20. Radio broadcasting in Somalia and Somaliland 1993-2009.

 
20. Halkani waa radio 1993-2009 ku Soomaaliya iyo Soomaaliland.
 

 

Somalia and Somaliland radio broadcasting 1993-2009.

 

3 radio broadcasting concepts then Somalia history.

 

Question 1:

Is SW Short Wave the same as FM (Frequency Modulation)?

 

Answer 1:

No.

Short wave is long distance broadcasting.

FM is short distance broadcasting.

The FM and the Short Wave radio transmitters are different.

The FM and the Short Wave radio antennas are different.

The FM and the Short Wave radio receivers are different.

Some radio receivers have FM and SW. These radios can receive FM and SW broadcasts.

Some radio receivers only have MW and SW. These radios cannot receive FM broadcasts.

Some radio receivers only have MW and FM. These radios cannot receive SW broadcasts.

Some radio receivers only have FM. These radios cannot receive SW broadcasts.

Some radio receivers only have MW. These radios cannot receive FM and SW broadcasts.

 

 

Question 2:

The broadcasting distance of FM radio stations is?

FM radio can receive a distance of?

FM radio has a range of?

The distance covered by FM is?

The transmission distance of FM is?

An FM radio station has a range of?

An FM radio station has a distance of

How far does FM go?

How far can you hear FM?

What is the transmitting range of FM?

 

Answer 2:

FM broadcasting is in the International FM broadcast band 87.5 MHz to 108 MHz (“88 to 108 MHz”).

FM broadcasting in Japan uses 76 MHz - 90 MHz.

Many cars imported into Somalia during the civil conflict are fitted with radios on the Japanese FM broadcast band instead of the correct international FM band.

FM broadcasting is limited to “line of sight” because frequencies in the 88 MHz to 108 MHz FM broadcast band travel in a straight line and will not normally bend around the curvature of the Earth.

FM broadcast antennas are placed as high as possible so they can “see” as far as possible before the ground of the Earth curves out of sight.

 

A 1 Watt FM transmitter will travel 1.5 km (1 mile).

A 5 Watt FM transmitter will travel 5 km (3 miles).

A 10 Watts FM transmitter using a high antenna will travel 8 km (5 miles).

FM with a power of 50 Watts can travel 17 km (11 miles) over flat ground using a high antenna.

A radio station with 100 Watts FM can reach 24 km (15 miles) over flat ground using a high antenna.

The broadcast range of a 300 Watts FM transmitter might be 45 km (30 miles) over flat ground using a high antenna.

A 500 Watts (0.5 kW) radio station on FM might cover a distance of 54 km (34 miles).

A 1000 Watts (1 kW) FM radio station and a high antenna over flat ground might reach 75 km (46 miles). 

An FM radio station with a power of 100,000 Watts (100 kW) and a high antenna over flat ground might cover 160 km (100 miles).

 

Summery.

The FM transmitter power and the distance covered over flat ground using a high antenna is

1 Watt FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 1.5 km (1 mile).

5 Watt FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 5 km (3 miles).

10 Watts FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 8 km (5 miles).

50 Watts FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 17 km (11 miles). 

100 Watts FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 24 km (15 miles).

300 Watts FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 45 km (30 miles).  

500 Watts (0.5 kW) FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 54 km (34 miles).

1000 Watts (1 kW) FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 75 km (46 miles). 

100,000 Watts (100 kW) FM transmitter broadcasts a distance of 160 km (100 miles).

 

Reception by listeners within these broadcast areas will only be possible if the FM receiving antenna can see the FM transmitting antenna or if some reflection or building penetration allows the FM broadcast signal to reach the listener’s FM radio antenna.

 

 

Question 3:

The distance of SW Short Wave broadcast stations is?

Short Wave radio can receive a distance of?

Short Wave radio has a range of?

The distance covered by Short Wave is?

The transmission distance of Short Wave is?

A Short Wave radio station has a range of?

A Short Wave radio station has a distance of

How far does Short Wave go?

How far can you hear Short Wave?

