-121.

Tsantsanoglou Kyriakos et al., The Derveni Papyrus, Firenze: Leo S. Olschki 2006, (Studi e testi per il corpus dei papiri filosofici greci e latini, 13). (B 134.)

Tsimbidaros, IliasCosmogonie et poésie divinatoire chez Empédocle : À propos du papyrus de Strasbourg, in: Revue de Philosophie Ancienne, XXVIII - 2, 2010, p. 33-47.

– Le double dit. L'ambiguïté de la naissance et de la mort chez Empédocle (Strasb. d, Diels 17, 3-4 ; 26, 5-7, 118-121)in: Revue de Philosophie Ancienne, XXIX (1), 2011, p. 3-28. (B 6, B 9, B 17, B 20, B 23, B 24, B 25, B 26, B 35, B 115, B 118, B 120, B 121, B 125). 

Tumino, G., Mito e scienza nei poemi di Empedocles, in: Die Kraft der Vergangenheit. Mythos und Realität der klassischen Kultur, Akten der deutsch-italienischen Tagung des Centrum Latinatatis Europae, Berlin, 29-30 November 2003, hrsg. von G. Ugolini, Hildesheim 2005, p. 147-158.

Tucker, G. M., Empedocles in Exile, in: The Classical Review 45, 1931, p. 49-51. (B 112.3.)

Tzavaras [Τζαβάρας], Giannes, Η ποίηση του Εμπεδοκλή: κείμενο, μετάφραση, σχόλια, Αθήνα - Γιάννενα: Δωδώνη, 1988.

Πυθαγόρειες επιδράσεις στη φιλοσοφία του Εμπεδοκλή, in: Πυθαγόρεια φιλοσοφία, ed. by K. Boudouris, Athenai - Samos : Εκδόσεις του Διεθνούς Κέντρου Ελληνικής Φιλοσοφίας,1992, pp. 189-94.


Ueberweg, Friedrich - Praechter, Karl, Die Philosophie des Altertums, Berlin : E. S. Mittler und Sohn 1926, p. 91-7.

Unger, Georg Friedrich, Die Zeitverhältnisse des Anaxagoras und Empedokles, in: Philologus Supplementband 4, 1884, p. 511-50 (I. Die Zeit des Anaxagoras und Empedokles; II. Empedokles als Politiker; III. Anaxagoras).


Valdevit, Rosamaria, Note sulla teologia dello scritto pseudo-aristotelico De mundo, in: Studi italiani di filologia classica 4, 1986, p. 29-41 (the appendix of the study involves an analysis of Ps.-Aristotle handling with Emp. in 5. book De mundo).

Vamvacas, Constantine J., Empedocles of Acragas (ca. 494–434 B.C.), pp. 167-196, In: Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. The Founders of Western Thought – The Presocratics: A diachronic parallelism between Presocratic Thought and Philosophy and the Natural Sciences, Springer, 2009. (Volume 257.)

van den Es, A. H. G. P., Empedocles, in: De Nederlandsche Spectator 2, 1880, p. 14-5, Nr. 3, p. 20-3, Nr. 4, p. 27-9, Nr. 5, p. 35-7, Nr. 9, p. 67-73, nr. 12, p. 96-9.

van der Ben, Nicolaus, The Proem of Empedocles’ Peri physios: towards a new edition of all the fragments, Amsterdam : B. R. Grüner, 1975.

Empedocles’ Fragments 8, 9, 10 DK, in: Phronesis 23, 1978, p. 197-215.

Cycle and Fragment 17, 3-5 DK, in: Hermes 112, 1984, p. 281-96.

–  The Meaning of ΓΝΩΜΑ, in: Glotta, 73, 1995-1996, p. 35-55. (B 110.10.)

Empedocles’ Fragment 20 DK: Some Suggestions, in: Mnemosyne 4/49, 1996, p. 281-96.

The Strasbourg Papyrus of Empedocles: Some preliminary Remarks, in: Mnemosyne 52, 1999, p. 525-44.

van der Eijk, Philip, The woman not breathing, in: Heraclides of Pontus, vol. XV, ed. W W. Fortenbaugh – E. Pender, New Brunswick – London: Transaction Publishers 2009, p. 237-250. (B 111.)

Vandercoilden, Gilbert, Empédocle et sa conception de la nature (unpublished thèse de licence), Université de Louvain 1945.

