The Latin New Testament

This is a page of announcements relating to my book on The Latin New Testament (OUP, 2016) providing updates and other news related to the book and its contents. Please note that when new information is added to a post on a particular topic, their overall position does not change in the chronological order, so it may be worth scrolling through if you are looking for something in particular. You can also use the following links to go straight to the most popular pages:

Codex Cavensis online

posted 8 Mar 2019, 05:20 by Hugh Houghton

[originally published 18 Oct 2018]

Mike Ferrando has just been in touch to say that Codex Cavensis (Vulgate C) is now available online.
The colour images of this important Vulgate manuscript of the entire Latin Bible are excellent quality, and a PDF may also be downloaded.

This appears to be part of a much broader project to digitise the holdings of libraries throughout Italy. See further

A link to search for specific manuscript collections (including other codices held in Cava de' Tirreni) may be found at . At present this includes a link to almost 20,000 manuscripts in the Plutei collection at the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence.

It would be wonderful if some of the other important New Testament manuscripts held in Italy were to become part of this collection.

Publication of the Paperback Edition

posted 8 Mar 2019, 05:19 by Hugh Houghton

[originally published 4 Oct 2018]

I am delighted to announce that Oxford University Press has produced a paperback edition of The Latin New Testament (ISBN 9780198800651) to be published tomorrow (5th October 2018) and already available on the OUP website.

The opportunity has been taken to incorporate a number of minor corrections which colleagues were kind enough to bring to my attention. Those still using the hardback edition may find a full list of these available on the page of Hardback Corrections.

In addition, no fewer than 30 new links to full online sets of digital images have been added to the paperback edition, as well as updates to URLs which had become outdated. These are also detailed on the page of Hardback Corrections.

There continue to be pages on this website dedicated to Corrections to the Paperback Edition and New sets of links to images. I hope that readers of the volume will continue to notify me of such information.

Hardback edition corrections

posted 8 Mar 2019, 05:18 by Hugh Houghton   [ updated 3 Apr 2019, 01:41 ]

[Originally posted 4 Oct 2018] 

A number of scholars brought my attention to errors in the hardback edition. These have been incorporated in the paperback edition printed in October 2018, but this page notes the adjustments to be made to the hardback edition. Thanks to Lukas J. Dorfbauer, J.K. Elliott, Michael W. Holmes, Drew Hartzell, Adam Dunning, Alan Taylor Farnes and Anna Persig for bringing some of them to my attention. Links to manuscript images added in the paperback edition are also noted below.

Subsequent corrections and additions are noted on the Corrections and additions to the Paperback edition.