What is the transmitting range of Short Wave?

 

Answer 3:

SW broadcasting is in the International Short Wave broadcast bands between 3 MHz to 30 MHz (90 to 11 metre bands).

A BBC survey in 2005 of Somalia rural regions (areas outside the large cities) found that 86% said they used a short wave radio receiver and only 19% said they could receive an FM station.

FM cannot be heard 24 km (15 miles) outside a city or 75 km (46 miles) at the most so SW short wave radios remain the only media for the people of rural Somalia.

Short Wave broadcasting is able to be heard across regions, nations and the world because frequencies in the 3 MHz to 30 MHz SW broadcast band are able to be bent back to Earth at particular times in the day or night.

The ionosphere surrounds the Earth and it bends Short Wave broadcasts back to the Earth in certain angles.

It is possible to select a certain frequency at a certain time so that your broadcast is heard across Somalia or in a certain part of the world.

This is what the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC, Voice of America VOA, Radio Ethiopia, Radio Djibouti, Radio Hargeisa Somaliland and Radio Hage Somalia are doing when they broadcast to Somalia.

Interference is possible on Short Wave if two stations are near the same frequency. This is why it is useful to have equipment that allows the transmitter frequency to be changed in the field and so easily avoid ongoing interference problems.

To cover different regions at the same time Short Wave broadcasters often use 2 or more transmitters at the same time but on different frequencies. This is why BBC and VOA have 3, 4, 5 or 6 frequencies aimed at different parts of the world all with the same program.

Radio Hage Somalia is the first since the civil war to obtain the equipment to use 2 short wave frequencies one is used on a frequency that can cover North Somalia (within 600 km of Galkayo) and the other is on a frequency that can be heard by listeners in South Somalia (between 600 km and 1200 km away from Galkayo).

 

The Short Wave transmitter power and the distance covered using a high antenna is

A 100 Watts SW transmitter can be heard across Somalia.

A 1000 (1 kW) Watts SW transmitter can be heard louder across Somalia.

A 10,000 Watts (10 kW) SW transmitter can be heard much louder across Somalia.

 

Reception by Short Wave listeners in weak signal areas will be possible if a long wire is stretched out horizontally or vertically or both and used as an antenna. The long antenna collects more of the broadcast and passes it to the receiver. The wire length can be 10 metres or longer.


(Radio Gaalkacyo, Radio Galkacyo, Radio Galkaacyo, Radio Gaalkaacyo, Radio Galcayo, Radio Galcaio, Radio Gaalkacayo, Radio Galka`yo’, Radio Gallacai, Radio Gallacaio, Radio Galkayu, Radio Rocca Littorio)

When Radio Galkayo used a 10 Watt SW transmitter it was heard by a listener in Laascaanood who had a long wire receiving antenna.This is a distance of 190 km (120 miles).
Note that a 10 Watt FM broadcast transmitter will only travel 8 km (5 miles).

 

When Radio Galkayo used a 100 Watt SW transmitter it was heard by listeners in Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia and Australia who had long wire receiving antennas.

Note that a 100 Watts FM broadcast transmitter will only travel 24km (15miles).

 

When Radio Galkayo used a 1000 Watt SW transmitter it was heard by listeners in Somalia, Kenya, Ethiopia and Australia much louder.

Note that a 1000 Watts FM broadcast transmitter will only travel 75 km (46 miles). 

 

The higher the transmitter power the easier the Short Wave broadcast can overcome noise interference.

A new Radio Hargeysa (Radio Hargeisa, Radio Hargesa) short wave transmitter in Somaliland that is heard every day by listeners in Yemen, Egypt, India, Japan, Australia and New Zealand has a power of 25 kW according to reports from the British DX club.

 

Advantage and disadvantage of FM (Frequency Modulation) for radio broadcasting.

1. FM radio receivers are fitted in some cars for the traveller.

2. FM transmitters and receivers are the cheapest of all the broadcast systems.

3. There is no interference if no other FM station is close to the listener or if broadcast frequencies of other stations are far apart.