VanellaGiovanni, Empedocle e la poesia di Lucrezio. in: Estratto dall'Annuario 1960-1969 del Liceo Ginnasio Statale Pietro Giannone - Caserta. Caserta: Grafiche Russo 1969. (Review in: L'Antiquité classique, Tome 39, fasc. 2, 1970. p. 600-601.)

van Goens, Rijklof Michael, Porphyrius, De antro nympharum, graece cum latina L. Holstenii versione, Traiecti ad Rhenum 1765, p. 9 (B 120) and 96 (a sketch of Emp. biography).

van Groningen, Bernhard Abraham, Trois notes sur Empédocle, in: Mnemosyne 9, 1956, p. 221-4. (B 27.2, B 122-3, B 137.)

Le fragment 111 d’Empédocle, in: Classica et Mediaevalia 17, 1956, p. 47-61. (B 111.)

La composition littéraire archaïque grecque: procédés et réalisations, Amsterdam 1958, p. 201-222. (Chap. VII: B 24, B 35, etc.).

Empédocle, poète, in: Mnemosyne 24, 1971, p. 169-88.

van Herwerden, H.,  Quaestiunculae epicae et elegiacae, Utrecht: Kemink 1876, p. 81-84. (New reading of some verses edited by Karsten; B 115, B 4, B17.27-28 + B 26.1-2, B 23.9-10, B 35, B 105, B. 17.28, B 27.)

van Stégeren, D. J., Empedocles en Darwin, in: De Nederlandsche Spectator 50, 1879, p. 398-400.

Vattuone, Riccardo, Timeo F 119 b. Empedocle e Timoleonte, in: Rivista storica dell’antichità 15, 1985, p. 224-36.

Vaute, Paul, Un Empédocle inédit révélé par un papyrus de Haute-Egypte, in: La Libre Belgique, 4 mars 1999, p. 24.

Veazie, Walter Broad, Empedocles’s Psychological Doctrine in its Original and its Traditional Setting, Dissertation of Columbia University 1917, 27 p. (printed in Archives of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Method 14, New York 1922).

Vegetti, Mario, Empedocle “medico e sofista”(Antica medicina 20), in: Elenchos 19/2, 1998, p. 345-59 (A 71). (Elenchos 19/2 = Empedocle e la cultura della Sicilia antica: Illustrazione di un frammento inedito della sua opera. Atti del Convegno tenuto ad Agrigento dal 4 al 6 settembre 1997, p. 217-411.)

–  Empedocle „Medico e Sofista“ (Antica Medicina 20), in: Klaus-Dietrich Fischer – Diethard Nickel – Paul Potter (eds.), Text and Tradition. Studies in Ancient Medicine and its Transmission presented to Jutta Kollesch, Leiden – Boston - Köln: Brill, 1998, s. 289-299 (A 71, Iatrikos logos, B 112, B 111).

–  Ιστορία της αρχαίας φιλοσοφίας, μτφρ. Γ.Χ. Δημητρακόπουλος, Αθήνα :  Τραυλός, 2000, Pp. 100-107 + 112-114 (Εμπεδοκλής).

–  Athanatizein. Strategie di immortalità nel pensiero greco, in: Dialoghi con gli antichi, by Vegetti, Mario, Academia Verlag, Sankt Augustin 2007, pp. 165-178.

Veikos, Th[eophilos?], Εμπεδοκλης (B 35, 3-4). Η κοσμική δίνη,  in: Hellenica 24, 1971, p. 312-20.

Χώρος και χρόνος στην κοσμολογία του Εμπεδοκλή, in: Hellenica 22, 1969, p. 326-40.

Veneciano, GustavoEl fr. 139 DK de Empédocles y el ensemble ‘d’ del papiro de Estrasburgo. A propósito de una nueva edición, in: Argos, vol. 35 nº2, 2012, p. 92-103.                                                                                             . (B 139, d.)

Verdenius, Willem Jacob, Empedocles’ Doctrine of Sight, in: Studia varia Carolo Guilielmo Vollgraff a discipulis oblata, Amsterdam, North/Holland Pub. Co. 1948, p. 155-64 (B 84). 

Notes on the Presocratics VIII: The Meaning of πίστις in Empedocles; IX: Empedocles Frag. 26, 2, in: Mnemosyne 4, 1948, p. 10-14.

Parmenides. Some Comments on his Poem, Groningen - Batavia 1942.