p. 10. praessura pressura.
p. 12, line 28. Luke 1:9 ] Luke 1:29.
p. 19. poet ] writer.
p. 24. at the request of Constantius, emperor from 337 to 361 ] when Constantius was emperor (from 337–361),
p. 28. "a separate recension around one-third longer than the standard text": this figure is much too high; the recension is normally described as 6.5 to 8% longer.
p. 28, line 20. 7:52 ] 7:53
p. 39. disassociate ] dissociate.
p. 40, line 2. For PEL Gal 5.14, read PEL Gal 4.15.
p. 54. "may be identical with the author of an incomplete commentary on Matthew": this is no longer believed to be the case.
p. 55. Delete closing parenthesis before reference to note 31.
p. 61. Arnobius the Younger's existence is now considered dubious: the expositions attributed to him treated the Gospels of Matthew, Luke and John.
p. 63. Epiphanius Latinus is a phantom; the Interpretatio Euangeliorum is a compilation probably assembled in Italy in the seventh century.
p. 65. Despite the entry in Gryson 2007, the anonymous commentary known as Pseudo-Theophilus probably originated in northern Italy in the seventh century, and may not have used all the sources mentioned.
p. 67 and 160. There remain doubts over the attribution of PS-HI Mc to CU-D, most recently expressed in the edition by Cahill (CCSL 82).
p. 81. The 'Ada Group' may not all have been written in Aachen.
p. 82, note 31. It may be useful to know that the Alcuin Bible mentioned here (Rome, St Paolo fuori le mura, Φp) is sometimes referred to as the Codex Paulinus (abbreviated paul).
p. 85. Theodulf was a refugee from his native Spain.
p. 88. bibliotheca can also mean "full Bible".
p. 90, line 1. most of which dates ] the majority of which date.
p. 91. Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel is now thought to have come from Spain or Southern France: it is not clear that he worked for Charlemagne or founded the eponymous monastery. See further Fidel Rädle (1974), Studien zu Smaragd von Saint-Mihiel. 
p. 93, line 8. Paul ] Prosper.
p. 102, line 5. ''Unusually for an Insular text it is written in Caroline minuscule." In fact, Breton scriptoria used Caroline minuscule from the middle of the ninth century: see Deuffic 1986 in the list of additions to the bibliography.
p. 106. correctoriones ] correctiones.
p. 127, line 18. According to Spanish practice the reference should be to 'Ayuso' rather than 'Marazuela'
p. 129, last line of paragraph 1. The full stop should come within the inverted commas: forms unique to the Clementine Vulgate are thus all indicated by 'c.'
p. 135, line 24. Abbott ] Abbot .
p. 162, line 13. ὠνείδας ] ὠνείδισας .
p. 168. Arator's exegesis of Acts is a long hexameter poem.
p. 176, line 4. Ch,ristus ] Christus.
p. 190. Alemannic minuscule was practised in modern Switzerland and around the region of Lake Constance (the Bodensee).
p. 225. VL 28: the contents of this manuscript are Matthew 1:18–2:7, 4:24–5:29, 13:7–14:1, 16:13–18:31, 19:26–26:18, 26:45–27:58; Mark 1:1–3:23, 4:19–5:36, 6:36–16:20; Luke 1:13–2:15, 3:8–6:39, 7:11–11:54, 12:45–14:18, 15:25–16:15, 17:7–19:10, 19:38–22:35, 22:59–23:14; John 5:12–6:25, 8:7–10:3. It is not cited in Jülicher's Itala and is written in insular minuscule script.
p. 236. Update the link for images of VL 57 to: 
p. 244, line 5. "VL 76 may have been the exemplar for VL 83." This suggestion is discounted by the observation that VL 83 is based on the pagination of VL 75 and not VL 76.
p. 246, line 34. "or VL 76": as noted above with regard to p. 244, this is incorrect.
p. 248. Update the link for images of VL 87 to: 
p. 268 VgOe E. The page size is 30.5 x 22.0 cm; the text block is 22.0 x 14.0 mm.
p. 269 VgH. The manuscript is sometimes written in sense lines, e.g. for the genealogies, and also has decorated canon tables on foll. 198-201.
p. 276. The link for images of the Rushworth Gospels should read: <>
p. 278 VgOa U. The text block of the manuscript is 16 x 11 cm. 
p. 278. The shelfmark for VgOW is Royal MS 1 B XII and its page size is 30.5 x 20.5 cm.
p. 279. Royal 1.B.VII ] Royal MS 1 B VII
p. 292. Royal I.B.12 ] Royal MS 1 B XII
p. 295. Cotton Tiberius B.V, fol. 26. ] Cotton Tiberius B.V/1, fol. 76.
p. 298 (Andrist)  Ohms ] Olms.
p. 308. De Bruyne 1920b is an erroneous duplication of Cavellera (1920) and should be deleted.
p. 318 (Haelewyck 1999, 2003)  Zebre ] le Zèbre.
p. 318 (Haelewyck 2005)  Universitaire ] Université.
p. 319. Harrison's PhD dissertation was at the University of Pennsylvania, although it is printed by University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

(For images noted after October 2018, visit the images page)

VL 14 (Codex Usserianus 1). High resolution colour images as part of the Early Irish Manuscripts Project (uploaded October 2016) at:

VL 15 (Codex Aureus Holmiensis). The manuscript is available with colour images online at , with a single PDF of 393 images at the Kungliga Bibliotheket (1.5GB) at 

VL 19 (Fragmentum Bernense). Available online at 

VL 19A (Durham Fragments). Images released as part of the Durham Priory project at (A.II.10) , (C.III.13), (C.III.20).  