4. FM and MW (Meduim Wave) are both used for short distance local broadcasting.

 

Advantage and disadvantage of MW (Medium Wave) radio broadcasting.

1. Some people in Somalia are using MW and SW radios that do not have FM.

2. There are no MW (Meduim Wave  526 kHz to 1.602 kHz) stations in Somalia probably because of the lack of affordable (low power MW equipment) compared to FM equipment.

3. The main problem in Somalia for MW broadcasting is the possibility of experiencing interference at night from overseas broadcasters. Daytime MW broadcasting does not have this problem.

4. In areas where all FM frequencies are occupied Meduim Wave will be the alternative for the new broadcasters.

In this case low power MW equipment which allows the easy change of the transmitter frequency in the field in case of persistant overseas interference would be useful in Somalia.

5. MW has more coverage than FM in the daytime because MW frequencies 526 kHz to 1.602 kHz tend to curve with the curvature of the Earth for a short distance before continuing in a straight line and out into space.

6. Meduim Wave has more coverage than FM in the nighttime because MW frequencies 526 kHz to 1.602 kHz can be bent back to Earth by the ionosphere like short waves. Although reception of MW over hundreds or thousands of kilometers is possible distant listeners will often hear a broadcast rise slowly in signal strength and drop slowly and disappear over a period of a few minutes.

7. When FM is weak and a car is travelling rapid fading (signal going up and down) is a problem. This is much less of a problem on Meduim Wave. Cars often have both MW and FM radio receivers fitted.

 

Advantage and disadvantage of SW (Short Wave) radio broadcasting.

1. Short Wave was the first wide scale broadcast system used when the national Somalia Government collapsed in 1991 and the Government monopoly on broadcasting and its ban on private broadcasting disappeared.

2. Short Wave Military Government equipment and Short Wave amateur radio equipment was used in Galkayo, Mogadishu, Hargeysia and elsewhere from 1991 to 2008. 

In 2009 Radio Hargeysia Somaliland (Government radio) has returned to Short Wave with a new transmitter and Radio Hage Somalia (private radio in Galkayo, Puntland, Somalia) has opened as the newest radio station in Somalia with two new transmitters on short wave. Radio Hage Somalia do not use FM.

3. Short Wave was virtually the only medium from 1991 to 1999.

In 1991 to 1993 Short Wave broadcast stations representing the different factions operated in the 43 metre band (6.7 to 6.9 MHz).

The United Nations also operated Short Wave from UNISOM in Mogadishu using the 31 metre band (9 MHz band).

All these radios aimed to talk to the people in all of Somalia and could be heard in Australia and elsewhere.

4. The instillation of FM equipment was speeded by new radio stations that were interested in local short distance broadcasting starting with Horn Afrik opening in 1999 in Mogadishu.

5. A BBC survey in 2005 of Somalia rural regions (areas outside the large cities) found that 86% said they used a short wave radio receiver and only 19% said they could receive an FM station.

6. New stations established themselves on FM.

FM is cheaper than SW.

FM is better known in the developed world from where the equipment was sourced.

Existing Short Wave stations added FM transmitters so that the same SW program was also transmitted on FM.

7. FM was used for local coverage in Somalia within 24 km (15miles) or 75 km (46 miles) at the most and Short Wave was used to cover hundreds and even thousands of kilometers reaching listeners in areas where no local radio stations existed as well as reaching listeners in neighbouring and overseas countries.

8. On 18 April 2009 Radio Hage is using only short wave because it has the interest to provide service to all the people in the remote areas of Somalia.

Radio Hargeysa has both FM for the local people of Hargeysa and Short Wave for all Somaliland. It is also heard across Somalia, the Horn of Africa and overseas.

 

 

  Radio broadcasting in Somalia 1990.

 

Radio broadcasting in Somalia consisted of two Government radio stations (Mogadishu and Hargeysa in Somaliland) and one television station.

Before the 1991 civil war the Somalia Government did not allow private radio or TV broadcasting stations.