Verdenius, W. J. – Waszink, Jan Henrik, Aristotle On coming-to-be and passing-away, some comments, Brill, Leiden 1946, p. 64-7 (B 8, B 35.15)

Vergnioux, Alain, La "panhumanité" d'Empédocle, in: Le Télémaque, 2001/1 n° 19, p. 29-36.

Vernant, Jean-Pierre, Mythe et pensée chez les Grecs: études de psychologie historique, I, Paris: François Maspero 1965 (reimpr. 1971), p. 93-95, 102-104. 113-114, 117-121. (B 4, B 110, B 111, B 112, B 115, B 117, B 121, B 129, B 132, B 146, B 147.)

Viano, Cristina, Aristote, De coel. I 10: Empédocle, l’alternance et le mythe du ‘Politique’, in: Revue des études grecques 107, 1994/2, p. 400-413.

Vicaire, Paul, Review of  J. Bollack Empédocle II et III - 1972, in: Revue de Philologie, de Littérature et d'histoire anciennes 46, 1972, p. 110-115.

Vertue, H. S. H., Venus and Lucretius, in: Greece and Rome 3/2, 1956, p. 140-52. 

Vidal Triñanes, ÁngelaEmpédocles, Deus suposto: O filósofo, o poeta, o taumaturgo e o home, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Facultade de filoloxía, grao en filoloxía clásica, 2016.

Vítek, Tomáš, Empedoklés : I. / Studie, Praha : Herrmann & synové, 2001. (To order that book, see:

Nové Empedokleovy verše, in: Reflexe 27, 2004, p. 75-94.

Empedoklés : II. / Zlomky, Praha : Herrmann & synové, 2006. (576 pages: édition of all testimonies, contexts of the verses, fragments, bibliography, Index. To order that book, see:

– Empedoklés : III. / Komentář, Praha : Herrmann & synové, 2006. (680 pages: commentary of all fragments. To order that book, see: 

 – Le Sphairos d’Empédocle et son substrat mythologique, in: Elenchos, XXXI (fasc. 1), 2010, p. 23-49.

Vivarelli, Vivetta, Empedokles und Zarathustra: Verschwendeter Reichtum und Wollust am Untergang, in: Nietzsche Studien 18, 1989, p. 509-36.

Vlastos, Gregory, Equality and Justice in Early Greek Philosophy, in: Classical Philology 42, 1947, p. 156-78 (Emp.: p. 158-61).

Religion and Medicine in the Cult of Asclepius: A Review Article, in: The Review of Religion 13.1, 1948 (November), p. 268-290 (p. 272-3: B 111.9 plus A 1, par. 60-2)

Theology and Philosophy in Early Greek Thought, in: The Philosophical Quarterly 7, 1952, s. 97-123 (Emp.: p. 119-21).

Voilquin, Jean, Les Penseurs grecs avant Socrate: de Thalès de Milet à Prodicos, traduction, introduction, notices et notes par Jean Voilquin, Paris: Garnier Frères 1941 (Les Classiques Garnier). Empedocles: Chap VI, p. 97-122, 229-231). Reprint Les Penseurs grecs avant Socrate: de Thalès de Milet à Prodicos, traduction, introduction et notes par Jean Voilquin, Paris: Garnier-Flammarion 1964, [GF 31]; Empedocles: Chap VI, p. 115-141, p. 236-238.

Vollgraff, W. Elementum, in: Mnemosyne 2, 1949, p. 89-115. (B 6.)

von Arnim, H., Die Weltperioden bei Empedokles, in: Festschrift Theodor Gomperz, dargebracht zum siebzigsten Geburtstage am 29 März 1902 von schülern freunden Collegen, Wien: Alfred Hölder 1902, p. 16-27.

von Fritz, Kurt, ΝΟΥΖ, ΝΟΕΙΝ, and their Derivatives in Pre-socratic Philosophy. Part II. The Post-parmenidean Period, in: Classical Philology 1946, 41, 1, p. 12-34 (Emp.: p. 13-21). This study was reprinted in: The Pre-Socratics, ed. by A. P. D. Mourelatos, Princeton University Press 1993 (revised edition of a first publication in 1974), p. 23-85, (Emp.: p. 55-67). (B 2, B 3, B 4, B 5, B 17, B 105, B 106, B 109, B 133, B 134.)

von Staden, Heinrich, The discovery of the body: Human dissection and its cultural contexts in Ancient Greece, in: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 65, 1992, p. 223-241.

von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich, Lesefrüchte, in: Hermes 37, 1902, p. 326-7 (B 27a).