VL 28 (The Garland of Howth, Codex Usserianus 2). High resolution colour images as part of the Early Irish Manuscripts Project (uploaded February 2016) at:

VL 35 (The Book of Mulling: Dublin, TCD 60). High resolution colour images as part of the Early Irish Manuscripts Project (uploaded March 2016) at:; single PDF at

VL 50 (The Laudian Acts). Available in the new Bodleian Digital Portal at

VL 55 (The Fleury Palimpsest). Colour images are now available from the Bibliothèque nationale de France (uploaded August 2015) to supplement the back and white ones listed in the book:

VL 57
 (Sélestat Lectionary). In November 2017, the URLs in the book had been moved, but in August 2018 they were working again. In addition, a PDF may be found at: 

VL 64 (Freising Fragments). Digitized microfilm now available from the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (MDZ):

VL 65 (Codex Harleianus). Full digitization at

VL 84 (List of lections). Colour images are now available from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana website (April 2017):

VL 87 (Sélestat Lectionary).  In November 2017, the URLs in the book had been moved, but in August 2018 they were working again. In addition, a PDF may be found at: 

VL 259 (London, British Library, MS Add. 30844). Full digitization (August 2016) at:

VgSp R (Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Regin. lat. 9). Colour images are now available from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana website (April 2017):

VgΦΒ (Bamberg, Staatliche Bibliothek, Msc. Bibl. 1): permalink at:

VgOe E (Gospels of Marmoutier). Full digitization at

VgOp E (London, BL. Cotton Vitellius C. VIII). Full digitization at

VgH (Codex Hubertianus). Full digitisation at

VgOe L (Lichfield, Cathedral Library, 'St Chad Gospels'). New website with Creative Commons released in November 2016 at; the images are at

VgOa M (Codex Monacensis). Digitized microfilm at

VgOe R (Rushworth/MacRegol Gospels). Available in the new Bodleian Digital Portal at

VgOp S (Cambridge, Trinity College, B.10.5). The link for the full-screen digitisation is: 

VgOe U (Utrecht, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, 32). Online edition and images of the gospel fragments at the end of the psalter:

VgΔ (Codex Dunelmensis). Images released as part of the Durham Priory project at

Appendix 3
Augsburg, Universitätsbibliothek, 1.2.4o.2 (Maihingen Gospels, Harburg Gospels):
Autun, Bibliothèque municipale, 3 (Gundohinus Gospels), now fully digitized:
London, British Library, Cotton MS Tiberius B V/1:!1_f076r
Book of Dimma (Dublin, TCD 60). High resolution colour images as part of the Early Irish Manuscripts Project (uploaded April 2016) at:
Missale Silense (London, BL, MS Add. 30845): Full digitization (August 2016) at:
Maaseyck Gospels (Maaseik, Sint-Catharina Kerk: 'Codex Eyckensis'): (uploaded December 2015).
Missale Bobiense (Paris, BnF, latin 13246):

Paperback edition corrections and additions

posted 8 Mar 2019, 05:15 by Hugh Houghton   [ updated 1 Aug 2019, 00:33 ]

Corrections and additions made to the hardback first edition are noted on the Page of Hardback Corrections.

Those affecting the paperback edition (as well as the hardback) are noted on this page. I am grateful to Pierre Petitmengin, Teunis van Lopik and Anna Persig for bringing some of the corrections below to my attention. Please let me know of any others by email.

p. 52. Armentarii ] Armamentarii
p. 62 line 21. codibus ] codicibus
p. 78 line 19. A.VII.7 ] A.VII.3
p. 135. second book of Prolegomena ... volume 3.2 ] third book of Prolegomena ... volume 3.3
p. 136, 4 lines from bottom. VgOr  ] VgOcr 
p. 177 line 10. 1959 ] 1955
p. 177 line 17. and ... James ] delete this clause, as T is hardly attested in James.
p. 220. VL 17. Belsheim 1885 ] Belsheim 1885b.
p. 244. VL 77. The following portions are missing: Romans 1:1b–5a, 2:16b–25a, 8:1b, 14:24ff (probably including the doxology); 1 Corinthians 3:8–16, 6:7–14; Colossians 2:1b–8a; Philemon 21–25. 
p. 274. The shelfmark for VgOc O should be Laud. lat. 43; this is the same as the following entry (VgOr O), so ideally the two entries should be merged as VgOcr O, and the observation "Only cited for Revelation in the Oxford Vulgate" deleted.
p. 325. Add: Belsheim, J. (1885b). Codex Vindobonensis membranaceus purpureus literis argenteis aureisque scriptus: antiquissimae evangeliorum Lucae et Marci translationis latinae fragmenta. Leipzig: Weigel.