 

Radio Broadcasting in Somalia Somaliland 1993 to 2009.

 

Somaliland.

From June 2002 the government of the Republic of Somaliland closed private radio stations and that equipment became the property of the Ministry of Information.

Entry of private radio broadcasting equipment to Somaliland is not allowed.

Somaliland has a Government radio station and a BBC FM radio relay station.

Radio Hargeisa (Radio Hargeysa, Radio Hargaisa) is government owned and government controlled.

In 2006 Radio Hargeisa used 7.530 MHz (7530 kHz)

On 16 March 2008 Radio Hargeisa, Somaliland briefly returned to short wave conducting test transmissions on 7.120 MHz (7120 kHz) and stopped after technical problems.

In 2009 they used FM which gives 25 km or 75 km (46 miles) at the most and centred on Hargeisa.

From the 29 March 2009 Radio Hargeisa, Somaliland returned to short wave and has been heard daily in Sydney Australia with an excellent signal on 7.145 MHz (7145 kHz) in the 41 metre band SW.

19 April 2009 update, a BBC FM relay station operates in Hargeysa.

 

Somalia.

Somalia radio listener survey in 2005.

In 2005 Health un-limited, a British NGO concerned with reproductive health issues such as HIV prevention with offices in Nairobi, Kenya and Hargeysa, Somaliland surveyed the radio stations operating in Somaliland and the Puntland State of Somalia and concluded that in those regions large numbers of Somali people listened to Radio Galkayo short wave.

Health un-limited selected Radio Galkayo to broadcast their programs.

 

In 2005 a survey by the BBC World Service Trust of 600 livestock owners in three rural regions (areas outside the large cities) of Somalia found that:

(a). 88% of Somali people listened to radio.

(b). 91% of those Somali people had listened to radio in the past week.

(c). 68% of those Somali people had listened to radio within the past three days.

(d). only 19% said they could receive an FM station.

(e). 86% said they used a short wave radio receiver.

(f). 7% said they used a medium wave radio receiver.

(g). 85% said they listened to the BBC World Service.

(h). 8% listened to Radio Shabelle (In 2009 they use FM which gives 25 km coverage centred on Mogadishu or 75 km (46 miles) at the most).

(i). 7% listened to Horn Afrik (In 2009 they use FM which gives 25 km coverage centred on Mogadishu or 75 km (46 miles) at the most).

(j). 5 % listened to Radio Galkayo. (In 2009 they have one FM station in Galkayo and one in Garowe. Both cover 25 km radius or 75 km (46 miles) at the most).

(k). other stations scored around 1% to 2%.

 

Most of the radios in Somalia were clan based.

All short wave stations had functioning short wave transmitters in 2005.

 

FM radio broadcasting in Somalia in 2009.

 

In 2009 most short wave transmitters in Somalia had failed from old age.

FM is less expensive compared to Short Wave transmitters.

Private organizations found that FM served their local commercial interest by covering their local 25 km or 75 km (46 miles) at the most and centred on a populated centre. 

 

Radio Galkayo Somalia community radio plans in 2009.

 

Radio Galkayo is interested in more than its own immediate population which is why it has established its first FM station outside Galkayo in Garowe and plans to do the same in more of Somalia’s major cities.

Radio Galkayo wishes to re-establish and strengthen short wave community radio for internally displaced people inside Somalia and for the displaced people in refugee camps just outside the boarders of Somalia as well as for Somalia’s village populations, rural and remote populations and the people in the cities of Somalia who have no radio station or no radio station with community radio programs. Radio Galkayo will welcome all assistance.

 

Radio Galkayo transmitters 1993 to 2009.

 

In 1993 Abdi Karim Nur Mahamud (6O0W) in Melbourne, Australia organised the beginning of the Radio Galkayo project with the Melbourne Somalia community in Australia and Sam Voron (VK2BVS, 6O0A) in Sydney, Australia who donated a short wave transmitter.

Abdi Karim Nur Mahamud (6O0W) and Sam Voron (VK2BVS, 6O0A) arrived in Somalia and on 18 August 1993 Radio Galkayo became the first radio broadcast station in North East Somalia.