Lesefrüchte, in: Hermes 40, 1905, p. 165-70.

Die Katharmoi des Empedokles, in: Sitzungsberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 27, 1929, p. 626-61 (published also separately in: Kleinen Schriften, Berlin 1935, p. 473-521).

Lesefrüchte, in: Hermes 65, 1930, s. 245-50 (B 35.3-4, B 9, B 17, B 21 etc.).

Die Gedichte des Empedokles, in: Forschungen und Fortschritte 6, 1930, p. 50-1.

Der Glaube der Hellenen I-II, Berlin 1931-2.

Vossius, Gerardus Ioannes, De historicis Graecis libri I, Lugduni Batavorum, ex officina Ioannis Maire, 16512, p. 437-8 (a sketch of Emp. biography; B 33).

– s. v. Empedocles, in: The Great Historical Geographical and Poetical Dictionnary, sixth edition corrected and enlarged by J. Leclerc, printed for Henry Rhodes, London 1690, Volume I, without pagination (cca 20 unvaluable lines on Emp. life and work).


Wackernagel, Jacob, Orthographica und Verwandtes, in: Philologus 86, 1931, p. 133-40: 1. ἱdrώj und Zubehör (B 21.4, B 62.5, B 73.2).

Wachsmuth, Günther, Empedokles, der faustische Mensch vor Christus, in: Das Goethaneum, Internationale Wochenschrift für Anthroposophie und Dreigliederung, Jahrgang 2, No. 18, 1923, p. 140-2 (9. 12.) and Jahrgang 3, No. 19, 1923 (16. 12.), p. 147-9 (pars I is reprinted also in: Anthroposophie 5/32, 1924 (7. 2. 1924), p. 1-2, and 5/33, 1924 (14. 2.), p. 1-2).

Wacziarg Engel, Aude PriyaHésiode, Théogonie:  Un chant du cosmos, Paris: Fayard 2014 (Ouvertures, bilingues). (P. 18 : B 6, a short support to Zeus = aither, Hera = earth, Aïdôneus = fire.)

Wada, Toshihiro, The Period of Present World in Empedocles, in: Methodos [A Journal for Ancient Philosophy, published at Kyoto University] 29, 1997, p. ???.

Wagner, G., Hölderlin und die Vorsokratiker, diss. Würzburg : Triltsch 1937 (= Bamberg 1983).

Waterfield, Robin, The First Philosophers: the Presocratics and Sophists, Oxford World’s Classics, Oxford : Oxford University Press 2000, p. 133-63 (24 testimonies, 50 fragments).

Waters, Kenneth H., The Rise and Decline of Some Greek Colonies in Sicily, in: Ancient Society 5, 1974, p. 1-19 (A 1; on Acragas and its situation in fifth century BC).

Wehrli, Fritz, Herakleides Pontikos: Texte und Kommentar (Die Schule des Aristoteles VII), Basel - Stuttgart, 19692 (A 1).

Weiher, A., Heraklit und Empedokles, Progr. Kaiserslauten 1916.

Weische, Alfons, Quam varie et diverse Empedocles et Lucretius praepositionibus usi sint, parvula de linguis comparandis disputatio, in: Loquela vivida. Donum natalicium Nicolao Sallmann sexagesimum quintum annum agenti a fautoribus linguae Latinae vivae oblatum, ed. Jürgen Blänsdorf, Würzburg 1999, p. 11-20.

Wellmann, Eduard, Die deutsche Litteratur über die Vorsokratiker 1894 bis 1900 [Review of Th. Gomperz, Griechischer Denker], in: Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 15/1, 1902, p. 113-132 (Empedocles: p. 113-4).

–  s. v. Empedokles (3), in: Pauly-Wissowa Real Encyclopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft, Band 5/10, Stuttgart 1905, p. 2507-12.

Wellmann, Max, Die Fragmente der sikelischen Ärzte Akron, Philistion und des Diokles von Karystos, Berlin 1901.

Wendland, Paul, Das Gewand der Eitelkeit, in: Hermes 51, 1916, p. 481-5 (B 126).

Wenskus, Otta, Empedokles Erklärung der Entstehung der Sonnenfinsternisse das Fragment DK 31 B 42, in: Hermes 108.2, 1980, p. 243-8. (B 42.)

