Reasoning is the strongest framework for scientific communication.

DEFINITION: Reasoning is the process of coming to conclusions using logic (McCall, 1952).

For example, reasoning allows us to make common-sense conclusions during everyday life. If you want to know why the light in your room is off, you might reason

* Wall switches turn lights on and off

* The light is off

* Therefore, the wall switch must be in the "off" position.

You would reasonably toggle the light switch to turn the light on.

Clearly, we use reasoning all the time, and most people are quite good at reasoning (Platt, 1964; Desy, 1976; Ritchhart, 2004). However, many people are not accustomed to using reasoning as a framework to structure abstract thinking and communication (Banilower et al., 2013). Therefore, it may be useful to explore WHY reasoning is the strongest framework available for scientific communication, WHAT the elements of reasoned argument are, and HOW different types of reasoning can effectively construct arguments.