Radio Galkayo started on short wave radio with a power of 80 Watts AM on 7.500 MHz.

Radio Galkayo Somali programs also included some English programs for foreigners.

The first staffs were all volunteers who came “off the street.” They answered the call for volunteers who want no food and no money.

Only one person had any radio knowledge.

In 1993 Bill Main (an amateur radio operator) in Western Australia heard the staff training on the short wave 2 way Amateur Radio Club station call sign 6O0Z.

Bill in Western Australia talking on his short wave ham radio transceiver said to Sam and Abdi in Galkayo, Somalia “What you are doing is great work. I think I can help. Please contact me when you return to Australia.”

In 2009 the spirit of that early 1993 HAM “Helping All Mankind and womankind” training is evident in the outlook, attitude and behavior of the staff at Radio Galkayo.

In 1993 staff studied in the first Amateur Radio License training course in Galkayo.

In 2009 Radio Galkayo is known throughout the Horn of Africa and its staff is amoung the top of the media profession in Somalia.  

In 1994 Abdi Karim Nur Mahamud (6O0W) and Sam Voron (VK2BVS, 6O0A) from Australia returned to Somalia with new equipment and the short wave power was increased to 1 kW (1000 Watts AM).

$40,000 of radio equipment had been donated, half by the Australian Government aid agency and the other half by a Non Government Organization (NGO) called Rotary (Boulder, Western Australia branch).

Bill Main (an Australian radio ham) who was a member of Rotary liked the way the Somali radio students where talking with him on the amateur radio two way worldwide transceiver and so he 
became interested in Somalia and helping.
The Radio Free Somalia station identification in Somali was “Idaacada Madaxa Banaan ee Soomaaliya, Gaalka'ayo.” As well as the Somali language broadcast, in the Somali morning there was an English program from 0500-0515 UTC on 7.460 MHz and in the Somali evening there was an English program from 1800-1815 UTC on 7.500 MHz.   

 

In 1998 Radio Free Somalia (Free for all to use, Radio Galkayo) used short wave 7.100 MHz AM.

Radio Free Somalia (Free for all to use, Radio Galkayo) had a short wave relay station in Bosaso that received the 7.100 MHz AM program in Bosaso and retransmitted onto the short wave AM frequency of either 9.420 MHz or 9.425 MHz. With the creation of the Puntland State of Somalia on the 1st August 1998 Radio Free Somalia became known as Radio Galkayo. However the “Radio Galkayo” call sign increasingly came to be used much earlier in Somali programs after 1994.

 

From 1999 to 2000 Radio Free Somalia (Free for all to use, Radio Galkayo) continued to maintain a short wave relay station in Bosasso to receive the Radio Galkayo headquarters station in Galkayo on the 41 metre band short wave and simultanously retransmit those broadcasts locally in Bosasso on the 31 metre band short wave using 5 Watts AM.  

In August 2000 Radio Galkayo moved from Galkayo police station where it had operated since 1993 to its own compound in central Galkayo.

Radio Galkayo moved from 7.012 MHz (where it was by error as this is within the amateur radio two way communication band) to 6.990 MHz then to the new frequency of 6.985 MHz AM.  

In 2001 Radio Galkayo broadcast on 6985 kHz short wave.  

In 2003 Radio Galkayo started FM broadcasting for people with FM radio receivers in their car.

Radio Galkayo used 6.980 MHz AM and briefly 7.335 MHz before returning to 6.980 MHz AM short wave and simultaneously transmitted the same program on 89.6 MHz FM with a power of 10 Watts.

Radio Galkayo included English news for foreigners in Somalia.  

In 2004 Radio Galkayo used the short wave frequency of 6.980 MHz AM and 79.5 MHz FM.

In December FM was moved to 87.9 MHz

Cherry Briggs, the widow of ham radio operator Philip John Smith VK1GZ in Canberra, Australia donated a TS820S amateur radio worldwide communications transceiver and paid its air freighted to Somalia.  