Wersinger, Anne Gabrièle, Review of R. Laurenti, Empedocle, in: Études philosophiques 4, Oct - Dec 2001, p. 558-60.

Empédocle et Homère. L’Un et le Multiple dans le répétition formulaire, in: Diotima 31, 2003, p. 11-20.

La “fête criminelle” (Empédocle, Perséphone et les Charites), in: La Fête : la rencontre du sacré et du profane, eds. M. Mazoyer – J. Pérez Rey – F. Malbran-Labat – R. Lebrun, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2004, p. 109-131.

La Sphère et l'intervalle : le schème de l'Harmonie dans la pensée des anciens Grecs d'Homère à Platon, Grenoble : Jerôme Millon 2008 (coll. Horos). (Chap. 2 : Empédocle, l'Harmonie infinie comme Un, pp. 63-97 ; B 17, B 24, B 26, B 27, B 30, B 31, B 35, B 61, B 71, B 96, B 99, B 100, B 109, B 110, B 123.)

– Présentation de "Empédocle, les dieux, le sacrifice et la grâce",  in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale2012/3, p. 291-299.

– Empédocle, la violence sacrificielle et la grâce, in: Revue de métaphysique et de morale2012/3, p. 379-402.

– Empédocle et la poétique de l'analogie dans le fragment 84, in: ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ42, 2012, p. 41-65. (B 84.)

West, Martin Litchfield, Empedocles on Papyrus, in: The Classical Review 12, 1962, p. 120. (B 115.6.)

– ζωρός in Empedocles, in: The Classical Review 16, 1966, p. 135-6. (B 35.15.)

Notes on Newly-Discovered Fragments of Greek Authors, in: Maia 20, 1968, p. 195-205. (Emp.: p. 199-200: B 153b, B 75).

Early Greek Philosophy and the Orient, Oxford : At the Clarendon Press 1971, p. 233-5 et passim (20022).

The Orphic Poems, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1983. (P. 108: Sphairos) 

 Towards Monotheism, in: Pagan Monotheism in late Antiquity, ed. A. Athanasssiadi - M. Frede, Oxford: Clarendon Press 1999, p. 21- 40. (Empedocles: p. 35-36, B 6, B 21.9, B 27, B 31, B 115, B 134.)

Wieck, Felix, Sphaeram Empedoclis quae dicitur, recensuit et dissertationem adiecit F. W. (diss.), Lipsiae, Hirschfeld 1897 (xxxviii, 37 p.; B 161).

Wilcox, J., “Whole-Natured Forms” in Empedocles’ Cosmic Cycle, in: Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy VI: Before Plato, ed. A. Preus, Albany : State University of New York Press 2001, p. 109-22.

Wildberg, Christian, Commentary on Curd: A New Empedocles, in: Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium in Ancient Philosophy, 17, 2001, p. 50-59.

Wilford, P. A., Embryological Analogies in Empedocles’ Cosmogony, in: Phronesis 13, 1968, p. 108-18. (A 51, B 35, B 100.)

Wilkens, Karsten, Wie hat Empedokles die Vorgänge in der Klepsydra erklärt?, in: Hermes 95.2, 1967, p. 129-140. (B 100.)

Wilkins, Ernest H., Empedocles in Filelfo’s terza rima, in: Speculum 38, p. 318-23. (B 161.)

Willi, Andreas, The languages of Aristophanes : Aspects of Linguistic Variation in Classical Attic Greek. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2003, (Oxford Classical Monographs), pp. 101-113.

Sikelismos : Sprache, Literatur und Gesellschaft im griechischen Sizilien (8.-5. Jh. v. Chr.), Basel : Schwabe, 2008. (Bibliotheca Helvetica Romana 29.). (Pp. 193-279, 303-5 ; several fragments ; p. 226-228: B 6 [backing Kingsley's view].)

Wilson, Robert D., Empedocles, dialogus graecus proemio Gaisfordiano dignatus A. D. M., T. and G. Shrimpton, Oxford 1857 (16 p.) 

Winnefeld, Hermann, Die Philosophie des Empedokles. Ein Versuch von Dr. H. W., in: Beilage zum Programm des Grossherzoglichen Gymnasiums in Donaueschingen von Schuljahr 1861/1862, Rastatt : W. Mayer 1862 (59 p.).