p. 5. For further discussion about the significance of libri et epistulae Pauli (and the suggestion that libri may refer to the Acts of the Apostles or the Acts of Paul) see Candida Moss, Ancient Christian Martyrdom. New Haven: Yale UP, 2012, p. 126. In the same place, Moss also concludes that the Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs is a literary work rather than a court transcript and so dates after the year 180.
p. 65. On the Virtututes Apostolorum, see now E. Rose (2013) 'Abdias scriptor vitarum sanctorum apostolorum?' Revue d'histoire des textes 8: 227–268.
p. 85, note 4. 'r' in the margin of a text can mean require, an indication that the copyist is not sure about the soundness of the copied text. It is not clear whether this is the use in the Mesmes Bible.
p. 207. There is an illustration of the four evangelists on a single page in Krakow, Cathedral Library, MS 140, fol. 100v. This manuscript was produced in Italy around 800, but is a collection of sermons on the gospels rather than a gospel book itself.
p. 269 VgH. The manuscript is sometimes written in sense lines, e.g. for the genealogies, and also has decorated canon tables on foll. 198-201.

Sommaires, divisions et rubriques online

posted 8 Mar 2019, 05:08 by Hugh Houghton

[originally published 28 Sep 2018]

The extensive collection of series of chapter titles (capitula) for the Latin Bible published anonymously by Donatien de Bruyne in 1914 is available online (or for free download) at the Gallica website:

At present, only volume one (capitula) is available; the volume on prefaces appears not to have been digitised, However, both volumes have recently been reprinted (with English titles) in the Studia Traditionis Theologiae series by Brepols:

Completion of Vetus Latina edition of Mark

posted 8 Mar 2019, 05:07 by Hugh Houghton

[originally published 7 Aug 2018]

The final instalment of Jean-Claude Haelewyck's Vetus Latina of the Gospel according to Mark has now been published. This edition is now complete, in ten fascicles, which are available from the publishers Verlag Herder:

The full bibliographical reference is:
Haelewyck, Jean-Claude (2013–18). Evangelium secundum Marcum. VL 17. Freiburg: Herder.

Vetus Latina Register available on Google Books

posted 13 Oct 2017, 08:10 by Hugh Houghton

The first part of the Vetus Latina Register of Old Latin Manuscripts (Gryson 1999), containing details of VL 1–VL 275, is available in its entirety on Google Books:

The Latin New Testament available online in Open Access

posted 5 Apr 2017, 09:56 by Hugh Houghton

Thanks to funding from the European Research Council, the full text of The Latin New Testament is now available in Open Access. It can be downloaded as a PDF from the OUP catalogue entry or accessed through Oxford Scholarship Online.

Tarrant: "Texts, Editors, and Readers"

posted 3 Apr 2017, 01:48 by Hugh Houghton

In recent weeks, I have greatly enjoyed reading Richard Tarrant, Texts, Editors, and Readers: Methods and Problems in Latin Textual Criticism (Cambridge: CUP, 2016). Although this is devoted to the editing of Classical Latin texts, there is much which might interest those studying the Latin New Testament. In particular, Tarrant has an illustrated discussion of different types of critical apparatus and an Appendix on "Reading a critical apparatus" with a helpful glossary and a list of Latin names for manuscript locations.

Book of the Month in the Expository Times

posted 3 Feb 2017, 08:40 by Hugh Houghton

The Latin New Testament has been awarded the title of Book of the Month in the February 2017 issue of The Expository Times.

Prof. Paul Foster concludes his extensive appraisal of the book with the following paragraph:
It is difficult to exaggerate the importance and significance of this book for the study of the transmission of the Latin New Testament text—there is simply nothing to rival it. The book is a model in clear communication, and the important features of large amounts of information are explained with a light touch that reflects the deep understanding that Houghton possesses of his subject matter. This book is a masterpiece, and it will be admired as such for many decades to come.

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