Literature‎ > ‎


Resources on formulary enforcement and payer cost enforcement.  See the related Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBM) page.
The page is a work in progress.


Buckles, M. A. (2001) "Electronic Formulary Management and Medicaid: Maximizing Economic Efficiency and Quality of Care in the Age of Electronic Prescribing," Specialty Law Digest. Health Care Law (264pp. 9-32  

Delate, T. and R. Henderson (2005) "Effect of Patient Notification of Formulary Change on Formulary Adherence," Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy (11) 6, pp. 493-498.

Epocrates 2009, Physician Survey on Generic Drug Use.

Fischer, M. A., C. Vogeli, M. Stedman, T. Ferris et al. (2008) "Effect of Electronic Prescribing With Formulary Decision Support on Medication Use and Cost," Archives of Internal Medicine (168) 22, pp. 2433-2439.

Khan, S., R. Sylvester, D. Scott, and B. Pitts (2008) "Physicians’ Opinions About Responsibility for Patient Out-of-Pocket Costs and Formulary Prescribing in Two Midwestern States," Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy (14) 8, pp. 780-789.

Lehmann, D. F., R. Guharoy, N. Page, K. Hirschman et al. (2007) "Formulary Management as a Tool to Improve Medication Use and Gain Physician Support," American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy (64) 5, pp. 464-466.

Malone, D. C. (2005) "The Role of Pharmacoeconomic Modeling in Evidence-Based and Value-Based Formulary Guidelines," Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy (11) 4 (Supplement), pp. S7-S10.

Meissner, B., M. Dickson, J. Shinogle, C. E. Reeder et al. (2006) "Drug and Medical Cost Effects of a Drug Formulary Change With Therapeutic Interchange for Statin Drugs in a Multistate Managed Medicaid Organization," Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy (12) 4, pp. 331-340.

Neumann, P. J. (2004) "Evidence-Based And Value-Based Formulary Guidelines," Health Affairs (23) 1, pp. 124-134.

Ross, S. M., D. Papshev, E. L. Murphy, D. J. Sternberg et al. (2005) "Effects of Electronic Prescribing on Formulary Compliance and Generic Drug Utilization in the Ambulatory Care Setting: A Retrospective Analysis of Administrative Claims Data," The Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy (11) 5, pp. 410-415.

Schueth, T. (2004) "Formulary Standards Key To E-Prescribing Success," Managed Care (13) 10, pp. 41-43.

Shrank, W. H., S. L. Ettner, P. Glassman, and S. M. Asch (2004) "A Bitter Pill: Formulary Variability and the Challenge to Prescribing Physicians," Journal of the American Board of Family Practice (17) 6, pp. 401-407.