In 2005 Radio Galkayo continued to use the short wave frequency of 6.980 MHz AM.  

In 2007 FM power output increased to 1 kW.  

In 2008 Short Wave failed and was not repairable, leaving only the 1 kW FM transmitter.  

In 2009 the coverage of the Radio Galkayo FM transmitter is 25 km radius or 75 km (46 miles) at the most and covering all of Galkayo on 88.2 MHz.

The antenna is unity gain meaning that 1 kW input power to the antenna will give the same 1 kW erp (effective radiated antenna power output).

To increase the life of the transmitter it operates at 600 Watts or 300 Watts.

The second Radio Galkayo station in Garowe uses 300 Watts FM and the antenna is unity gain meaning that 300 Watts input power to the antenna will give the same 300 Watts erp (effective radiated antenna power output).  

 
 
INDEX-
Click on the yellow links below.

 

NABDAADI RAADIYO HAM SOOMAALIYA. RAADIYOO CAAWINTA AADANAHOO DHAN.

1. Somalia

 

RAADIYAHA AMITARKA SOOMAALIYEED.

2. Somalia ham radio

 

SHATIGA RAADIYAHA AMITARKA AH EE ABIDKIIS KAJIRAYA DALKA SOMALIYA.

3. Somalia ham radio license

 

SHATIYADA SOOMAALIYA AY SIINAYSO AJAANIBTA AMITAR RADIYOWGA AAN XADID NAYN.

4. Somalia visitor ham radio license

 

ISGAARSIINTA EE RAADIYAHA AMITARKA SOOMAALIYEED.

5. Somalia ham radio regulations

 

WAAXDA ISGAARSIINTA SOOMAALIYA.

6. Somalia amateur radio licensing authority

 

KOORSADA RAADYAHA AMITARKA SOOMAALIYA.

7. Somalia ham radio course

 

LAMBARADA WICITAANKA EE RAADIYAHA AMITARKA SOOMAALIYA.

8. Somalia ham radio callsigns

 

HORGALAHA CALAAMADDA WACITAANKA EE AMATEUR RADIO. WAXAY MUUJINAYSAA WADANKA.

9. Ham radio prefixes

 

JIMCIYADA RAADIYAHA AMITARKA EE SOOMAALIYA. 

10. SARFEN

 

WARISGAARSIINTA DEGDEGA AH EE AMITAR RAADYOOWGAEE SOOMAALIYA.

11. Somalia emergency network

 

SHARAX SHAQADA UU QABTO BOTON WALBA OO KAMID AH WARLALIS QABTAHA.

12. Holiday help in Somalia

 

BOOQDAYAASHA USOCDA SOOMAALIYA. 

13. Somalia radio holiday

 

BOOQO SOOMAALIYA.

14. Travel to Somalia

 

RADIO GAALKACYO, RADIO GALKACYO, RADIO GALKAACYO, RADIO GAALKAACYO, RADIO GALCAIO.

RADIO GAALKACYO 2. 
 

FM IYO SW RAADIYO EE SOOMAALIYA, SOOMAALILAND IYO JABUUTI.

17. Somalia short wave radio broadcasts

 
RADIO HAGE SOOMAALIYA. 
 

KHARIIDADA SOOMAALIYA, KHARIIDADA SOOMAALILAND, KHARIIDADA PUNTLAND, KHARIIDADA GALMUDUG, KHARIIDADA ORGADEN, KHARIIDADA BARI XABASHI, KHARIIDADA WAQOOYI BARI KIINYA, KHARIIDADA KOONFUR ERITREA IYO KHARIIDADA JABUUTI.

 

HALKANI WAA RADIO 1993-2009 KU SOOMAALIYA IYO SOOMAALILAND.

You are here20. Radio broadcasting in Somalia 1993-2009.

 

IDAACAD SW RAADIYO U SOOMAALIYA.

 
AMITAR RAADIYO EE AFRIKA.
22. Amateur Radio in Africa
 
 

Contact: Sam Voron VK2BVS, 6O0A.