Wismann, Heinz, Le métier de philologue II, in: Critique, 279-280, 1970, p. 774-781. (Review of  J. Bollack and D. O'Brien.)

Wiśniewski, Bohdan, Quaestiones Empedocleae, in: La Parola di Passato 29, 1974, p. 158-71. (A 30, A 31, A 32, B 134.4-5, B 3.9-13, B 2 etc.; a curious article postulates quite improbable theses on 4 roots, Love - Strife, sphairos, and phren hiere.)

Wöhrle, Georg, Carmini divini pectoris oder prodesse und delectare bei Lucrez und Empedokles, in: Wiener Studien 104, 1991, p. 119-29 (A 21).

Bemerkungen zur lehrhaften Dichtung zwischen Empedokles und Arat, in: Gattungen wissenschaftlicher Literatur in der Antike, hrsg. von W. Kullmann - J. Althoff - M. Asper, Tübingen : Narr 1998, p. 279-86.

Wolf, Marina, [ВОЛЬФ M.H.], ДВОЯКОЕ СКАЖУ: АРГУМЕНТАЦИЯ ЭМПЕДОКЛА ВПОЛЬЗУ ПЛЮРАЛИЗМА (В 17 DK), in: ΣΧΟΛΗ Vol. 10. 1, 2016, p. 146-163. (B 17.)

Wolfsdorf, David, Empedocles and his Ancient Readers on Desire and Pleasure, in: Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, 36, 2009, p. 1-71.

Wolf-Hartmut, Friedrich, Ennius-Erklärungen, in: Philologus 97, 1948, p. 277-301 (Emp.: p. 291-3).

Worthen, Thomas, Pneumatic Action in the Klepsydra and Empedocles’ Account of Breathing, in: Isis 61, 1970, p. 520-30 (B 100).

Woolerton, Emma The roots of Lucretius' tree-men, De rerum natura 2.702–3, in:The Classical Quarterly (New Series), 2010, vol. 60, 01, p. 255-257. (A 70, B 21, B 61, B 82, B 143.)

Wright, Jonathan, An Italian Book on Empedocles, in: The Scientific Monthly 12, 1921, p. 339-48. (partly a review of E. Bignone, 1916.)

Wright, John Henry, The origin of Plato's cave, in: Harvard studies in classical philology, vol. 17, 1906, pp. 131-142. (B 120).

Wright, Maureen Rosemary, Empedocles: The Extant Fragments, New Haven-London: Yale University Press 1981 (Reprint: London: Bristol Classical Press 19862; reprint with new bibliography: London: Bristol Classical Press 1995and Hackett Publishing Co.reprint 20014).

The Presocratics, London: Duckworth (Bristol: Bristol Classical Press), 1985, p. 27-33, 107-21.

– Presocratic minds, in: The Person and the human mind: issues in ancient and modern philosophy, ed. by Ch. Gill, Oxford: Clarendon, 1990, pp. 207-225.

– Review of P. Kingsley, Ancient Philosophy, in: Phronesis 41/1, 1996, p. 111-2.

Empedokles, in: Philosophie der Antike I-II, hrsg. von F. Ricken, Stuttgart : Kohlhammer 1996, I.111-128.

Empedocles, in: The Routledge History of Philosophy, ed. by C. C. W. Taylor, London : Routledge 1997, I.175-207.

Philosopher Poets: Parmenides and Empedocles, in: Form and Content in Didactic Poetry, ed. Catherine Atherton, Bari 1998, p. 1-22.

 – Introducing Greek Philosophy, Durham: Acumen 2009. (B 6, B 23, B 27, B 29, B 96, B 110, B 115, B 146.) 

Wybrands, Aemilius Willem, Nog over Empedokles, in: De Nederlandsche Spectator 51, 1879, p. 406.


Xylander, Guilielmus, Plutarchi chaeronensis, Moralia, Basel: 1570, p. 555 (Latin edition, B 115, De exilio.)

– Plutarchi chaeronensis, philosophorum & historicorum principis varia scripta, Basel: 1574, p. 428 (Greek edition, B 115, De exilio.)

Xylinas, Michalés, Η προσωκρατική φιλοσοφία και οι σύγχρονες φυσικές επιστήμες: ο Εμπεδοκλής σαν σύνδεσμος, Meleté 1997 (???).

