Both deductive and inductive reasoning are useful for testing hypotheses.

Creating specific General and Measurable Hypotheses is important for scientific progress. However, even if hypotheses are clear and specific, testing the hypotheses involves careful thinking and reasoning. For example, the capabilities and limitations of statistical tests can influence decisions about hypotheses. Therefore, it will be useful to discuss how hypotheses can be tested in more detail.

Testing hypotheses involves making reasoned arguments. A hypothesis and experimental data form the premises of arguments that lead to a conclusion about whether to reject or support the hypothesis. Two basic types of reasoning can lead to conclusions: deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning.

The following sections apply the concepts of deductive and inductive reasoning to testing hypotheses. Testing hypotheses can also be limited by the biases and desires of researchers.