Xylinas, Michalés - Tzavaras, Giannis, Ο Εμπεδοκλής Ακραγαντίνος ως επίκαιρος ιατροφιλόσοφος, in: Ελληνική φιλοσοφική επιθεώρηση: επιστημονικά περιοδικά 12, 1995, p. 111-28.


Zaborowski, Robert, "L'affectivité dans les fragments des Présocratiques : THYMOS et PHREN", Parnassos 47, 2005, pp. 5–24.

Sur le sentiment chez les Présocratiques. Contribution psychologique à la philosophie des sentiments, Varsovie : Stakroos, 2008. (pp. 78-91 : θυμς, φρν, νος ;  pp. 165-167 : λγος in B 4.3).

Zafiropulo, Jean, Empédocle d’Agrigente, Paris : Les Belles lettres 1953.

Εμπεδοκλέους Καθαρμοί, texte établi et annoté par J. Z., traduction, le poème des purifications, Paris : A. Tallon 1954 (a de luxe reprint of the part of the study 1953).

Εμπεδοκλέους Περι φύσεως. Seguono, di J. Z. una traduzione francese e uno scritto dal titolo “Les théories d’Empédocle et leur contexte”, Alpignano : Tallone 1962.

Zeller, Eduard, Über die griechischen Vorgänger Darwin’s, in: Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1878, p. 111-24 (Emp.: p. 115-9). 

Die Philosophie der Griechen, eine Untersuchung über Charakter, Gang und Hauptmomente ihrer Entwicklung, Theil 1, allgemeine Einleitung, vorsokratische Philosophie, Tübingen: L.F. Fues 1844, p. 166-194. Second editionTübingen: L.F. Fues 1856 with title Die Philosophie der Griechen, in ihrer geschichtlichen EntwicklungTheil 1, allgemeine Einleitung, vorsokratische Philosophie, p.; 500-575.   Third editionLeipzig: Fues's Verlag (R. Reisland) 1869, with title Die Philosophie der Griechen, in ihrer geschichtlichen EntwicklungTheil 1, allgemeine Einleitung, vorsokratische Philosophie, p.; 604-683.    Fourth edition: Leipzig: Fues's Verlag (R. Reisland) 1876, with title Die Philosophie der Griechen, in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, p. 678-760.   Fifth edition: Leipzig: O.R. Reisland 1892, with title Die Philosophie der Griechen, in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, Theil 1, Hälfte 2, p. 750-837.   Sixth editionLeipzig: O.R. Reisland 1920 (ed. by W. Nestle), with title Die Philosophie der Griechen, in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, allgemeine Einleitung, vorsokratische Philosophie, p. 939-1038. (The third edition from 1869 is available on Gallica:

Über die älteste Zeugnisse zur Geschichte des Pythagoras, in: Sitzungsberichte der königlich preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaft zu Berlin, 1889, p. 985-96 (p. 990: B 155, A 1, par. 55).

Zhmud, Leonid, Wissenschaft, Philosophie und Religion im frühen Pythagoreimus, Berlin 1997, p. 33-4 (B 129), 127-8 (B 141), 247-8 (A 70, A 71, A 73).

Revising Doxography: Hermann Diels and his Critics, in: Philologus 145, 2/2001, p. 219-43.

Pythagoras. Leben, Lehre, Nachwirkung. By Christoph Riedweg, in: Ancient Philosophy 23/2, 2003, p. 416-420 (p. 417: Emp. was neither a Pythagorean nor an Orphic, though he was influenced by Orphism and Pythagoreanism; however, a common source of his poems cannot be determined).

Ziegler, KonratMenschen- und Weltwerden. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Mikrokosmosidee, in: Neue Jahrbücher für das klassische Altertum 31, 1913, p. 529-573 (p. 534, n. 3: A 721, 535-7: 4 phases of zoogony, 536, n. 3: B 62.1-4, 539 a 553: B 61, 544 a 563: B 87; the basic purpose of the article is to prove heavy influence of Orphic material, which was allegedly mediated through Empedocles, on Aristophanes’ speech in Plato’s Symposion).

Zielinski, Siegfried, Attraction and repulsion: Empedocles, pp. 39-56, in: Deep time of the media : toward an archaeology of hearing and seeing by technical means, Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, 2006.

Živanovic, MiodragFragmenti misticnog  : Empedokle ; izbor, prevod i predgovor Miodrag Zivanovic, Banja Luka : Litera, 2003.

Zoumpos, A[nastasius?] N., <